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viral bronchiolitis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695368/an-interaction-of-lps-and-rsv-infection-in-augmenting-the-ahr-and-airway-inflammation-in-mice
#1
Na Zhou, Wei Li, Luo Ren, Xiaohong Xie, Enmei Liu
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the leading cause of acute lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) in children under 5 years of age, especially infants with severe bronchiolitis. Our preliminary clinical experiments showed that bacterial colonization was commonly observed in children with virus-induced wheezing, particularly in those with recurrent wheezing, suggesting that bacterial colonization with an accompanying viral infection may contribute to disease severity. In most cases, RSV-infected infants were colonized with pathogenic bacteria (mainly Gram-negative bacteria)...
July 10, 2017: Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680946/etiology-seasonality-and-clinical-features-of-viral-respiratory-tract-infections-in-children-hospitalized-with-acute-bronchiolitis-a-single-center-study
#2
Şule Gökçe, Zafer Kurugöl, Güldane Koturoğlu, Candan Çiçek, Aslı Aslan
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the viral frequency, seasonality, and clinical and demographic features of patients hospitalized with acute bronchiolitis. A cross-sectional, descriptive study was performed in 316 infants younger than 2 years of age who were hospitalized for acute viral bronchiolitis. Respiratory tract infection agents were investigated with polymerase chain reaction (PCR). A total of 316 infants were included in this study. Of the 316 infants, at least one respiratory tract pathogen was detected in 75% (237/316)...
2017: Global Pediatric Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28679075/first-report-of-immunohistochemical-detection-of-peste-des-petit-ruminants-parainfluenza-3-and-respiratory-syncytial-viral-antigens-in-lungs-of-nigerian-goats
#3
Theophilus A Jarikre Aghogho, Benjamin Obukowho Emikpe
This study determined the of involvement of PPR, PI3 and RS viruses in the pathology of caprine pneumonia across Nigeria. 150 goats were selected randomly. PI3 and RSV monoclonal antibodies and PPR polyclonal antibody were used for the immunolocalisation of the antigens. Histologically, 61 of the goats had broncho-interstitial pneumonia, 25 had interstitial pneumonia, 42 had bronchopneumonia, 12 had bronchiolitis and 10 were normal. PPR, PI3 and RS viral antigens were demonstrated in: intact and desquamated bronchial, bronchiolar epithelial cells, macrophages, leukocytes, pneumocytes and giant cells...
July 5, 2017: Journal of Immunoassay & Immunochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28672069/the-heterogeneity-of-viral-bronchiolitis-a-lack-of-universal-consensus-definitions
#4
REVIEW
David G Hancock, Billie Charles-Britton, Dani-Louise Dixon, Kevin D Forsyth
Viral bronchiolitis is one of the most common hospital presentations in infancy and as such represents a major healthcare burden worldwide. However despite this, there are currently no effective targeted therapies nor can those infants at highest risk for developing severe disease or subsequent respiratory morbidity be predicted on initial hospital presentation. Current definitions of bronchiolitis in the published literature vary significantly in terms of the age range at presentation, specific clinical symptoms, causative virus, and the inclusion or exclusion of infants with previous presentations and/or various comorbidities...
July 3, 2017: Pediatric Pulmonology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647745/early-halt-of-a-randomized-controlled-study-with-3-hypertonic-saline-in-acute-bronchiolitis
#5
Ania Carsin, Emilie Sauvaget, Violaine Bresson, Karine Retornaz, Maria Cabrera, Elisabeth Jouve, Romain Truillet, Emmanuelle Bosdure, Jean-Christophe Dubus
BACKGROUND: Albeit not recommended because of contradictory results, nebulized 3% hypertonic saline is widely used for treating acute viral bronchiolitis. Whether clinical differences may be attributed to the type of nebulizer used has never been studied. OBJECTIVES: By modifying the amount of salt deposited into the airways, the nebulizer characteristics might influence clinical response. METHODS: A prospective, randomized, controlled trial included infants hospitalized in a French university hospital for a first episode of bronchiolitis...
