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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335547/genomic-loads-and-genotypes-of-respiratory-syncytial-virus-viral-factors-during-lower-respiratory-tract-infection-in-chilean-hospitalized-infants
#1
Yazmín Espinosa, Camila San Martín, Alejandro A Torres, Mauricio J Farfán, Juan P Torres, Vasanthi Avadhanula, Pedro A Piedra, Lorena I Tapia
The clinical impact of viral factors (types and viral loads) during respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection is still controversial, especially regarding newly described genotypes. In this study, infants with RSV bronchiolitis were recruited to describe the association of these viral factors with severity of infection. RSV antigenic types, genotypes, and viral loads were determined from hospitalized patients at Hospital Roberto del Río, Santiago, Chile. Cases were characterized by demographic and clinical information, including days of lower respiratory symptoms and severity...
March 21, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306146/the-relationship-between-nasopharyngeal-ccl5-and-microbiota-on-disease-severity-among-infants-with-bronchiolitis
#2
Kohei Hasegawa, Jonathan M Mansbach, Nadim J Ajami, Joseph F Petrosino, Robert J Freishtat, Stephen J Teach, Pedro A Piedra, Carlos A Camargo
Emerging evidence suggests that the airway microbiota plays an important role in viral bronchiolitis pathobiology. However, little is known about the combined role of airway microbiota and CCL5 in infants with bronchiolitis. In this multicenter prospective cohort study of 1,005 infants (age <1 year) hospitalized for bronchiolitis during 2011-2014, we observed statistically-significant interactions between nasopharyngeal airway CCL5 levels and microbiota profiles with regard to the risk of both intensive care use (Pinteraction =0...
March 17, 2017: Allergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301570/human-metapnuemovirus-infections-in-hospitalized-children-and-comparison-with-other-respiratory-viruses-2005-2014-prospective-study
#3
María Luz García-García, Cristina Calvo, Cristina Rey, Beatriz Díaz, Maria Del Mar Molinero, Francisco Pozo, Inmaculada Casas
BACKGROUND: Human metapneumovirus (HMPV) has an important etiological role in acute lower respiratory infections in children under five years. Our objectives were to estimate the relative contribution of HMPV to hospitalization in children with acute respiratory infection, to define the clinical and epidemiological features of HMPV single and multiple infections, and to compare HMPV infections with respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV), rhinovirus (HRV), adenovirus and human bocavirus infections in the same population...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273842/immunological-features-of-respiratory-syncytial-virus-caused-pneumonia-implications-for-vaccine-design
#4
REVIEW
Emma Rey-Jurado, Alexis M Kalergis
The human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV) is the causative agent for high rates of hospitalizations due to viral bronchiolitis and pneumonia worldwide. Such a disease is characterized by an infection of epithelial cells of the distal airways that leads to inflammation and subsequently to respiratory failure. Upon infection, different pattern recognition receptors recognize the virus and trigger the innate immune response against the hRSV. Further, T cell immunity plays an important role for virus clearance...
March 4, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267794/the-interdependencies-of-viral-load-the-innate-immune-response-and-clinical-outcome-in-children-presenting-to-the-emergency-department-with-respiratory-syncytial-virus-associated-bronchiolitis
#5
Felipe-Andrés Piedra, Minghua Mei, Vasanthi Avadhanula, Reena Mehta, Letisha Aideyan, Roberto P Garofalo, Pedro A Piedra
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) causes significant infant morbidity and mortality. For decades severe RSV-induced disease was thought to result from an uncontrolled host response to viral replication, but recent work suggests that a strong innate immune response early in infection is protective. To shed light on host-virus interactions and the viral determinants of disease, copy numbers of five RSV genes (NS1, NS2, N, G, F) were measured by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) in nasal wash samples from children with RSV-associated bronchiolitis...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28262277/-the-interactions-between-microorganisms-and-the-small-airways-a-paediatric-focus
#6
REVIEW
J de Blic, J Brouard, A Vabret, A Deschildre
The spectrum of respiratory viruses is expanding and emerging diseases have been described regularly over the last fifteen years. The origin of these emerging respiratory viruses may be zoonotic (by crossing species barrier, after changes to RNA viruses such as avian influenza virus type A or coronaviruses), or related to the use of new identification techniques (metapneumovirus, bocavirus). The relationship between bronchiolitis and asthma is now better understood thanks to prospective follow up of birth cohorts...
