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viral bronchiolitis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424887/a-metagenomics-study-for-the-identification-of-respiratory-viruses-in-mixed-clinical-specimens-an-application-of-the-iterative-mapping-approach
#1
Yu-Nong Gong, Shu-Li Yang, Guang-Wu Chen, Yu-Wen Chen, Yhu-Chering Huang, Hsiao-Chen Ning, Kuo-Chien Tsao
Metagenomic approaches to detect viral genomes and variants in clinical samples have various challenges, including low viral titers and bacterial and human genome contamination. To address these limitations, we examined a next-generation sequencing (NGS) and iterative mapping approach for virus detection in clinical samples. We analyzed 40 clinical specimens from hospitalized children diagnosed with acute bronchiolitis, croup, or respiratory tract infections in which virus identification by viral culture or polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was unsuccessful...
April 19, 2017: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423465/febrile-status-epilepticus-due-to-respiratory-syncytial-virus-infection
#2
Kazuhiro Uda, Katsuhiko Kitazawa
BACKGROUND: Febrile status epilepticus can have neurological sequelae. The type of sequelae, however, may depend on the etiology, including infections by viral agents such as the influenza virus. Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection in childhood suggests a similar role for this pathogen. The aim of this study was to characterize febrile status epilepticus associated with RSV infection, and to determine whether this type of infection is a risk factor for neurological sequelae with febrile status epilepticus...
April 19, 2017: Pediatrics International: Official Journal of the Japan Pediatric Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420262/impact-of-an-educational-intervention-to-improve-physician-adherence-to-bronchiolitis-clinical-practice-guidelines-a-pre-post-intervention-study
#3
Marquita C Genies, Julia M Kim, Kristina Pyclik, Suzanne Rossi, Natalie Spicyn, Janet R Serwint
Bronchiolitis is the leading cause of infant hospitalizations in the United States. Despite clinical practice guidelines discouraging the utilization of non-evidence-based therapies, there continues to be wide variation in care and resource utilization. A pre-post physician focused educational intervention was conducted with the aims to reduce the use of non-evidence-based medical therapies, including bronchodilators, among patients admitted for bronchiolitis. Among patients meeting inclusion criteria (pre: n = 45; post: n = 47), bronchodilator use decreased by 50% ( P < ...
April 1, 2017: Clinical Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401936/bmal1-links-the-circadian-clock-to-viral-airway-pathology-and-asthma-phenotypes
#4
A Ehlers, W Xie, E Agapov, S Brown, D Steinberg, R Tidwell, G Sajol, R Schutz, R Weaver, H Yu, M Castro, L B Bacharier, X Wang, M J Holtzman, J A Haspel
Patients with asthma experience circadian variations in their symptoms. However it remains unclear how specific aspects of this common airway disease relate to clock genes, which are critical to the generation of circadian rhythms in mammals. Here, we used a viral model of acute and chronic airway disease to examine how circadian clock disruption affects asthmatic lung phenotypes. Deletion of the core clock gene bmal1 or environmental disruption of circadian function by jet lag exacerbated acute viral bronchiolitis caused by Sendai virus (SeV) and influenza A virus in mice...
April 12, 2017: Mucosal Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397057/clinical-application-analysis-of-andrographolide-total-ester-sulfonate-injection-a-traditional-chinese-medicine-licensed-in-china
#5
Ying Zhao, Pu Huang, Zhe Chen, Si-Wei Zheng, Jin-Yang Yu, Chen Shi
Andrographolide total ester sulfonate (ATES) injection is one of the products of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) currently used against viral infection in China. ATES injection was approved for manufacturing and marketing in January 2002. It is indicated for acute respiratory infections, tonsillitis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, influenza, foot and mouth disease, bronchiolitis, herpangina, mumps, infectious mononucleosis and psychosis. However, its usage also carries risk. We investigated the use of ATES at the Wuhan Union Hospital from January 2014 to December 2014 and evaluated its real-world clinical application using the hospital centralized monitoring method...