June 24, 2017: Respiration; International Review of Thoracic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647513/respiratory-syncytial-virus-bronchiolitis-weather-conditions-and-air-pollution-in-an-italian-urban-area-an-observational-study
#6
Raffaella Nenna, Melania Evangelisti, Antonella Frassanito, Carolina Scagnolari, Alessandra Pierangeli, Guido Antonelli, Ambra Nicolai, Serena Arima, Corrado Moretti, Paola Papoff, Maria Pia Villa, Fabio Midulla
BACKGROUND: In this study we sought to evaluate the association between viral bronchiolitis, weather conditions, and air pollution in an urban area in Italy. METHODS: We included infants hospitalized for acute bronchiolitis from 2004 to 2014. All infants underwent a nasal washing for virus detection. A regional agency network collected meteorological data (mean temperature, relative humidity and wind velocity) and the following air pollutants: sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxide, carbon monoxide, ozone, benzene and suspended particulate matter measuring less than 10µm (PM10) and less than 2...
June 22, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644757/relationships-between-adipokine-profiles-physique-index-and-severity-of-bronchiolitis-in-infancy
#7
Ryou Kawamata, Yuji Gunji, Ayafumi Ozaki, Kei Wakabayashi, Yuka Miyajimaa, Yukifumi Monden, Kei Numazaki, Kazuo Takahashi
INTRODUCTION: Relationships between adipokines, adiposity and severity of acute viral bronchiolitis in infancy have not been elucidated. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We investigated the relationships between three serum adipokines (leptin, adiponectin and TNF-α), physique index (Kaup index) and clinical severity in 13 bronchiolitis infants. Seven healthy infants were enrolled as the control group. We used Modified Pulmonary Index Score (MPIS) to evaluate bronchiolitis severity...
June 23, 2017: Fetal and Pediatric Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639594/viral-aetiology-of-wheezing-in-children-under-five
#8
Prithi Sureka Mummidi, Radha Tripathy, Bhagirathi Dwibedi, Amarendra Mahapatra, Suryakanta Baraha
BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: Wheezing is a common problem in children under five with acute respiratory infections (ARIs). Viruses are known to be responsible for a considerable proportion of ARIs in children. This study was undertaken to know the viral aetiology of wheezing among the children less than five years of age, admitted to a tertiary care hospital in eastern India. METHODS: Seventy five children, under the age of five years admitted with wheezing, were included in the study...
February 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605249/product-review-on-the-monoclonal-antibody-palivizumab-for-prevention-of-respiratory-syncytial-virus-infection
#9
Bernhard Resch
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) accounts for about 20% of all respiratory infections in children below the age of 5 y. It is associated with up to 63% of all acute respiratory infections and up to 81% of all viral lower respiratory tract infections causing hospitalization in infants and young children. RSV leads to seasonal epidemics between November and April in the northern hemisphere. Most severe infections (RSV accounts for 50 to 80% of all cause bronchiolitis) affect infants younger than 6 months of age and high-risk infants including those born preterm with or without bronchopulmonary dysplasia and those with hemodynamically significant congenital heart disease up to an age of 24 months...
June 12, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594619/managing-acute-respiratory-tract-infections-in-children
#10
C Schuster Bruce, Clare Hoare, Atanu Mukherjee, Siba Prosad Paul
Respiratory tract infections (RTIs), including community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), bronchiolitis, viral-induced wheeze and croup, account for more primary care consultations than any other illness group and are the most likely reason for a parent or carer to contact a health professional. The majority of RTIs in fully immunised children are usually self-limiting. However, in a small percentage of children RTIs may become life threatening and it is crucial that all front-line health professionals are able to recognise and identify these children who are at risk of deterioration...
June 8, 2017: British Journal of Nursing: BJN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588119/high-flow-nasal-cannula-utilization-in-pediatric-critical-care
#11
Kristen D Coletti, Dayanand N Bagdure, Linda K Walker, Kenneth E Remy, Jason W Custer
BACKGROUND: High-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) is increasingly utilized in pediatrics, delivering humidified air and oxygen for respiratory conditions causing hypoxia and distress. In the neonatal ICU, it has been associated with better tolerance, lower complications, and lower cost. Few data exist regarding indications for use and the epidemiology of disease/pathology that warrants HFNC in the pediatric ICU. METHODS: This study is a retrospective cohort study of patients admitted to a tertiary children's hospital pediatric ICU and placed on HFNC from October 1, 2011 to October 31, 2013...
