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viral bronchiolitis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890033/il-8-il-17-gene-variations-and-the-susceptibility-to-severe-viral-bronchiolitis
#1
L A Pinto, L A DE Azeredo Leitão, M Mocellin, P Acosta, M T Caballero, R Libster, J E Vargas, F Polack, T Comaru, R T Stein, A P DE Souza
Clinical manifestations of acute bronchiolitis (AB) vary from minimal disease to severe respiratory failure. The response to respiratory viral infections is possibly influenced by genetic polymorphisms linked to the regulation of the inflammatory response. In the present study, we investigated whether interleukin-8 (IL-8) and interleukin-17 (IL-17) genetic variants are associated with the severity of AB. A group of Brazilian infants hospitalized with AB and a control group (infants with no or mild AB, without hospitalization) were genotyped for four IL-8/IL-17 variations...
November 28, 2016: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885562/respiratory-syncytial-virus-and-influenza-are-the-key-viral-pathogens-in-children-2%C3%A2-years-hospitalized-with-bronchiolitis-and-pneumonia-in-islamabad-pakistan
#2
Uzma Bashir, Nadia Nisar, Yasir Arshad, Muhammad Masroor Alam, Asiya Ashraf, Hajra Sadia, Birjees Mazher Kazi, Syed Sohail Zahoor Zaidi
Pneumonia remains a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in developing countries. Comprehensive surveillance data are needed to review the prevention and control strategies. We conducted active surveillance of acute lower respiratory infections among children aged <2 years hospitalized at two hospitals of Islamabad, Pakistan. Viral etiology was determined using real-time PCR on respiratory specimens collected during March 2011-April 2012. The overall mean age was 7.83 ± 5.25 months while no statistical difference between age or sex distribution of patients with positive and negative viral etiology (p > 0...
November 24, 2016: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871304/respiratory-viral-infections-and-host-responses-insights-from-genomics
#3
REVIEW
Niamh M Troy, Anthony Bosco
Respiratory viral infections are a leading cause of disease and mortality. The severity of these illnesses can vary markedly from mild or asymptomatic upper airway infections to severe wheezing, bronchiolitis or pneumonia. In this article, we review the viral sensing pathways and organizing principles that govern the innate immune response to infection. Then, we reconstruct the molecular networks that differentiate symptomatic from asymptomatic respiratory viral infections, and identify the underlying molecular drivers of these networks...
November 21, 2016: Respiratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27850160/520-pediatric-acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome-in-viral-bronchiolitis
#4
Neha Longani, Shivanand Medar
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832233/lack-of-association-between-viral-load-and-severity-of-acute-bronchiolitis-in-infants
#5
Ana Paula Duarte de Souza, Lidiane Alves de Azeredo Leitão, Fernanda Luisi, Rodrigo Godinho Souza, Sandra Eugênia Coutinho, Jaqueline Ramos da Silva, Rita Mattiello, Paulo Márcio Condessa Pitrez, Renato Tetelbom Stein, Leonardo Araújo Pinto
Objective: To investigate the correlation between respiratory syncytial viral load and length of hospitalization in infants with acute wheezing episodes. Methods: This was a two-year, cross-sectional study of infants ≤ 12 months of age with bronchiolitis at the time of admission to a tertiary hospital. For the identification of respiratory viruses, nasopharyngeal secretions were collected. Samples were analyzed (throughout the study period) by direct immunofluorescence and (in the second year of the study) by quantitative real-time PCR...
July 2016: Jornal Brasileiro de Pneumologia: Publicaça̋o Oficial da Sociedade Brasileira de Pneumologia e Tisilogia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27805553/-monoinfection-of-human-metapneumovirus-in-cordoba-first-clinical-and-epidemiological-research-in-children-with-respiratory-infection-in-2011
#6
Pamela Elizabeth Rodriguez, María Pilar Adamo, María Gabriela Paglini, Laura Moreno, Jorge Augusto Camara, Alicia Camara
: Human metapneumovirus (hMPV) RNA virus discovered in 2001, is a pathogen associated with acute respiratory infection (ARI) in children under 5 years; its prevalence ranges from 5-15%. In Córdoba, it is not integrated into the viral research in patients with low IRA (LARI). OBJECTIVE: Detect hMPV in children under 5 years hospitalized for LARI in the Children's Hospital "Santísima Trinidad" of Cordoba (HNC) in 2011 and describe the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of monoinfecciones without comorbidity...
