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Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243123/response-assessment-in-pancreatic-ductal-adenocarcinoma-role-of-imaging
#1
Vinit Baliyan, Hamed Kordbacheh, Anushri Parakh, Avinash Kambadakone
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is an aggressive gastrointestinal (GI) malignancy with poor 5-year survival rate. Advances in surgical techniques and introduction of novel combination chemotherapy and radiation therapy regimens have necessitated the need for biomarkers for assessment of treatment response. Conventional imaging methods such as RECIST have been used for response evaluation in clinical trials particularly in patients with metastatic PDAC. However, the role of these approaches for assessing response to loco-regional and systemic therapies is limited due to complex morphological and histological nature of PDAC...
December 14, 2017: Abdominal Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242154/high-expression-of-diffuse-panbronchiolitis-critical-region-1-gene-promotes-cell-proliferation-migration-and-invasion-in-pancreatic-ductal-adenocarcinoma
#2
Jiayi Yan, Guanghui Chen, Xuesong Zhao, Fangying Chen, Ting Wang, Fei Miao
Diffuse panbronchiolitis critical region 1 (DPCR1) is located in the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I. It was reported to be downregulated in invasive pituitary adenoma compared with that in non-invasive tumors, but upregulated in the precursor of gastric carcinogenesis. However, the direct effect of DPCR1 on cancer cells has rarely been reported, and the role DPCR1 in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) remains unclear. The clinical sample validation and public data analysis of the present study demonstrated that DPCR1 was upregulated markedly in PDAC and this high expression was negatively correlated with the patient prognosis...
December 11, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241991/pancreatic-cyst-fluid-glucose-rapid-inexpensive-and-accurate-diagnosis-of-mucinous-pancreatic-cysts
#3
Rosalie A Carr, Michele T Yip-Schneider, Rachel E Simpson, Scott Dolejs, Justine G Schneider, Huangbing Wu, Eugene P Ceppa, Walter Park, C Max Schmidt
BACKGROUND: The most widely accepted biochemical test for preoperative differentiation of mucinous from benign, nonmucinous pancreatic cysts is cyst fluid carcinoembryonic antigen. However, the diagnostic accuracy of carcinoembryonic antigen ranges from 70% to 86%. Based on previous work, we hypothesize that pancreatic cyst fluid glucose may be an attractive alternative to carcinoembryonic antigen. METHODS: Pancreatic cyst fluid was collected during endoscopic or operative intervention...
December 11, 2017: Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241394/neoadjuvant-therapy-offers-longer-survival-than-upfront-surgery-for-poorly-differentiated-and-higher-stage-pancreatic-cancer
#4
Anna Nurmi, Harri Mustonen, Helka Parviainen, Katriina Peltola, Caj Haglund, Hanna Seppänen
BACKGROUND: Neoadjuvant therapy for pancreatic cancer remains controversial. Our aim was to assess differences in survival, disease recurrence and histopathological tumor characteristics between patients treated with neoadjuvant therapy followed by subsequent surgery and patients undergoing upfront surgery. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Out of 399 consecutive pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) patients operated at Helsinki University Hospital in 2000-2015, 75 borderline resectable patients were treated with neoadjuvant therapy...