April 2017: Journal of Huazhong University of Science and Technology. Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28368490/nasosorption-is-a-minimally-invasive-diagnostic-procedure-for-measurement-of-viral-load-and-markers-of-mucosal-inflammation-in-rsv-bronchiolitis
#6
Ryan S Thwaites, Kazuhiro Ito, Jasmine M S Chingono, Matthew Coates, Hannah C Jarvis, Tanushree Tunstall, Lauren Anderson-Dring, Lindsey Cass, Garth Rapeport, Peter J Openshaw, Simon Nadel, Trevor T Hansel
Background: Existing respiratory mucosal sampling methods are flawed, particularly in a paediatric bronchiolitis setting. Methods: Twenty-four infants with bronchiolitis were recruited: 12 were Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)+, 12 were RSV-. Infants were sampled by nasosorption (NS) and nasopharyngeal-aspiration (NPA). Results: NS was well tolerated and identified all RSV+ samples. RSV load measured by NS (but not NPA) correlated with length of hospital stay (P=0...
March 27, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339145/respiratory-syncytial-virus-host-interaction-in-the-pathogenesis-of-bronchiolitis-and-its-impact-on-respiratory-morbidity-in-later-life
#7
REVIEW
Giovanni A Rossi, Andrew A Colin
Rossi GA, Colin AA(.) Respiratory syncytial virus - host interaction in the pathogenesis of bronchiolitis and its impact on respiratory morbidity in later life. Pediatr Allergy Immunol. Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most common agent of severe airway disease in infants and young children. Large epidemiologic studies have demonstrated a clear relationship between RSV infection and subsequent recurrent wheezing and asthma into childhood, thought to be predominantly related to long-term changes in neuroimmune control of airway tone rather than to allergic sensitization...
March 24, 2017: Pediatric Allergy and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336678/neutrophils-regulate-the-lung-inflammatory-response-via-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-t-cell-infiltration-in-an-experimental-mouse-model-of-human-metapneumovirus-infection
#8
Nagarjuna R Cheemarla, Ma Del Rocío Baños-Lara, Shan Naidu, Antonieta Guerrero-Plata
Neutrophils are the most abundant leukocytes in human circulation. They are the first immune cell population recruited to the sites of infection. However, the role of neutrophils to regulate host immune responses during respiratory viral infections is largely unknown. To elucidate the role of neutrophils in respiratory antiviral defense, we used an experimental mouse model of human metapneumovirus (HMPV) infection. HMPV, a member of the Paramyxoviridae family, is a leading respiratory pathogen causing severe symptoms, such as bronchiolitis and pneumonia, in young, elderly, and immunocompromised patients...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335547/genomic-loads-and-genotypes-of-respiratory-syncytial-virus-viral-factors-during-lower-respiratory-tract-infection-in-chilean-hospitalized-infants
#9
Yazmín Espinosa, Camila San Martín, Alejandro A Torres, Mauricio J Farfán, Juan P Torres, Vasanthi Avadhanula, Pedro A Piedra, Lorena I Tapia
The clinical impact of viral factors (types and viral loads) during respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection is still controversial, especially regarding newly described genotypes. In this study, infants with RSV bronchiolitis were recruited to describe the association of these viral factors with severity of infection. RSV antigenic types, genotypes, and viral loads were determined from hospitalized patients at Hospital Roberto del Río, Santiago, Chile. Cases were characterized by demographic and clinical information, including days of lower respiratory symptoms and severity...
March 21, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306146/the-relationship-between-nasopharyngeal-ccl5-and-microbiota-on-disease-severity-among-infants-with-bronchiolitis
#10
K Hasegawa, J M Mansbach, N J Ajami, J F Petrosino, R J Freishtat, S J Teach, P A Piedra, C A Camargo
Emerging evidence suggests that the airway microbiota plays an important role in viral bronchiolitis pathobiology. However, little is known about the combined role of airway microbiota and CCL5 in infants with bronchiolitis. In this multicenter prospective cohort study of 1005 infants (age <1 year) hospitalized for bronchiolitis during 2011-2014, we observed statistically significant interactions between nasopharyngeal airway CCL5 levels and microbiota profiles with regard to the risk of both intensive care use (Pinteraction =...
