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viral bronchiolitis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886185/clinical-features-and-seasonality-of-parechovirus-infection-in-an-asian-subtropical-city-hong-kong
#1
Grace P K Chiang, Zigui Chen, Martin C W Chan, Simon H M Lee, Angela K Kwok, Apple C M Yeung, E Anthony S Nelson, Kam Lun Hon, Ting Fan Leung, Paul K S Chan
BACKGROUND: The epidemiology of human parechovirus (HPeV) in Asia remains obscure. We elucidated the prevalence, seasonality, type distribution and clinical presentation of HPeV among children in Hong Kong. METHODS: A 24-month prospective study to detect HPeV in children ≤36 months hospitalized for acute viral illnesses. RESULTS: 2.3% of the 3911 children examined had HPeV infection, with most (87.5%) concentrated in September-January (autumn-winter)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878128/respiratory-syncytial-virus-infection-of-newborn-cx3cr1-deficent-mice-induces-a-pathogenic-pulmonary-innate-immune-response
#2
Sudipta Das, Mahesh Raundhal, Jie Chen, Timothy B Oriss, Rachael Huff, John V Williams, Anuradha Ray, Prabir Ray
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infects almost all infants by 2 years of age, and severe bronchiolitis resulting from RSV infection is the primary cause of hospitalization in the first year of life. Among infants hospitalized due to RSV-induced bronchiolitis, those with a specific mutation in the chemokine receptor CX3CR1, which severely compromises binding of its ligand CX3CL1, were at a higher risk for more severe viral bronchiolitis than those without the mutation. Here, we show that RSV infection of newborn mice deficient in CX3CR1 leads to significantly greater neutrophilic inflammation in the lungs, accompanied by an increase in mucus production compared with that induced in WT mice...
September 7, 2017: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28871880/clinical-factors-associated-with-chest-imaging-findings-in-hospitalized-infants-with-bronchiolitis
#3
Joanne M Nazif, Benjamin H Taragin, Gabriella Azzarone, Michael L Rinke, Sheila Liewehr, Jaeun Choi, Nora Esteban-Cruciani
Despite recommendations against routine imaging, chest radiography (CXR) is frequently performed on infants hospitalized for bronchiolitis. We conducted a review of 811 infants hospitalized for bronchiolitis to identify clinical factors associated with imaging findings. CXR was performed on 553 (68%) infants either on presentation or during hospitalization; 466 readings (84%) were normal or consistent with viral illness. Clinical factors significantly associated with normal/viral imaging were normal temperature (odds ratio = 1...
October 2017: Clinical Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861397/modulation-of-host-immunity-by-human-respiratory-syncytial-virus-virulence-factors-a-synergic-inhibition-of-both-innate-and-adaptive-immunity
#4
REVIEW
Gisela Canedo-Marroquín, Orlando Acevedo-Acevedo, Emma Rey-Jurado, Juan M Saavedra, Margarita K Lay, Susan M Bueno, Claudia A Riedel, Alexis M Kalergis
The Human Respiratory Syncytial Virus (hRSV) is a major cause of acute lower respiratory tract infections (ARTIs) and high rates of hospitalizations in children and in the elderly worldwide. Symptoms of hRSV infection include bronchiolitis and pneumonia. The lung pathology observed during hRSV infection is due in part to an exacerbated host immune response, characterized by immune cell infiltration to the lungs. HRSV is an enveloped virus, a member of the Pneumoviridae family, with a non-segmented genome and negative polarity-single RNA that contains 10 genes encoding for 11 proteins...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859915/viral-bronchiolitis-in-young-infants-new-perspectives-for-management-and-treatment
#5
REVIEW
Mauricio T Caballero, Fernando P Polack, Renato T Stein
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this review was to address advances in management and treatment of acute viral bronchiolitis in infants. SOURCES: A systematic review search was made including all articles published in English between 2010 and 2017, and available in the electronic databases PubMed and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) and specialized register of the Acute Respiratory Infections Group (Cochrane review group). The following MESH terms in English were included, using different Boolean operators for the search strategy: "bronchiolitis, viral," "diagnosis," "epidemiology," "etiology," "therapy," "virology," "prevention and control," "respiratory syncytial virus, human...