December 15, 2017: Acta Oncologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239017/five-key-lncrnas-considered-as-prognostic-targets-for-predicting-pancreatic-ductal-adenocarcinoma
#5
Jukun Song, Qiuyan Yan, Haodeng Zhang, Xinhai Yin, Chen Zhu, Ke Zhao, Jianguo Zhu
To improve PDCA prognosis, a screening biomarker for early diagnosis of pancreatic cancer is in urgent need. Long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) expression profiles as potential cancer prognostic biomarkers play critical roles in development of tumorigenesis and metastasis of cancer. However, lncRNA signatures in predicting the survival of a patient with PDAC remain unknown. In the current study, we try to identify potential lncRNA biomarkers and their prognostic values in PDAC. LncRNAs expression profiles and corresponding clinical information for 182 cases with PDAC were acquired from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA)...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237705/cilia-loss-sensitizes-cells-to-transformation-by-activating-the-mevalonate-pathway
#6
Yue-Zhen Deng, Zhen Cai, Shuo Shi, Hao Jiang, Yu-Rong Shang, Ning Ma, Jing-Jing Wang, Dong-Xian Guan, Tian-Wei Chen, Ye-Fei Rong, Zhen-Yu Qian, Er-Bin Zhang, Dan Feng, Quan-Li Zhou, Yi-Nan Du, Dong-Ping Liu, Xing-Xu Huang, Lu-Ming Liu, Eugene Chin, Dang-Sheng Li, Xiao-Fan Wang, Xue-Li Zhang, Dong Xie
Although cilia loss and cell transformation are frequently observed in the early stage of tumorigenesis, the roles of cilia in cell transformation are unknown. In this study, disrupted ciliogenesis was observed in cancer cells and pancreatic cancer tissues, which facilitated oncogene-induced transformation of normal pancreatic cells (HPDE6C7) and NIH3T3 cells through activating the mevalonate (MVA) pathway. Disruption of ciliogenesis up-regulated MVA enzymes through β catenin-T cell factor (TCF) signaling, which synchronized with sterol regulatory element binding transcription factor 2 (SREBP2), and the regulation of MVA by β-catenin-TCF signaling was recapitulated in a mouse model of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) and human PDAC samples...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233500/tumor-budding-is-a-prognostic-factor-linked-to-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-in-pancreatic-ductal-adenocarcinoma-study-report-and-literature-review
#7
Ezzeddine Chouat, Alia Zehani, Ines Chelly, Manel Njima, Houcine Maghrebi, Mohammed Amine Bani, Leila Njim, Abdelfatteh Zakhama, Slim Haouet, Nidhameddine Kchir
BACKGROUND: Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) has a devastatingly poor prognosis. Surgical resection is undertaken in only 20% of patients. Most of well-known prognostic factors reflect tumor stage more than its biology. So it is important to identify new biological indicators related to survival in order to develop new therapies. OBJECTIVE: To determine the relation between tumor budding and Epithelial Mesenchymal Transition (EMT) and to evaluate their impact on survival for patients after resection of PDAC...
November 21, 2017: Pancreatology: Official Journal of the International Association of Pancreatology (IAP) ... [et Al.]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232549/stressing-out-panin-nrf2-pushes-over-the-edge
#8
Laura Torrente, Gina M DeNicola
The mechanisms by which chronic stress promote the development of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) are poorly defined. In this issue of Cancer Cell, Todoric et al. discover a role for impaired autophagy in the development of PDAC through p62-mediated activation of NRF2.
December 11, 2017: Cancer Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232172/halo-202-randomized-phase-ii-study-of-pegph20-plus-nab-paclitaxel-gemcitabine-versus-nab-paclitaxel-gemcitabine-in-patients-with-untreated-metastatic-pancreatic-ductal-adenocarcinoma
#9
Sunil R Hingorani, Lei Zheng, Andrea J Bullock, Tara E Seery, William P Harris, Darren S Sigal, Fadi Braiteh, Paul S Ritch, Mark M Zalupski, Nathan Bahary, Paul E Oberstein, Andrea Wang-Gillam, Wilson Wu, Dimitrios Chondros, Ping Jiang, Sihem Khelifa, Jie Pu, Carrie Aldrich, Andrew E Hendifar
Purpose Metastatic pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma is characterized by excessive hyaluronan (HA) accumulation in the tumor microenvironment, elevating interstitial pressure and impairing perfusion. Preclinical studies demonstrated pegvorhyaluronidase alfa (PEGPH20) degrades HA, thereby increasing drug delivery. Patients and Methods Patients with previously untreated metastatic pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma were randomly assigned to treatment with PEGPH20 plus nab-paclitaxel/gemcitabine (PAG) or nab-paclitaxel/gemcitabine (AG)...
December 12, 2017: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230694/anthropometric-changes-in-patients-with-pancreatic-cancer-undergoing-preoperative-therapy-and-pancreatoduodenectomy
#10
Jordan M Cloyd, Graciela M Nogueras-González, Laura R Prakash, Maria Q B Petzel, Nathan H Parker, An T Ngo-Huang, David Fogelman, Jason W Denbo, Naveen Garg, Michael P Kim, Jeffrey E Lee, Ching-Wei D Tzeng, Jason B Fleming, Matthew H G Katz
BACKGROUND: The changes in body composition that occur in response to therapy for localized pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) and during the early survivorship period, as well as their clinical significance, are poorly understood. METHODS: One hundred twenty-seven consecutive patients with PDAC who received preoperative therapy followed by pancreatoduodenectomy (PD) at a single institution between 2009 and 2012 were longitudinally evaluated. Changes in skeletal muscle (SKM), visceral adipose tissue (VAT), and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) were measured on serial computed tomography images obtained upon presentation, prior to pancreatectomy, and approximately 3 and 12 months after surgery...