2016: Revista de la Facultad de Ciencias Médicas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798551/risk-factors-for-virus-induced-acute-respiratory-tract-infections-in-children-younger-than-3-years-and-recurrent-wheezing-at-36-months-follow-up-after-discharge
#7
Ambra Nicolai, Antonella Frassanito, Raffaella Nenna, Giulia Cangiano, Laura Petrarca, Paola Papoff, Alessandra Pierangeli, Carolina Scagnolari, Corrado Moretti, Fabio Midulla
BACKGROUND: We sought to know more about how 14 common respiratory viruses manifest clinically, and to identify risk factors for specific virus-induced acute respiratory tract infections (ARTIs) in children younger than 3 years and for wheezing at 36-months follow-up. METHODS: We retrospectively studied the clinical records for 273 full-term children (median age, 2.9 months, range 0.26-39, boys 61.2%) hospitalized for ARTIs whose nasopharyngeal specimen tested positive for a respiratory virus and 101 children with no history of respiratory diseases (median age, 8 months, range: 0...
October 27, 2016: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27764220/epidemiology-and-clinical-presentations-of-respiratory-syncytial-virus-subgroups-a-and-b-detected-with-multiplex-real-time-pcr
#8
Wenkuan Liu, Dehui Chen, Weiping Tan, Duo Xu, Shuyan Qiu, Zhiqi Zeng, Xiao Li, Rong Zhou
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is one of the most important pathogenic infections of children and requires in-depth research worldwide, and especially in developing countries. We used a novel multiplex real-time PCR to test 5483 patients (≤ 14 years old) hospitalized with respiratory illness in Guangzhou, China, over a 3-year period. Of these patients, 729 were positive for RSV-A (51.2%, 373/729) or RSV-B (48.8%, 356/729), but none was infected with both viruses. Two seasonal peaks in total RSV were detected at the changes from winter to spring and from summer to autumn...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27716790/cathepsin-l-helps-to-defend-mice-from-infection-with-influenza-a
#9
Xiang Xu, John R Greenland, Jeffrey E Gotts, Michael A Matthay, George H Caughey
Host-derived proteases can augment or help to clear infections. This dichotomy is exemplified by cathepsin L (CTSL), which helps Hendra virus and SARS coronavirus to invade cells, but is essential for survival in mice with mycoplasma pneumonia. The present study tested the hypothesis that CTSL protects mice from serious consequences of infection by the orthomyxovirus influenza A, which is thought to be activated by host-supplied proteases other than CTSL. Ctsl-/- mice infected with influenza A/Puerto Rico/8/34(H1N1) had larger lung viral loads and higher mortality than infected Ctsl+/+ mice...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27695990/functional-and-genetic-predisposition-to-rhinovirus-lower-respiratory-tract-infections-in-prematurely-born-infants
#10
Simon B Drysdale, Mireia Alcazar, Theresa Wilson, Melvyn Smith, Mark Zuckerman, Hennie M Hodemaekers, Riny Janssen, Louis Bont, Sebastian L Johnston, Anne Greenough
: Term born infants are predisposed to human rhinovirus (HRV) lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI) by reduced neonatal lung function and genetic susceptibility. Our aim was to investigate whether prematurely born infants were similarly predisposed to HRV LRTIs or any other viral LRTIs. Infants born less than 36 weeks of gestational age were recruited. Prior to neonatal/maternity unit discharge, lung function (functional residual capacity by helium gas dilution and multiple breath washout, lung clearance index and compliance (Crs), and resistance (Rrs) of the respiratory system) was assessed and DNA samples assessed for eight single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in seven genes: ADAM33, IL10, MMP16 NFκB1A,SFTPC, VDR, and NOS2A...