March 17, 2017: Allergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301570/human-metapnuemovirus-infections-in-hospitalized-children-and-comparison-with-other-respiratory-viruses-2005-2014-prospective-study
#11
María Luz García-García, Cristina Calvo, Cristina Rey, Beatriz Díaz, Maria Del Mar Molinero, Francisco Pozo, Inmaculada Casas
BACKGROUND: Human metapneumovirus (HMPV) has an important etiological role in acute lower respiratory infections in children under five years. Our objectives were to estimate the relative contribution of HMPV to hospitalization in children with acute respiratory infection, to define the clinical and epidemiological features of HMPV single and multiple infections, and to compare HMPV infections with respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV), rhinovirus (HRV), adenovirus and human bocavirus infections in the same population...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273842/immunological-features-of-respiratory-syncytial-virus-caused-pneumonia-implications-for-vaccine-design
#12
REVIEW
Emma Rey-Jurado, Alexis M Kalergis
The human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV) is the causative agent for high rates of hospitalizations due to viral bronchiolitis and pneumonia worldwide. Such a disease is characterized by an infection of epithelial cells of the distal airways that leads to inflammation and subsequently to respiratory failure. Upon infection, different pattern recognition receptors recognize the virus and trigger the innate immune response against the hRSV. Further, T cell immunity plays an important role for virus clearance...
March 4, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267794/the-interdependencies-of-viral-load-the-innate-immune-response-and-clinical-outcome-in-children-presenting-to-the-emergency-department-with-respiratory-syncytial-virus-associated-bronchiolitis
#13
Felipe-Andrés Piedra, Minghua Mei, Vasanthi Avadhanula, Reena Mehta, Letisha Aideyan, Roberto P Garofalo, Pedro A Piedra
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) causes significant infant morbidity and mortality. For decades severe RSV-induced disease was thought to result from an uncontrolled host response to viral replication, but recent work suggests that a strong innate immune response early in infection is protective. To shed light on host-virus interactions and the viral determinants of disease, copy numbers of five RSV genes (NS1, NS2, N, G, F) were measured by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) in nasal wash samples from children with RSV-associated bronchiolitis...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28262277/-the-interactions-between-microorganisms-and-the-small-airways-a-paediatric-focus
#14
REVIEW
J de Blic, J Brouard, A Vabret, A Deschildre
The spectrum of respiratory viruses is expanding and emerging diseases have been described regularly over the last fifteen years. The origin of these emerging respiratory viruses may be zoonotic (by crossing species barrier, after changes to RNA viruses such as avian influenza virus type A or coronaviruses), or related to the use of new identification techniques (metapneumovirus, bocavirus). The relationship between bronchiolitis and asthma is now better understood thanks to prospective follow up of birth cohorts...
February 2017: Revue des Maladies Respiratoires
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261214/the-influence-of-the-microbiome-on-early-life-severe-viral-lower-respiratory-infections-and-asthma-food-for-thought
#15
REVIEW
Jason P Lynch, Md Al Amin Sikder, Bodie F Curren, Rhiannon B Werder, Jennifer Simpson, Páraic Ó Cuív, Paul G Dennis, Mark L Everard, Simon Phipps
Severe viral lower respiratory infections are a major cause of infant morbidity. In developing countries, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)-bronchiolitis induces significant mortality, whereas in developed nations the disease represents a major risk factor for subsequent asthma. Susceptibility to severe RSV-bronchiolitis is governed by gene-environmental interactions that affect the host response to RSV infection. Emerging evidence suggests that the excessive inflammatory response and ensuing immunopathology, typically as a consequence of insufficient immunoregulation, leads to long-term changes in immune cells and structural cells that render the host susceptible to subsequent environmental incursions...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28253869/reduced-prf1-enhancer-methylation-in-children-with-a-history-of-severe-rsv-bronchiolitis-in-infancy-an-association-study
#16
Magdeldin Elgizouli, Chad Logan, Ruth Grychtol, Dietrich Rothenbacher, Alexandra Nieters, Andrea Heinzmann
BACKGROUND: Acute lower respiratory tract infection is the commonest disease affecting children under five worldwide. Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is among the most common causative pathogens. Epidemiological data suggest an association between severe viral respiratory infections in infancy and increased incidence of childhood wheeze and asthma. DNA methylation is involved in immune cell differentiation and identity. It provides an avenue for environmental influences on the genome and therefore has potential as a marker for sustained effects of infectious insults...