December 11, 2017: Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery: Official Journal of the Society for Surgery of the Alimentary Tract
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229669/kras-the-critical-driver-and-therapeutic-target-for-pancreatic-cancer
#11
Andrew M Waters, Channing J Der
RAS genes (HRAS, KRAS, and NRAS) comprise the most frequently mutated oncogene family in human cancer. With the highest RAS mutation frequencies seen with the top three causes of cancer deaths in the United States (lung, colorectal, and pancreatic cancer), the development of anti-RAS therapies is a major priority for cancer research. Despite more than three decades of intense effort, no effective RAS inhibitors have yet to reach the cancer patient. With bitter lessons learned from past failures and with new ideas and strategies, there is renewed hope that undruggable RAS may finally be conquered...
December 11, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229290/simple-detection-of-telomere-fusions-in-pancreatic-cancer-intraductal-papillary-mucinous-neoplasm-and-pancreatic-cyst-fluid
#12
Tatsuo Hata, Marco Dal Molin, Anne McGregor-Das, Tae Jun Song, Christopher Wolfgang, James R Eshleman, Ralph H Hruban, Michael Goggins
Telomere end-to-end fusions are an important source of chromosomal instability that arise in cells with critically shortened telomeres. We developed a nested real-time quantitative PCR method for telomere fusion detection in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas, intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs), and IPMN cyst fluids. Ninety-one pancreatic cancer cell lines and xenograft samples, 93 IPMNs, and 93 surgically aspirated IPMN cyst fluid samples were analyzed. The association between telomere shortening, telomerase activity, and telomere fusion detection was evaluated...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Molecular Diagnostics: JMD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229122/use-of-imaging-during-symptomatic-follow-up-after-resection-of-pancreatic-ductal-adenocarcinoma
#13
Vincent P Groot, Lois A Daamen, Jeroen Hagendoorn, Inne H M Borel Rinkes, Hjalmar C van Santvoort, I Quintus Molenaar
BACKGROUND: Controversy exists whether follow-up after resection of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) should include standardized imaging for the detection of disease recurrence. The purpose of this study was to evaluate how often patients undergo imaging in a setting where routine imaging is not performed. Secondly, the pattern, timing, and treatment of recurrent PDAC were assessed. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a post hoc analysis of a prospective database of all consecutive patients undergoing pancreatic resection of PDAC between January 2011 and January 2015...
January 2018: Journal of Surgical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229121/efficacy-of-completion-pancreatectomy-for-recurrence-of-adenocarcinoma-in-the-remnant-pancreas
#14
Yusuke Nakayama, Motokazu Sugimoto, Naoto Gotohda, Masaru Konishi, Shinichiro Takahashi
BACKGROUND: Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is an aggressive cancer, with a high rate of recurrence even after complete surgical resection. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of completion pancreatectomy (CP) on the clinical course of patients with recurrent PDAC in the remnant pancreas. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between January 2008 and December 2014, 194 patients underwent curative-intent surgical resection (initial pancreatectomy [IP]) for PDAC at our institution...
January 2018: Journal of Surgical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228754/optimized-roi-size-on-adc-measurements-of-normal-pancreas-pancreatic-cancer-and-mass-forming-chronic-pancreatitis
#15
Chao Ma, Jing Li, Mbaiaoure Barak Boukar, Panpan Yang, Li Wang, Luguang Chen, Li Su, Jianxun Qu, Shi-Yue Chen, Qiang Hao, Jian-Ping Lu
Objectives: To investigate the effects of region of interest (ROI) sizes on apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) measurements for the differentiation of normal pancreas (NP), pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) and mass-forming chronic pancreatitis (MFCP). Results: There were no significant differences for the mean ADCs measured by 12 different-size ROIs for MFCP, or PDAC and NP (P = 0.858-1.0). With the increase of ROI size (≥ 55 mm2), ADCs of PDAC were significantly lower than those of NP (all P < 0...