October 1, 2016: European Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27665269/acute-viral-bronchiolitis-and-risk-of-asthma-in-schoolchildren-analysis-of-a-brazilian-newborn-cohort
#11
Heli V Brandão, Graciete O Vieira, Tatiana O Vieira, Álvaro A Cruz, Armênio C Guimarães, Carlos Teles, Paulo Camargos, Constança M S Cruz
OBJECTIVE: To verify whether the occurrence of acute viral bronchiolitis in the first year of life constitutes a risk factor for asthma at age 6 considering a parental history of asthma. METHODS: Cross-sectional study in a cohort of live births. A standardized questionnaire of the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood was applied to the mothers to identify asthma in children at the age of 6 years. Acute viral bronchiolitis diagnosis was performed by maternal report of a medical diagnosis and/or presence of symptoms of coryza accompanied by cough, tachypnea, and dyspnea when participants were 3, 6, 9, and 12 months...
September 22, 2016: Jornal de Pediatria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27632796/clinical-characteristics-and-viral-load-of-respiratory-syncytial-virus-and-human-metapneumovirus-in-children-hospitalized-for-acute-lower-respiratory-tract-infection
#12
Xiao-Li Yan, Yu-Ning Li, Yi-Jie Tang, Zhi-Ping Xie, Han-Chun Gao, Xue-Mei Yang, Yu-Mei Li, Li-Jun Liu, Zhao-Jun Duan
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and human metapneumovirus (HMPV) are two common viral pathogens in acute lower respiratory tract infections (ALRTI). However, the association of viral load with clinical characteristics is not well-defined in ALRTI. To explore the correlation between viral load and clinical characteristics of RSV and HMPV in children hospitalized for ALRTI in Lanzhou, China. 387 children hospitalized for ALRTI were enrolled. Nasopharyngeal aspirates (NPAs) were sampled from each children. Real-time PCR was used to screen RSV, HMPV and twelve additional respiratory viruses...
September 15, 2016: Journal of Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27581977/packaging-and-prefusion-stabilization-separately-and-additively-increase-the-quantity-and-quality-of-respiratory-syncytial-virus-rsv-neutralizing-antibodies-induced-by-an-rsv-fusion-protein-expressed-by-a-parainfluenza-virus-vector
#13
Bo Liang, Joan O Ngwuta, Richard Herbert, Joanna Swerczek, David W Dorward, Emerito Amaro-Carambot, Natalie Mackow, Barbora Kabatova, Matthias Lingemann, Sonja Surman, Lijuan Yang, Man Chen, Syed M Moin, Azad Kumar, Jason S McLellan, Peter D Kwong, Barney S Graham, Anne Schaap-Nutt, Peter L Collins, Shirin Munir
: Human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and human parainfluenza virus type 3 (HPIV3) are major pediatric respiratory pathogens that lack vaccines. A chimeric bovine/human PIV3 (rB/HPIV3) virus expressing the unmodified, wild-type (wt) RSV fusion (F) protein from an added gene was previously evaluated in seronegative children as a bivalent intranasal RSV/HPIV3 vaccine, and it was well tolerated but insufficiently immunogenic for RSV F. We recently showed that rB/HPIV3 expressing a partially stabilized prefusion form (pre-F) of RSV F efficiently induced "high-quality" RSV-neutralizing antibodies, defined as antibodies that neutralize RSV in vitro without added complement (B...
November 1, 2016: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27560829/the-helminth-derived-immunomodulator-avcystatin-reduces-virus-enhanced-inflammation-by-induction-of-regulatory-il-10-t-cells
#14
Martijn J Schuijs, Susanne Hartmann, Murray E Selkirk, Luke B Roberts, Peter J M Openshaw, Corinna Schnoeller
Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) is a major pathogen causing low respiratory tract disease (bronchiolitis), primarily in infants. Helminthic infections may alter host immune responses to both helminths and to unrelated immune triggers. For example, we have previously shown that filarial cystatin (AvCystatin/Av17) ameliorates allergic airway inflammation. However, helminthic immunomodulators have so far not been tested in virus-induced disease. We now report that AvCystatin prevents Th2-based immunopathology in vaccine-enhanced RSV lung inflammation, a murine model for bronchiolitis...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27555618/rhinopharyngeal-retrograde-clearance-induces-less-respiratory-effort-and-fewer-adverse-effects-in-comparison-with-nasopharyngeal-aspiration-in-infants-with-acute-viral-bronchiolitis
#15
Gabriela R Gomes, Fernanda Pg Calvete, Gabriela F Rosito, Márcio Vf Donadio
BACKGROUND: Acute viral bronchiolitis is an inflammatory disease of the lower respiratory tract. This study aimed to compare the immediate effects of retrograde rhinopharyngeal clearance with nasopharyngeal aspiration in children admitted with acute viral bronchiolitis. METHODS: This was a randomized controlled clinical trial with children admitted for acute viral bronchiolitis up to 12 months old. Subjects were divided into a nasopharyngeal aspiration group and a clearance group, submitted to retrograde rhinopharyngeal clearance with physiological solution (0...