June 6, 2017: Respiratory Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28586918/effect-of-nebulized-hypertonic-saline-treatment-in-emergency-departments-on-the-hospitalization-rate-for-acute-bronchiolitis-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#12
François Angoulvant, Xavier Bellêttre, Karen Milcent, Jean-Paul Teglas, Isabelle Claudet, Christèle Gras Le Guen, Loïc de Pontual, Philippe Minodier, François Dubos, Jacques Brouard, Valérie Soussan-Banini, Vanessa Degas-Bussiere, Amélie Gatin, Cyril Schweitzer, Ralph Epaud, Amélie Ryckewaert, Pierrick Cros, Yves Marot, Philippe Flahaut, Pascal Saunier, Philippe Babe, Géraldine Patteau, Mathilde Delebarre, Luigi Titomanlio, Bénédicte Vrignaud, Thanh-Van Trieu, Abdelilah Tahir, Delphine Regnard, Pascale Micheau, Oussama Charara, Simon Henry, Dominique Ploin, Henri Panjo, Astrid Vabret, Jean Bouyer, Vincent Gajdos
Importance: Acute bronchiolitis is the leading cause of hospitalization among infants. Previous studies, underpowered to examine hospital admission, have found a limited benefit of nebulized hypertonic saline (HS) treatment in the pediatric emergency department (ED). Objective: To examine whether HS nebulization treatment would decrease the hospital admission rate among infants with a first episode of acute bronchiolitis. Design, Setting, and Participants: The Efficacy of 3% Hypertonic Saline in Acute Viral Bronchiolitis (GUERANDE) study was a multicenter, double-blind randomized clinical trial on 2 parallel groups conducted during 2 bronchiolitis seasons (October through March) from October 15, 2012, through April 15, 2014, at 24 French pediatric EDs...
June 5, 2017: JAMA Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28574386/-immune-response-in-chronic-bronchiolitis-obliterans-in-children
#13
I Mustafayev, L Allahverdyeva, A Bogdanova
The qaim of the research was to evaluate a condition of cellular and humoral immunity in 139 children with bronchiolitis obliterans in age from 2 years to 14 years of life. There was a minor immunosuppression during exacerbation followed by normalization in remission. There was a slight decrease in the level of IgA, an increased concentration of İgM and high value of the circulating immune complexes during the exacerbation with normalization as acute inflammation subsided. An analysis of interleukin dynamics revealed a significant increase in the concentration of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in the acute stage of the disease with a tendency to normalization in remission...
April 2017: Georgian Medical News
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28571896/-short-term-relevance-of-lower-respiratory-viral-coinfection-in-inpatients-under-2-years-of-age
#14
Joana Gil, Sofia Almeida, Carolina Constant, Sara Pinto, Rosário Barreto, José Melo Cristino, Maria do Céu Machado, Teresa Bandeira
INTRODUCTION: Advances in molecular diagnosis have made it possible to detect previously unknown viral agents as causative agents of lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI). The frequency and relevance of viral coinfections is still debatable. OBJECTIVE: compare clinical presentation and severity between single virus infection and viral coinfection in children admitted for LRTI. METHODS: A 3-year period observational study (2012-2015) included children younger than two years admitted for LRTI...