November 17, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228650/ultrasensitive-plasma-ctdna-kras-assay-for-detection-prognosis-and-assessment-of-therapeutic-response-in-patients-with-unresectable-pancreatic-ductal-adenocarcinoma
#16
Inna Chen, Victoria M Raymond, Jennifer A Geis, Eric A Collisson, Benny V Jensen, Kirstine L Hermann, Mark G Erlander, Margaret Tempero, Julia S Johansen
Precision oncology requires sensitive and specific clinical biomarkers. Carbohydrate Antigen 19-9 (CA19-9) is widely used in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA) but lacks sensitivity and specificity. Nearly all PDAs harbor somatic KRAS mutations, nominating circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) KRAS as an alternative disease biomarker, however, variable clinical performance has limited its clinical utility. We applied an ultrasensitive, PCR mutation enrichment, next generation sequencing ctDNA KRAS assay in a large cohort of patients with unresectable PDA (N = 189) recruited to the BIOPAC study between 2008-2015...
November 17, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228419/expression-and-clinical-significance-of-long-non-coding-rna-ghet1-in-pancreatic-cancer
#17
H-Y Zhou, H Zhu, X-Y Wu, X-D Chen, Z-G Qiao, X Ling, X-M Yao, J-H Tang
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the expression level and biological function of long non-coding RNA gastric carcinoma high expressed transcript 1 (lncRNA-GHET1) in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (pancreatic cancer for short), to analyze the correlation between the expression of GHET1 and clinicopathological features and to explore the role and clinical significance of GHET1 in the development and progression of pancreatic cancer. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The relative expression of GHET1 in 5 human pancreatic cancer cell lines was detected by quantitative Real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR)...
November 2017: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227344/predictors-of-resectability-and-survival-in-patients-with-borderline-and-locally-advanced-pancreatic-cancer-who-underwent-neoadjuvant-treatment-with-folfirinox
#18
Theodoros Michelakos, Ilaria Pergolini, Carlos Fernández-Del Castillo, Kim C Honselmann, Lei Cai, Vikram Deshpande, Jennifer Y Wo, David P Ryan, Jill N Allen, Lawrence S Blaszkowsky, Jeffrey W Clark, Janet E Murphy, Ryan D Nipp, Aparna Parikh, Motaz Qadan, Andrew L Warshaw, Theodore S Hong, Keith D Lillemoe, Cristina R Ferrone
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine (1) whether preoperative factors can predict resectability of borderline resectable (BR) and locally advanced (LA) pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) after neoadjuvant FOLFIRINOX, (2) which patients might benefit from adjuvant therapy, and (3) survival differences between resected BR/LA patients who received neoadjuvant FOLFIRINOX and upfront resected patients. BACKGROUND: Patients with BR/LA PDAC are often treated with FOLFIRINOX to obtain a margin-negative resection, yet selection of patients for resection remains challenging...
December 7, 2017: Annals of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226705/survival-prediction-in-pancreatic-cancer-patients-with-no-distant-metastasis-a-large-scale-population-based-estimate
#19
Ning Pu, Yang Lv, Guochao Zhao, Wanling Lee, Abulimiti Nuerxiati, Dansong Wang, Xuefeng Xu, Tiantao Kuang, Wenchuan Wu, Wenhui Lou
AIM: To identify the risk factors for overall survival (OS) of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma patients with no distant metastasis, and formulate a novel nomogram for prognostic prediction. PATIENTS & METHODS: Data were obtained from Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma patients with no distant metastasis as the primary cohort, and 127 patients at our institution were enrolled as the validation cohort. The prognostic nomogram integrating all independent risk factors for predicting OS was established to achieve superior discriminatory ability...
December 11, 2017: Future Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224225/down-regulation-of-15-pgdh-by-interleukin-1-beta-from-activated-macrophages-leads-to-poor-prognosis-in-pancreatic-cancer
#20
Kota Arima, Yoshihiro Komohara, Luke Bu, Masayo Tsukamoto, Rumi Itoyama, Keisuke Miyake, Tomoyuki Uchihara, Yoko Ogata, Shigeki Nakagawa, Hirohisa Okabe, Katsunori Imai, Daisuke Hashimoto, Akira Chikamoto, Yo-Ichi Yamashita, Hideo Baba, Takatsugu Ishimoto
Chronic inflammation has a crucial role in cancer development and the progression of various tumors, including pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). The arachidonate cascade is a major inflammatory pathway that produces several metabolites, such as prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 ). The enzyme 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase (15-PGDH) degrades prostaglandin and is frequently decreased in several types of cancer; however, the molecular mechanisms of 15-PGDH suppression are unclear. The current study was conducted to elucidate the molecular mechanisms and clinical significance of 15-PGDH suppression in PDAC...
December 10, 2017: Cancer Science
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