March 3, 2017: BMC Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28251508/enterovirus-d68-associated-community-acquired-pneumonia-in-the-pediatric-age-group
#17
REVIEW
Samantha Bosis, Susanna Esposito
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review summarizes the current knowledge regarding the role of Enterovirus D68 (EV-D68) in community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in children. RECENT FINDINGS: EV-D68 is an emergent viral pathogen. Since its first isolation in 1962 in California in four children suffering from CAP and bronchiolitis, EV-D68 has been rarely detected from respiratory specimens. However, recently, EV-D68 infection has raised concerns in the international community because of outbreaks in 2014 in the USA and the increased number of children with EV-D68-associated severe respiratory illnesses, including pneumonia, that have been reported in many other countries around the world...
March 2017: Current Infectious Disease Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228284/respiratory-syncytial-virus-infects-regulatory-b-cells-in-human-neonates-via-chemokine-receptor-cx3cr1-and-promotes-lung-disease-severity
#18
Dania Zhivaki, Sébastien Lemoine, Annick Lim, Ahsen Morva, Pierre-Olivier Vidalain, Liliane Schandene, Nicoletta Casartelli, Marie-Anne Rameix-Welti, Pierre-Louis Hervé, Edith Dériaud, Benoit Beitz, Maryline Ripaux-Lefevre, Jordi Miatello, Brigitte Lemercier, Valerie Lorin, Delphyne Descamps, Jenna Fix, Jean-François Eléouët, Sabine Riffault, Olivier Schwartz, Fabrice Porcheray, Françoise Mascart, Hugo Mouquet, Xiaoming Zhang, Pierre Tissières, Richard Lo-Man
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the major cause of lower respiratory tract infections in infants and is characterized by pulmonary infiltration of B cells in fatal cases. We analyzed the B cell compartment in human newborns and identified a population of neonatal regulatory B lymphocytes (nBreg cells) that produced interleukin 10 (IL-10) in response to RSV infection. The polyreactive B cell receptor of nBreg cells interacted with RSV protein F and induced upregulation of chemokine receptor CX3CR1. CX3CR1 interacted with RSV glycoprotein G, leading to nBreg cell infection and IL-10 production that dampened T helper 1 (Th1) cytokine production...
February 21, 2017: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193180/viral-aetiology-of-bronchiolitis-in-hospitalised-children-in-qatar
#19
Ibrahim Janahi, Anas Abdulkayoum, Fawziya Almeshwesh, Mohamed Alkuwari, Ahmed Al Hammadi, Marwah Alameri
BACKGROUND: Bronchiolitis is considered one of the earliest and most common causes of hospitalisation in young children. Development of molecular technologies allowed a better understanding of bronchiolitis aetiology. Results from cohort studies evaluating the association between single, multiple viral infections and clinical outcomes are conflicting. Data on viral bronchiolitis in children were found to be limited in Qatar. This study aimed to determine frequency and seasonal trends of viral pathogens causing acute bronchiolitis, and to explore association between viral pathogens, disease severity and length of stay (LOS)...
February 13, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192893/non-invasive-ventilation-improves-respiratory-distress-in-children-with-acute-viral-bronchiolitis-a-systematic-review
#20
Yann Combret, Guillaume Prieur, Pascal LE Roux, Clément Médrinal
BACKGROUND: Non-invasive ventilation (NIV) is a common treatment for bronchiolitis. However, consensus concerning its efficacy is lacking. The aim of this systematic review was to assess NIV effectiveness to reduce respiratory distress. Secondary objectives were to summarize the effects of NIV, identify predictive factors for failure and describe settings and applications. METHODS: Searches were conducted in MEDLINE Pubmed, PEDro, COCHRANE, EMBASE, CINAHL, Web of Science, Up-todate and Sudoc from 1990 to April 2015...
February 13, 2017: Minerva Anestesiologica
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