August 30, 2017: Jornal de Pediatria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859019/age-specific-antibiotic-prescribing-and-adherence-to-guidelines-in-pediatric-patients-in-primary-care
#6
Verica Ivanovska, Karin Hek, Aukje K Mantel-Teeuwisse, Hubert G M Leufkens, Liset van Dijk
BACKGROUND: Most antibiotics in children are used to treat viral and self-limiting conditions. This study aims to compare physicians' adherence to guidelines on antibiotic prescribing in fever and in ear and respiratory infections to children in different age groups in the Netherlands. METHODS: Data were used from the NIVEL Primary Care Database. For all pediatric episodes of fever, acute otitis media (AOM), streptococcal pharyngitis (strep throat), sinusitis, acute tonsillitis, acute bronchitis/bronchiolitis and pneumonia in 2012, we determined whether national guidelines were followed in regard to whether an antibiotic was prescribed, and the type of antibiotic...
August 28, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28844075/hrct-findings-of-childhood-follicular-bronchiolitis
#7
Jason P Weinman, David A Manning, Deborah R Liptzin, Amanda J Krausert, Lorna P Browne
BACKGROUND: Follicular bronchiolitis is a lymphoproliferative form of interstitial lung disease (ILD) defined by the presence of peribronchial lymphoid follicles. Follicular bronchiolitis has been associated with viral infection, autoimmune disease and immunodeficiency. The most common clinical manifestation is respiratory distress in infancy followed by a prolonged course with gradual improvement. We found no reports of systematic review of high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) findings in pediatric follicular bronchiolitis...
August 26, 2017: Pediatric Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28839957/high-flow-nasal-cannulae-for-acute-viral-bronchiolitis-in-young-infants-evidence-based-medicine-is-underway-to-define-target-populations-and-optimal-flows
#8
EDITORIAL
Gilles Cambonie, Marti Pons-Odena, Julien Baleine, Christophe Milési
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2017: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28839157/acute-respiratory-infections-in-hospitalized-children-in-vientiane-lao-pdr-the-importance-of-respiratory-syncytial-virus
#9
Van Hoan Nguyen, Audrey Dubot-Pérès, Fiona M Russell, David A B Dance, Keoudomphone Vilivong, Souphatsone Phommachan, Chanthaphone Syladeth, Jana Lai, Ruth Lim, Melinda Morpeth, Mayfong Mayxay, Paul N Newton, Hervé Richet, Xavier De Lamballerie
The Human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is one of the most important viral pathogens, causing epidemics of acute respiratory infection (ARI), especially bronchiolitis and pneumonia, in children worldwide. To investigate the RSV burden in Laos, we conducted a one-year study in children <5 years old admitted to Mahosot Hospital, Vientiane Capital, to describe clinical and epidemiological characteristics and predictive factors for severity of RSV-associated ARI. Pooled nasal and throat swabs were tested using multiplex real-time PCR for 33 respiratory pathogens (FTD(®) kit)...
August 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28831577/chest-radiographic-features-of-human-metapneumovirus-infection-in-pediatric-patients
#10
Melissa A Hilmes, F Daniel Dunnavant, Sudha P Singh, Wendy D Ellis, Daniel C Payne, Yuwei Zhu, Marie R Griffin, Kathryn M Edwards, John V Williams
BACKGROUND: Human metapneumovirus (HMPV) was identified in 2001 and is a common cause of acute respiratory illness in young children. The radiologic characteristics of laboratory-confirmed HMPV acute respiratory illness in young children have not been systematically assessed. OBJECTIVE: We systematically evaluated the radiographic characteristics of acute respiratory illness associated with HMPV in a prospective cohort of pediatric patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We included chest radiographs from children <5 years old with acute respiratory illness who were enrolled in the prospective New Vaccine Surveillance Network (NVSN) study from 2003 to 2009 and were diagnosed with HMPV by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR)...