December 2016: Respiratory Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27549684/viral-bronchiolitis
#16
Todd A Florin, Amy C Plint, Joseph J Zorc
Viral bronchiolitis is a common clinical syndrome affecting infants and young children. Concern about its associated morbidity and cost has led to a large body of research that has been summarised in systematic reviews and integrated into clinical practice guidelines in several countries. The evidence and guideline recommendations consistently support a clinical diagnosis with the limited role for diagnostic testing for children presenting with the typical clinical syndrome of viral upper respiratory infection progressing to the lower respiratory tract...
August 20, 2016: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27549246/urine-metabolomic-profiling-of-children-with-respiratory-tract-infections-in-the-emergency-department-a-pilot-study
#17
Darryl J Adamko, Erik Saude, Matthew Bear, Shana Regush, Joan L Robinson
BACKGROUND: Clinicians lack objective tests to help determine the severity of bronchiolitis or to distinguish a viral from bacterial causes of respiratory distress. We hypothesized that children with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection would have a different metabolomic profile compared to those with bacterial infection or healthy controls, and this might also vary with bronchiolitis severity. METHODS: Clinical information and urine-based metabolomic data were collected from healthy age-matched children (n = 37) and those admitted to hospital with a proven infection (RSV n = 55; Non-RSV viral n = 16; bacterial n = 24)...
August 22, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27498757/post-bronchiolitis-wheezing-is-associated-with-toll-like-receptor-9-rs187084-gene-polymorphism
#18
Kirsi Nuolivirta, Sari Törmänen, Johanna Teräsjärvi, Juho Vuononvirta, Petri Koponen, Matti Korppi, Merja Helminen, Ville Peltola, Qiushui He
Innate immunity receptors play a critical role in host defence, as well as in allergy and asthma. The aim of this exploratory study was to evaluate whether there are associations between TLR7 rs179008, TLR8 rs2407992, TLR9 rs187084 or TLR10 rs4129009 polymorphisms and viral findings, clinical characteristics or subsequent wheezing in infants with bronchiolitis. In all, 135 full-term infants were hospitalized for bronchiolitis at age less than 6 months: 129 of them were followed-up until the age of 1.5 years...
2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27464690/host-factors-modulating-rsv-infection-use-of-small-interfering-rnas-to-probe-functional-importance
#19
Leon Caly, Hong-Mei Li, David Jans
Although respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the leading cause of bronchiolitis and pneumonia in infants and the elderly worldwide [1], the protein-protein interactions between the host cell and virus remain poorly understood. We have used a focused small interfering RNA (siRNA) approach to knock-down and examine the role(s) of various host cell proteins. Here, we describe approaches for casein kinase 2α (CK2α) as a key example. We show how to study the effect of host gene (CK2α) knockdown using siRNA on cell-associated and released virus titers, using both quantitative RT-PCR, which measures the level of viral RNA, and plaque assay, which measures infectious virus directly...
2016: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27446241/paediatric-virology-in-the-hippocratic-corpus
#20
Ioannis N Mammas, Demetrios A Spandidos
Hippocrates (Island of Kos, 460 B.C.-Larissa, 370 B.C.) is the founder of the most famous Medical School of the classical antiquity. In acknowledgement of his pioneering contribution to the new scientific field of Paediatric Virology, this article provides a systematic analysis of the Hippocratic Corpus, with particular focus on viral infections predominating in neonates and children. A mumps epidemic, affecting the island of Thasos in the 5th century B.C., is described in detail. 'Herpes', a medical term derived from the ancient Greek word 'ἕρπειν', meaning 'to creep' or 'crawl', is used to describe the spreading of cutaneous lesions in both childhood and adulthood...
August 2016: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
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