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Motor neuron disease

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346650/persistence-of-zika-virus-after-birth-clinical-virological-neuroimaging-and-neuropathological-documentation-in-a-5-month-infant-with-congenital-zika-syndrome
#1
Leila Chimelli, Sheila Moura Pone, Elyzabeth Avvad-Portari, Zilton Farias Meira Vasconcelos, Andrea Araújo Zin, Daniela Prado Cunha, Nathalia Raposo Thompson, Maria Elisabeth Lopes Moreira, Clayton A Wiley, Marcos Vinicius da Silva Pone
During the Zika epidemic in Brazil, a baby was born at term with microcephaly and arthrogryposis. The mother had Zika symptoms at 10 weeks of gestation. At 17 weeks, ultrasound showed cerebral malformation and ventriculomegaly. At 24 weeks, the amniotic fluid contained ZIKV RNA and at birth, placenta and maternal blood were also positive using RT-qPCR. At birth the baby urine contained ZIKV RNA, whereas CSF at birth and urine at 17 days did not. Seizures started at 6 days. EEG was abnormal and CT scan showed cerebral atrophy, calcifications, lissencephaly, ventriculomegaly, and cerebellar hypoplasia...
January 13, 2018: Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344929/pla2g6-deficiency-in-zebrafish-leads-to-dopaminergic-cell-death-axonal-degeneration-increased-%C3%AE-synuclein-expression-and-defects-in-brain-functions-and-pathways
#2
Elena Sánchez, Luis J Azcona, Coro Paisán-Ruiz
This study aimed to gain insights into the pathophysiology underlying PLA2G6-associated neurodegeneration that is implicated in three different neurological disorders, suggesting that other, unknown genetic or environmental factors might contribute to its wide phenotypic expression. To accomplish this, we downregulated the function of pla2g6 in the zebrafish nervous system, performed parkinsonism-related phenotypic characterization, and determined the effects of gene regulation upon the loss of pla2g6 function by using RNA sequencing and downstream analyses...
January 17, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344865/isolation-of-distinct-types-of-neurons-from-fresh-brain-tissue-using-laser-microdissection-in-combination-with-high-performance-liquid-chromatography-mass-spectrometry
#3
Luisa Aring, Simone Steinbach, Katrin Marcus, Caroline May
Humans age and the ageing process affects cells in all areas of the human body, including nerve cells within the brain. With advancing age there is also a rise in the probability of developing a neurodegenerative disorder such as, e.g., amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Huntington's disease, Parkinson's disease, or Alzheimer's disease. In all these age-related neurodegenerative disorders, distinct neuron populations within specific brain regions are primarily affected. For example, Parkinson's disease is characterized by a slowly progressive degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra whereas the entorhinal cortex is first affected in Alzheimer's disease...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343210/prediction-of-structural-consequences-for-disease-causing-variants-in-c21orf2-protein-using-computational-approaches
#4
Shalini Iyer, K Ravi Acharya, Vasanta Subramanian
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), a progressive motor-neurone disease, affects individuals usually aged between 50 and 70 years. C21orf2, recently identified as the new ALS susceptibility gene, harbours rare missense mutations that cause this fatal disease. We used bioinformatics and molecular modelling approaches to study specific ALS-associated mutations in C21orf2. Both native and mutant structures of the protein obtained from homology modelling were analysed in detail to gain insights into the potential impact of these mutations on the protein structure and its function...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Biomolecular Structure & Dynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341898/induction-of-alpha-synuclein-pathology-in-the-enteric-nervous-system-of-the-rat-and-non-human-primate-results-in-gastrointestinal-dysmotility-and-transient-cns-pathology
#5
Fredric P Manfredsson, Kelvin C Luk, Matthew J Benskey, Aysegul Guezer, Joanna Garcia, Nathan C Kuhn, Ivette M Sandoval, Joseph R Patterson, Alana O'Mara, Reid Yonkers, Jeffrey H Kordower
Alpha-Synuclein (α-syn) is by far the most highly vetted pathogenic and therapeutic target in Parkinson's disease. Aggregated α-syn is present in sporadic Parkinson's disease, both in the central nervous system (CNS) and peripheral nervous system (PNS). The enteric division of the PNS is of particular interest because 1) gastric dysfunction is a key clinical manifestation of Parkinson's disease, and 2) Lewy pathology in myenteric and submucosal neurons of the enteric nervous system (ENS) has been referred to as stage zero in the Braak pathological staging of Parkinson's disease...