May 29, 2017: Anales de Pediatría: Publicación Oficial de la Asociación Española de Pediatría (A.E.P.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28570692/natural-killer-t-cell-sensitization-during-neonatal-respiratory-syncytial-virus-infection-induces-eosinophilic-lung-disease-in-re-infected-adult-mice
#15
Seung Young Lee, Youran Noh, Jung Hyun Goo, Semi Rho, Min Jung Kim, Chang-Yuil Kang, Manki Song, Jae-Ouk Kim
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a major viral pathogen that causes severe lower respiratory tract infections in infants and the elderly worldwide. Infants with severe RSV bronchiolitis tend to experience more wheezing and asthma in later childhood. Because invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells are associated with the asthma pathology, we investigated whether neonatal iNKT cells are involved in the aggravation of pulmonary diseases following RSV infection in mice. Intranasal exposure to the iNKT cell ligand α-galactosylceramide (α-GC) with RSV primary infection in neonatal mice elicited neither cytokine production (except for a slight increase of IL-5) nor pulmonary eosinophilia, despite the presence of both CD1d+ cells and NKT cells...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541502/serum-ll-37-level-is-associated-with-severity-of-bronchiolitis-and-viral-etiology
#16
Jonathan M Mansbach, Kohei Hasegawa, Nadim J Ajami, Joseph F Petrosino, Pedro A Piedra, Courtney N Tierney, Janice A Espinola, Carlos A Camargo
Background: LL-37 is a host defense peptide with antimicrobial and immunomodulatory properties. We examined the relation of serum LL-37 levels to the severity of bronchiolitis and viral etiology. Methods: We performed a 17-center prospective cohort study of infants hospitalized with bronchiolitis over 3 winters (2011-2014). Site teams collected clinical data, nasopharyngeal aspirates (NPA) and serum. We used real-time PCR to test NPAs for 16 viruses. We tested serum for LL-37...
May 24, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539639/the-absence-of-interferon-%C3%AE-promotor-stimulator-1-ips-1-predisposes-to-bronchiolitis-and-asthma-like-pathology-in-response-to-pneumoviral-infection-in-mice
#17
Jennifer Simpson, Jason P Lynch, Zhixuan Loh, Vivian Zhang, Rhiannon B Werder, Kirsten Spann, Simon Phipps
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)-bronchiolitis is a major cause of infant morbidity and mortality and a risk factor for subsequent asthma. We showed previously that toll-like receptor (TLR)7 in plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) is critical for protection against bronchiolitis and asthma in mice infected with pneumonia virus of mice (PVM), the mouse homolog of RSV. This lack of redundancy was unexpected as interferon-β promotor stimulator-1 (IPS-1) signalling, downstream of RIG-I-like receptor (RLR) and not TLR7 activation, contributes to host defence in hRSV-inoculated adult mice...
May 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510985/changing-diagnosis-coding-routines-may-confound-the-results-of-longitudinal-childhood-pneumonia-studies
#18
M Eriksson, A Nilsson, R Bennet
AIM: This Swedish study compared the discharge diagnosis codes used for children up to the age of five hospitalised for acute lower respiratory tract infections before and after the introduction of the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in 2007. METHODS: The International Classification of Diseases - 10(th) revision codes were used. We compared the discharge diagnosis codes at the Astrid Lindgren Children's Hospital from 1 July 2005 to 30 June 2007 (n=1,127) and 1 July 2011 to 30 June 2013 (n=1,240) in relation to the diagnostic methods used...
May 16, 2017: Acta Paediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502165/grape-seed-proanthocyanidin-inhibits-mucin-synthesis-and-viral-replication-by-suppression-of-ap-1-and-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-via-p38-mapks-jnk-signaling-pathways-in-respiratory-syncytial-virus-infected-a549-cells
#19
Jin-Woo Lee, Young Il Kim, Chang-Nim Im, Sung Wan Kim, Su Jin Kim, Seoyeon Min, Yong Hoon Joo, Sung-Vin Yim, Namhyun Chung
Airway epithelial cells are often infected by respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), one of the most common causes of asthma, bronchiolitis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and pneumonia. During the infection process, excessive mucins instigate airway inflammation. However, the mechanism underlying RSV-induced airway hyper-responsiveness and inflammation is poorly understood. Furthermore, no reliable vaccines or drugs for antiviral therapy are available. In this study, the effect of the natural compound grape seed proanthocyanidin (GSP) on RSV-infected human airway epithelial cells A549 was evaluated...
June 7, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480848/acute-viral-bronchiolitis-in-infants-review
#20
I Chkhaidze, D Zirakishvili
Bronchiolitis is a common condition in children less than 2 years of age and is a leading cause of infant hospitalization. Acute bronchiolitis is characterized by acute wheezing in infants or children and is associated with signs or symptoms of respiratory infection; the most common etiologic agent is respiratory syncytial virus. There is a lack of consensus regarding the clinical definition of acute viral bronchiolitis in children and hence the management varies across the globe. Usually it does not require investigation, treatment is merely supportive and a conservative approach seems adequate in the majority of children, especially for the youngest ones...
March 2017: Georgian Medical News
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