August 22, 2017: Pediatric Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816919/enteral-nutrition-practices-in-critically-ill-children-requiring-noninvasive-positive-pressure-ventilation
#11
Matthew K Leroue, Ryan J Good, Heather E Skillman, Angela S Czaja
OBJECTIVES: Evaluate the practice of providing enteral nutrition in critically ill children requiring noninvasive positive pressure ventilation. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: PICU within a quaternary care children's hospital. PATIENTS: PICU patients older than 30 days requiring noninvasive positive pressure ventilation for greater than or equal to 24 hours from August 2014 to June 2015. Invasive mechanical ventilation prior to noninvasive positive pressure ventilation and inability to receive enteral nutrition at baseline were additional exclusionary criteria...
August 12, 2017: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814254/bronchiolitis-care-in-the-hospital
#12
Jennifer Orr Vincent, Huay-Ying Lo, Susan Wu
BACKGROUND: Viral bronchiolitis is a common cause of hospitalization in young children, but despite a variety of therapeutic options, the mainstay of treatment remains supportive care. OBJECTIVE: To examine the most recent evidence for supportive care measures and pharmacologic options in the treatment of bronchiolitis in the hospital setting Methods: MEDLINE search with expert medical librarian for publications on management and therapies for bronchiolitis Results: Evidence does not support the use of bronchodilators, racemic epinephrine, deep suctioning, systemic corticosteroids, or antibiotics in the absence of a concomitant bacterial infection, as these treatments do not change the course of illness or shorten length of stay (LOS)...
August 16, 2017: Reviews on Recent Clinical Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783078/respiratory-syncytial-virus-the-influence-of-serotype-and-genotype-variability-on-clinical-course-of-infection
#13
REVIEW
Silvia Vandini, Carlotta Biagi, Marcello Lanari
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) belongs to the recently defined Pneumoviridae family, Orthopneumovirus genus. It is the leading cause of acute bronchiolitis and one of the most common causes of infant viral death worldwide, with infection typically occurring as recurrent seasonal epidemics. There are two major RSV subtypes, A and B, and multiple genotypes, which can coexist during RSV epidemic season every year and result in different disease severity. Recently, new RSV genomic sequences and analysis of RSV genotypes have provided important data for understanding RSV pathogenesis...
August 6, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751483/respiratory-syncytial-virus-a-systematic-scientometric-analysis-of-the-global-publication-output-and-the-gender-distribution-of-publishing-authors
#14
Dörthe Brüggmann, Corinna Köster, Doris Klingelhöfer, Jan Bauer, Daniela Ohlendorf, Matthias Bundschuh, David A Groneberg
OBJECTIVE: Worldwide, the respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) represents the predominant viral agent causing bronchiolitis and pneumonia in children. To conduct research and tackle existing healthcare disparities, RSV-related research activities around the globe need to be described. Hence, we assessed the associated scientific output (represented by research articles) by geographical, chronological and socioeconomic criteria and analysed the authors publishing in the field by gender. Also, the 15 most cited articles and the most prolific journals were identified for RSV research...
July 26, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747496/parainfluenza-virus-5-piv5-expressing-wild-type-or-pre-fusion-respiratory-syncytial-virus-rsv-fusion-protein-protect-mice-and-cotton-rats-from-rsv-challenge
#15
Shannon I Phan, James R Zengel, Huiling Wei, Zhuo Li, Dai Wang, Biao He
Human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the leading cause of pediatric bronchiolitis and hospitalizations. RSV can also cause severe complications in elderly and immunocompromised individuals. There is no licensed vaccine. We previously generated a PIV5-vectored vaccine candidate expressing the RSV fusion protein (F) that was immunogenic and protective in mice. In this work, our goal was to improve the original vaccine candidate by modifying the PIV5 vector or by modifying the RSV-F antigen. We previously demonstrated that inserting a foreign gene at the PIV5 SH-HN junction or deleting PIV5 SH increased vaccine efficacy...