February 2017: Revue des Maladies Respiratoires
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261214/the-influence-of-the-microbiome-on-early-life-severe-viral-lower-respiratory-infections-and-asthma-food-for-thought
#7
REVIEW
Jason P Lynch, Md Al Amin Sikder, Bodie F Curren, Rhiannon B Werder, Jennifer Simpson, Páraic Ó Cuív, Paul G Dennis, Mark L Everard, Simon Phipps
Severe viral lower respiratory infections are a major cause of infant morbidity. In developing countries, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)-bronchiolitis induces significant mortality, whereas in developed nations the disease represents a major risk factor for subsequent asthma. Susceptibility to severe RSV-bronchiolitis is governed by gene-environmental interactions that affect the host response to RSV infection. Emerging evidence suggests that the excessive inflammatory response and ensuing immunopathology, typically as a consequence of insufficient immunoregulation, leads to long-term changes in immune cells and structural cells that render the host susceptible to subsequent environmental incursions...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28253869/reduced-prf1-enhancer-methylation-in-children-with-a-history-of-severe-rsv-bronchiolitis-in-infancy-an-association-study
#8
Magdeldin Elgizouli, Chad Logan, Ruth Grychtol, Dietrich Rothenbacher, Alexandra Nieters, Andrea Heinzmann
BACKGROUND: Acute lower respiratory tract infection is the commonest disease affecting children under five worldwide. Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is among the most common causative pathogens. Epidemiological data suggest an association between severe viral respiratory infections in infancy and increased incidence of childhood wheeze and asthma. DNA methylation is involved in immune cell differentiation and identity. It provides an avenue for environmental influences on the genome and therefore has potential as a marker for sustained effects of infectious insults...
March 3, 2017: BMC Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28251508/enterovirus-d68-associated-community-acquired-pneumonia-in-the-pediatric-age-group
#9
REVIEW
Samantha Bosis, Susanna Esposito
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review summarizes the current knowledge regarding the role of Enterovirus D68 (EV-D68) in community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in children. RECENT FINDINGS: EV-D68 is an emergent viral pathogen. Since its first isolation in 1962 in California in four children suffering from CAP and bronchiolitis, EV-D68 has been rarely detected from respiratory specimens. However, recently, EV-D68 infection has raised concerns in the international community because of outbreaks in 2014 in the USA and the increased number of children with EV-D68-associated severe respiratory illnesses, including pneumonia, that have been reported in many other countries around the world...
March 2017: Current Infectious Disease Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228284/respiratory-syncytial-virus-infects-regulatory-b-cells-in-human-neonates-via-chemokine-receptor-cx3cr1-and-promotes-lung-disease-severity
#10
Dania Zhivaki, Sébastien Lemoine, Annick Lim, Ahsen Morva, Pierre-Olivier Vidalain, Liliane Schandene, Nicoletta Casartelli, Marie-Anne Rameix-Welti, Pierre-Louis Hervé, Edith Dériaud, Benoit Beitz, Maryline Ripaux-Lefevre, Jordi Miatello, Brigitte Lemercier, Valerie Lorin, Delphyne Descamps, Jenna Fix, Jean-François Eléouët, Sabine Riffault, Olivier Schwartz, Fabrice Porcheray, Françoise Mascart, Hugo Mouquet, Xiaoming Zhang, Pierre Tissières, Richard Lo-Man
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the major cause of lower respiratory tract infections in infants and is characterized by pulmonary infiltration of B cells in fatal cases. We analyzed the B cell compartment in human newborns and identified a population of neonatal regulatory B lymphocytes (nBreg cells) that produced interleukin 10 (IL-10) in response to RSV infection. The polyreactive B cell receptor of nBreg cells interacted with RSV protein F and induced upregulation of chemokine receptor CX3CR1. CX3CR1 interacted with RSV glycoprotein G, leading to nBreg cell infection and IL-10 production that dampened T helper 1 (Th1) cytokine production...