January 13, 2018: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340871/neurotoxicity-of-prosopis-juliflora-from-natural-poisoning-to-mechanism-of-action-of-its-piperidine-alkaloids
#6
Victor Diogenes Amaral da Silva, André Mario Mendes da Silva, Juliana Helena Castro E Silva, Silvia Lima Costa
Prosopis juliflora was introduced in northeastern Brazil in the 1940s, and since then, it has been available as an alternative for animal nutrition. However, the consumption of P. juliflora as main or sole source of food causes an illness in animals known locally as "cara torta" disease. Cattle and goats experimentally intoxicated presents neurotoxic damage in the central nervous system. Histologic lesions were mainly characterized by vacuolation and loss of neurons in trigeminal motor nuclei. Furthermore, mitochondrial damage in neurons and gliosis was reported in trigeminal nuclei of intoxicated cattle...
January 16, 2018: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339319/treatment-with-the-noradrenaline-re-uptake-inhibitor-atomoxetine-alone-and-in-combination-with-the-%C3%AE-2-adrenoceptor-antagonist-idazoxan-attenuates-loss-of-dopamine-and-associated-motor-deficits-in-the-lps-inflammatory-rat-model-of-parkinson-s-disease
#7
Justin D Yssel, Eoin O'Neill, Yvonne M Nolan, Thomas J Connor, Andrew Harkin
The impact of treatment with the noradrenaline (NA) re-uptake inhibitor atomoxetine and the α2-adrenoceptor (AR) antagonist idazoxan in an animal model of Parkinson's disease (PD) was assessed. Concurrent systemic treatment with atomoxetine and idazoxan, a combination which serves to enhance the extra-synaptic availability of NA, exerts anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects following delivery of an inflammatory stimulus, the bacterial endotoxin, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) into the substantia nigra. Lesion-induced deficits in motor function (akinesia, forelimb-use asymmetry) and striatal dopamine (DA) loss were rescued to varying degrees depending on the treatment...
January 12, 2018: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339106/safinamide-a-new-hope-for-parkinson-s-disease
#8
REVIEW
Fábio G Teixeira, Miguel F Gago, Paulo Marques, Pedro Silva Moreira, Ricardo Magalhães, Nuno Sousa, António J Salgado
The loss of dopaminergic neurons (DAn) and reduced dopamine (DA) production underlies the reasoning behind the gold standard treatment for Parkinson's disease (PD) using levodopa (L-DOPA). Recently licensed by the European Medicine Agency (EMA) and US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), safinamide [a monoamine oxidase B (MOA-B) inhibitor] is an alternative to L-DOPA; as we discuss here, it enhances dopaminergic transmission with decreased secondary effects compared with L-DOPA. In addition, nondopaminergic actions (neuroprotective effects) have been reported, with safinamide inhibiting glutamate release and sodium/calcium channels, reducing the excitotoxic input to dopaminergic neuronal death...
January 12, 2018: Drug Discovery Today
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339103/comparative-review-of-adult-midbrain-and-striatum-neurogenesis-with-classical-neurogenesis
#9
REVIEW
Parisa Farzanehfar
Parkinson's Disease (PD) motor symptoms are caused by loss of dopamine (DA) neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) of the midbrain. Dopamine cell replacement therapy (DA CRT), either by cell transplantation or endogenous repair, has been a potential treatment to replace dead cells and improve PD motor symptoms. Adult midbrain and striatum have been studied for many years to find evidence of neurogenesis. Although the literature is controversial, recent research has revived the possibility of neurogenesis here...
January 12, 2018: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338453/proteomic-serum-biomarkers-for-neuromuscular-diseases
#10
Sandra Murphy, Margit Zweyer, Rustam R Mundegar, Dieter Swandulla, Kay Ohlendieck
The clinical evaluation of neuromuscular symptoms often includes the assessment of altered blood proteins or changed enzyme activities. However, the blood concentration of many muscle-derived serum markers is not specific for different neuromuscular disorders and also shows alterations in the course of these diseases. Thus, the establishment of more reliable biomarker signatures for improved muscle diagnostics is required. Areas covered: To address the lack of muscle disease-specific marker molecules, mass spectrometry-based proteomics was applied to the systematic identification and biochemical characterization of new serum biomarker candidates...