July 26, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695368/an-interaction-of-lps-and-rsv-infection-in-augmenting-the-ahr-and-airway-inflammation-in-mice
#16
Na Zhou, Wei Li, Luo Ren, Xiaohong Xie, Enmei Liu
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the leading cause of acute lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) in children under 5 years of age, especially infants with severe bronchiolitis. Our preliminary clinical experiments showed that bacterial colonization was commonly observed in children with virus-induced wheezing, particularly in those with recurrent wheezing, suggesting that bacterial colonization with an accompanying viral infection may contribute to disease severity. In most cases, RSV-infected infants were colonized with pathogenic bacteria (mainly Gram-negative bacteria)...
July 10, 2017: Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680946/etiology-seasonality-and-clinical-features-of-viral-respiratory-tract-infections-in-children-hospitalized-with-acute-bronchiolitis-a-single-center-study
#17
Şule Gökçe, Zafer Kurugöl, Güldane Koturoğlu, Candan Çiçek, Aslı Aslan
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the viral frequency, seasonality, and clinical and demographic features of patients hospitalized with acute bronchiolitis. A cross-sectional, descriptive study was performed in 316 infants younger than 2 years of age who were hospitalized for acute viral bronchiolitis. Respiratory tract infection agents were investigated with polymerase chain reaction (PCR). A total of 316 infants were included in this study. Of the 316 infants, at least one respiratory tract pathogen was detected in 75% (237/316)...
2017: Global Pediatric Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28679075/first-report-of-immunohistochemical-detection-of-peste-des-petit-ruminants-parainfluenza-3-and-respiratory-syncytial-viral-antigens-in-lungs-of-nigerian-goats
#18
Theophilus Aghogho Jarikre, Benjamin Obukowho Emikpe
This study determined the of involvement of PPR, PI3, and RS viruses in the pathology of caprine pneumonia across Nigeria. 150 goats were selected randomly. PI3 and RSV monoclonal antibodies and PPR polyclonal antibody were used for the immunolocalization of the antigens. Histologically, 61 of the goats had broncho-interstitial pneumonia, 25 had interstitial pneumonia, 42 had bronchopneumonia, 12 had bronchiolitis, and 10 were normal. PPR, PI3, and RS viral antigens were demonstrated in: intact and desquamated bronchial, bronchiolar epithelial cells, macrophages, leukocytes, pneumocytes, and giant cells...
July 5, 2017: Journal of Immunoassay & Immunochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28672069/the-heterogeneity-of-viral-bronchiolitis-a-lack-of-universal-consensus-definitions
#19
REVIEW
David G Hancock, Billie Charles-Britton, Dani-Louise Dixon, Kevin D Forsyth
Viral bronchiolitis is one of the most common hospital presentations in infancy and as such represents a major healthcare burden worldwide. However despite this, there are currently no effective targeted therapies nor can those infants at highest risk for developing severe disease or subsequent respiratory morbidity be predicted on initial hospital presentation. Current definitions of bronchiolitis in the published literature vary significantly in terms of the age range at presentation, specific clinical symptoms, causative virus, and the inclusion or exclusion of infants with previous presentations and/or various comorbidities...
September 2017: Pediatric Pulmonology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647745/early-halt-of-a-randomized-controlled-study-with-3-hypertonic-saline-in-acute-bronchiolitis
#20
Ania Carsin, Emilie Sauvaget, Violaine Bresson, Karine Retornaz, Maria Cabrera, Elisabeth Jouve, Romain Truillet, Emmanuelle Bosdure, Jean-Christophe Dubus
BACKGROUND: Albeit not recommended because of contradictory results, nebulized 3% hypertonic saline is widely used for treating acute viral bronchiolitis. Whether clinical differences may be attributed to the type of nebulizer used has never been studied. OBJECTIVES: By modifying the amount of salt deposited into the airways, the nebulizer characteristics might influence clinical response. METHODS: A prospective, randomized, controlled trial included infants hospitalized in a French university hospital for a first episode of bronchiolitis...
June 24, 2017: Respiration; International Review of Thoracic Diseases
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