February 21, 2017: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193180/viral-aetiology-of-bronchiolitis-in-hospitalised-children-in-qatar
#11
Ibrahim Janahi, Anas Abdulkayoum, Fawziya Almeshwesh, Mohamed Alkuwari, Ahmed Al Hammadi, Marwah Alameri
BACKGROUND: Bronchiolitis is considered one of the earliest and most common causes of hospitalisation in young children. Development of molecular technologies allowed a better understanding of bronchiolitis aetiology. Results from cohort studies evaluating the association between single, multiple viral infections and clinical outcomes are conflicting. Data on viral bronchiolitis in children were found to be limited in Qatar. This study aimed to determine frequency and seasonal trends of viral pathogens causing acute bronchiolitis, and to explore association between viral pathogens, disease severity and length of stay (LOS)...
February 13, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192893/non-invasive-ventilation-improves-respiratory-distress-in-children-with-acute-viral-bronchiolitis-a-systematic-review
#12
Yann Combret, Guillaume Prieur, Pascal LE Roux, Clément Médrinal
BACKGROUND: Non-invasive ventilation (NIV) is a common treatment for bronchiolitis. However, consensus concerning its efficacy is lacking. The aim of this systematic review was to assess NIV effectiveness to reduce respiratory distress. Secondary objectives were to summarize the effects of NIV, identify predictive factors for failure and describe settings and applications. METHODS: Searches were conducted in MEDLINE Pubmed, PEDro, COCHRANE, EMBASE, CINAHL, Web of Science, Up-todate and Sudoc from 1990 to April 2015...
February 13, 2017: Minerva Anestesiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178775/diagnosis-prevention-and-management-of-bronchiolitis-in-children-review-of-current-controversies
#13
Samantha A House, Shawn L Ralston
Viral bronchiolitis is a common and costly condition among young children worldwide, contributing to high medical expenditures in industrialized countries and significant mortality in low-income countries. Much research has focused on therapy for this disease entity, though the standard of care remains merely supportive. Current areas of active research include the nuances of defining bronchiolitis, a deeper exploration of causative viruses, the role and development of preventive strategies, and associated long-term outcomes...
April 2017: Minerva Pediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159510/immune-and-inflammatory-response-in-bronchiolitis-due-to-respiratory-syncytial-virus-and-rhinovirus-infections-in-infants
#14
REVIEW
Silvia Vandini, Elisabetta Calamelli, Giacomo Faldella, Marcello Lanari
Bronchiolitis is a common disease in infancy, mostly due to Respiratory Syncytial Virus and Rhinovirus. In addition to acute infection, viral bronchiolitis is responsible for sequelae including recurrent wheezing and asthma. The analysis of the viral characteristics and of the pathogenesis of the infection shows differences between the two viruses that may be helpful for the development of therapies and preventive strategies.
January 16, 2017: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159006/the-potential-influence-of-human-parainfluenza-viruses-detected-during-hospitalization-among-critically-ill-patients-in-kuwait-2013-2015
#15
Sahar Essa, Haya Al-Tawalah, Sarah AlShamali, Widad Al-Nakib
BACKGROUND: The four types of human parainfluenza viruses (PIV) are important causes of community-acquired pneumonia, particularly in children; however, limited information exists about the incidence of PIV in critically ill patients. The aim of this study is to describe the spectrum, incidence and clinical features of PIV-associated infections diagnosed during the hospital stay of patients admitted to pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) and intensive care unit (ICU) of 5 medical centers across Kuwait...