January 17, 2018: Expert Review of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338380/transplantation-of-human-neural-progenitor-cells-reveals-structural-and-functional-improvements-in-the-spastic-han-wistar-rat-model-of-ataxia
#11
Ruslan L Nuryyev, Toni L Uhlendorf, Wesley Tierney, Suren Zatikyan, Oleg Kopyov, Alex Kopyov, Jessica Ochoa, William Van Trigt, Cindy S Malone, Randy W Cohen
The use of regenerative medicine to treat nervous system disorders like ataxia has been proposed to either replace or support degenerating neurons. In this study, we assessed the ability of human neural progenitor cells (hNPCs) to repair and restore the function of dying neurons within the spastic Han-Wistar rat (sHW), a model of ataxia. The sHW rat suffers from neurodegeneration of specific neurons, including cerebellar Purkinje cells and hippocampal CA3 pyramidal cells leading to the observed symptoms of forelimb tremor, hind-leg rigidity, gait abnormality, motor incoordination, and a shortened life span...
November 2017: Cell Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337233/tau-deficiency-down-regulated-transcription-factor-orthodenticle-homeobox-2-expression-in-the-dopaminergic-neurons-in-ventral-tegmental-area-and-caused-no-obvious-motor-deficits-in-mice
#12
Xiaolu Tang, Luyan Jiao, Meige Zheng, Yan Yan, Qi Nie, Ting Wu, Xiaomei Wan, Guofeng Zhang, Yonglin Li, Song Wu, Bin Jiang, Huaibin Cai, Pingyi Xu, Jinhai Duan, Xian Lin
Tau protein participates in microtubule stabilization, axonal transport, and protein trafficking. Loss of normal tau function will exert a negative effect. However, current knowledge on the impact of tau deficiency on the motor behavior and related neurobiological changes are controversial. In this study, we examined motor functions and analyzed several proteins implicated in the maintenance of midbrain dopaminergic (DA) neurons (mDANs) function of adult and aged tau+/+, tau+/-, tau-/- mice. We found tau deficiency could not induce significant motor disorders...
January 11, 2018: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337120/deriving-dorsal-spinal-sensory-interneurons-from-human-pluripotent-stem%C3%A2-cells
#13
Sandeep Gupta, Daniel Sivalingam, Samantha Hain, Christian Makkar, Enrique Sosa, Amander Clark, Samantha J Butler
Cellular replacement therapies for neurological conditions use human embryonic stem cell (hESC)- or induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC)-derived neurons to replace damaged or diseased populations of neurons. For the spinal cord, significant progress has been made generating the in-vitro-derived motor neurons required to restore coordinated movement. However, there is as yet no protocol to generate in-vitro-derived sensory interneurons (INs), which permit perception of the environment. Here, we report on the development of a directed differentiation protocol to derive sensory INs for both hESCs and hiPSCs...
January 9, 2018: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335339/inhibition-of-drp1-fis1-interaction-slows-progression-of-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis
#14
Amit U Joshi, Nay L Saw, Hannes Vogel, Anna D Cunnigham, Mehrdad Shamloo, Daria Mochly-Rosen
Bioenergetic failure and oxidative stress are common pathological hallmarks of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), but whether these could be targeted effectively for novel therapeutic intervention needs to be determined. One of the reported contributors to ALS pathology is mitochondrial dysfunction associated with excessive mitochondrial fission and fragmentation, which is predominantly mediated by Drp1 hyperactivation. Here, we determined whether inhibition of excessive fission by inhibiting Drp1/Fis1 interaction affects disease progression...
January 15, 2018: EMBO Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335072/rebound-excitability-mediates-motor-abnormalities-in-parkinson-s-disease
#15
Jeongjin Kim, Daesoo Kim
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a debilitating disorder resulting from loss of dopamine neurons. In dopamine deficient state, the basal ganglia increases inhibitory synaptic outputs to the thalamus. This increased inhibition by the basal ganglia output is known to reduce firing rate of thalamic neurons that relay motor signals to the motor cortex. This 'rate model' suggests that the reduced excitability of thalamic neurons is the key for inducing motor abnormalities in PD patients. We reveal that in response to inhibition, thalamic neurons generate rebound firing at the end of inhibition...
January 16, 2018: BMB Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334787/analysis-of-endocannabinoid-receptors-and-enzymes-in-the-post-mortem-motor-cortex-and-spinal-cord-of-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis-patients
#16
Francisco Espejo-Porras, Javier Fernández-Ruiz, Eva de Lago
OBJECTIVE: We have investigated the endocannabinoid system in the motor cortex of motor neuron disease (MND) patients. METHODS: Post-mortem samples from MND patients and controls were used for immunostaining and/or Western blotting analysis of endocannabinoid elements. RESULTS: We did not find any evidence of neuronal losses in the motor cortex of MND patients, but elevations in glial markers Iba-1 and GFAP were evident. We found no changes in FAAH and MAGL enzymes and in the CB1 receptor, which correlated with the lack of cortical neuron death...
January 15, 2018: Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and Frontotemporal Degeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332269/behavioral-biochemical-and-molecular-characterization-of-a-parkinson-s-disease-mouse-model-using-the-neurotoxin-2-ch3-mptp-a-novel-approach
#17
Alice Laschuk Herlinger, Agihane Rodrigues Almeida, Sarah Martins Presti-Silva, Evaldo Vitor Pereira, Filipe Andrich, Rita Gomes Wanderley Pires, Cristina Martins-Silva
The neurotoxin MPTP has long been used to create a mouse model of Parkinson's disease (PD). Indeed, several MPTP analogues have been developed, including 2'-CH3-MPTP, which was shown to induce nigrostriatal DA neuronal depletion more potently than MPTP. However, no study on behavioral and molecular alterations in response to 2'-CH3-MPTP has been carried out so far. In the present work, 2'-CH3-MPTP was administered to mice (2.5, 5.0 and 10 mg/kg per injection, once a day, 5 days) and histological, biochemical, molecular and behavioral alterations were evaluated...
January 13, 2018: Neuromolecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331501/incorporating-upper-motor-neuron-health-in-als-drug-discovery
#18
REVIEW
Ina Dervishi, P Hande Ozdinler
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a complex disease, affecting the motor neuron circuitry. After consecutive failures in clinical trials for the past 20 years, edaravone was recently approved as the second drug for ALS. This generated excitement in the field and revealed the need to improve preclinical assays for continued success. Here, we focus on the importance and relevance of upper motor neuron (UMN) pathology in ALS, and discuss how incorporation of UMN survival in preclinical assays will improve inclusion criteria for clinical trials and expedite the drug discovery effort in ALS and related motor neuron diseases...
January 10, 2018: Drug Discovery Today
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331395/tyrosine-hydroxylase-as-a-sentinel-for-central-and-peripheral-tissue-responses-in-parkinson-s-progression-evidence-from-clinical-studies-and-neurotoxin-models
#19
REVIEW
M E Johnson, M F Salvatore, S A Maiolo, L Bobrovskaya
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a common neurodegenerative disease worldwide. While the typical motor symptoms of PD are well known, the lesser known non-motor symptoms can also greatly impact the patient's quality of life. These symptoms often appear before motor impairment, therefore identifying biomarkers that may predict PD risk or pathology has been a major and challenging endeavour. Given that the loss of dopamine, and its rate-limiting enzyme tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) occurs in PD, the expression and accompanying post-translational changes in TH during PD progression could yield insight into the disruption of cellular signalling occurring in the CNS, and also in peripheral tissues wherein catecholamine function plays a role...
January 10, 2018: Progress in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331073/cerebrospinal-fluid-macrophage-biomarkers-in-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis
#20
A G Thompson, E Gray, M-L Thézénas, P D Charles, S Evetts, M T Hu, K Talbot, R Fischer, B M Kessler, M R Turner
Objective The neurodegenerative disease amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a heterogeneous clinical syndrome involving multiple molecular pathways. The development of biomarkers for use in therapeutic trials is a priority. We sought to use a high-throughput proteomic method to identify novel biomarkers in individual cerebrospinal fluid samples. Methods Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry with label-free quantification was used to identify cerebrospinal fluid proteins using samples from a well-characterised longitudinal cohort comprising patients with ALS (n=43), the upper motor neuron variant primary lateral sclerosis (PLS, n=6), cross-sectional healthy (n=20) and disease controls (Parkinsons's n=20, ALS mimic disorders n=12)...
January 13, 2018: Annals of Neurology
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