February 3, 2017: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131494/immunomodulation-by-hyperimmunoglobulins-after-solid-organ-transplantation-beyond-prevention-of-viral-infection
#16
REVIEW
Rogier van Gent, Herold J Metselaar, Jaap Kwekkeboom
Hyperimmunoglobulins are pharmaceutical formulations of human IgG which contain high titers of antibodies against specific viruses. They have been successfully used in solid organ transplantation (SOT) to prevent Cytomegalovirus (CMV) and Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) infection. The introduction of effective and cheaper antiviral drugs has resulted in decreasing usage of hyperimmunoglobulins in SOT. However, it may still be attractive to combine antiviral drug therapy with hyperimmunoglobulins after SOT, as there is some evidence that hyperimmunoglobulins, similar to high doses of intravenous immunoglobulins (IVIgs), might exert anti-inflammatory activity and thereby prevent immunological graft damage and improve graft and patient survival...
January 19, 2017: Transplantation Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28124736/high-flow-nasal-cannula-hfnc-versus-nasal-continuous-positive-airway-pressure-ncpap-for-the-initial-respiratory-management-of-acute-viral-bronchiolitis-in-young-infants-a-multicenter-randomized-controlled-trial-tramontane-study
#17
Christophe Milési, Sandrine Essouri, Robin Pouyau, Jean-Michel Liet, Mickael Afanetti, Aurélie Portefaix, Julien Baleine, Sabine Durand, Clémentine Combes, Aymeric Douillard, Gilles Cambonie
PURPOSE: Nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP) is currently the gold standard for respiratory support for moderate to severe acute viral bronchiolitis (AVB). Although oxygen delivery via high flow nasal cannula (HFNC) is increasingly used, evidence of its efficacy and safety is lacking in infants. METHODS: A randomized controlled trial was performed in five pediatric intensive care units (PICUs) to compare 7 cmH2O nCPAP with 2 L/kg/min oxygen therapy administered with HFNC in infants up to 6 months old with moderate to severe AVB...
February 2017: Intensive Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065474/a-single-low-dose-of-a-cgmp-recombinant-bcg-vaccine-elicits-protective-t-cell-immunity-against-the-human-respiratory-syncytial-virus-infection-and-prevents-lung-pathology-in-mice
#18
Pablo F Céspedes, Emma Rey-Jurado, Janyra A Espinoza, Claudia A Rivera, Gisela Canedo-Marroquín, Susan M Bueno, Alexis M Kalergis
Human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV) is a major health burden worldwide, causing the majority of hospitalizations in children under two years old due to bronchiolitis and pneumonia. HRSV causes year-to-year outbreaks of disease, which also affects the elderly and immunocompromised adults. Furthermore, both hRSV morbidity and epidemics are explained by a consistently high rate of re-infections that take place throughout the patient life. Although significant efforts have been invested worldwide, currently there are no licensed vaccines to prevent hRSV infection...
February 1, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992394/the-conundrum-in-the-diagnosis-and-management-of-atypical-fulminant-measles-in-a-leukemia-survivor-on-maintenance-chemotherapy
#19
James Guoxian Huang, Allen Eng Juh Yeoh, Paul Anantharajah Tambyah, Mas Isa Suhaila
We report the diagnostic and therapeutic challenges in an unusually fulminant presentation of measles, presenting as severe necrotizing bronchiolitis with secondary hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) in the absence of classical clinical features in an immunocompromised host on maintenance chemotherapy. Our patient had presented with features of a viral pneumonitis without the classical exanthem, in combination with HLH. Although rhinovirus-induced HLH was highly unusual, the positive rhinovirus swab result had distracted us from the eventual diagnosis...
January 2017: Journal of Pediatric Hematology/oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27940684/cytokine-elevation-in-sudden-death-with-respiratory-syncytial-virus-a-case-report-of-2-children
#20
Yu Kakimoto, Yoshihisa Seto, Eriko Ochiai, Fumiko Satoh, Motoki Osawa
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most common viral cause of bronchiolitis and pneumonia in young children worldwide. Premature birth, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, congenital heart disease, and Down syndrome are risk factors for high mortality and prolonged morbidity after RSV infection. Conversely, many previously healthy, full-term children are also admitted to the hospital because of RSV, and some of them experience severe sequelae or die due to the virus. Various complications of RSV infection have been reported, such as encephalopathy, encephalitis, and cardiomyopathy...
December 2016: Pediatrics
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