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Empyema in children

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29076932/evaluation-of-the-clinical-utility-of-a-real-time-pcr-assay-for-the-diagnosis-of-streptococcus-pneumoniae-bacteremia-in-children-a-retrospective-diagnostic-accuracy-study
#1
Jane Murphy, Sadhbh O' Rourke, Mary Corcoran, Nicola O' Sullivan, Robert Cunney, Richard Drew
BACKGROUND: The widespread uptake of pneumococcal vaccines has substantially reduced the incidence of invasive pneumococcal disease, such that pneumococcal bacteremia in children is now considered a relatively rare event. The objective of this study was to ascertain the clinical utility of a Streptococcus pneumoniae real-time PCR assay compared with standard blood culture for the diagnosis of pneumococcal bacteremia in children in the post-vaccine era. METHODS: A systematic retrospective review of laboratory and patient records from Children's University Hospital, Temple Street during a 6 year period was performed...
October 25, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29062248/evaluation-of-candida-species-and-antifungal-susceptibilities-among-children-with-invasive-candidiasis
#2
Murat Sütçü, Manolya Acar, Gonca Erköse Genç, İlknur Kökçü, Hacer Aktürk, Gürkan Atay, Selda Hançerli Törun, Nuran Salman, Zayre Erturan, Ayper Somer
AIM: Non-albicans Candida species and resistant microorganisms have been more commonly isolated in invasive candidiasis in recent years. The aim of this study was to evaluate the distrubution of Candida spp and antifungal resistance in our clinic. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Fifty-four Candida isolates and antifungal susceptibility results obtained from patients diagnosed as having invasive candidiasis between December 2012 and June 2016 were included. Clinical and laboratory data were retrospectively analyzed...
September 2017: Türk Pediatri Arşivi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28950425/pulmonary-presentation-of-kawasaki-disease-a-diagnostic-challenge
#3
Surjit Singh, Aman Gupta, Ankur Kumar Jindal, Anju Gupta, Deepti Suri, Amit Rawat, Pankaj C Vaidya, Meenu Singh
OBJECTIVES: Kawasaki disease (KD) is a multisystemic vasculitis with predominant mucocutaneous manifestations. Pulmonary involvement in KD is distinctly uncommon and is not commonly recognized. We describe our experience of managing children with KD wherein the initial presentation was predominantly pulmonary. METHODS: Six hundred and two children have been diagnosed with KD during the period January 1993 to May 2017 in the Allergy Immunology Unit, Advanced Pediatrics Centre, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh...
September 26, 2017: Pediatric Pulmonology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918242/predictive-value-of-thomsen-friedenreich-antigen-activation-for-streptococcus-pneumoniae-infection-and-severity-in-pediatric-lobar-pneumonia
#4
Chia-Jung Chang, Nan-Chang Chiu, Fu-Yuan Huang, Daniel Tsung-Ning Huang, Lung Chang, Ching-Ying Huang, Yen-Hsin Kung, Hsin Chi
BACKGROUND: Most cases of complicated pneumonia in children are caused by pneumococcal infections. Thomsen-Friedenreich antigen (TA) is present on erythrocytes, platelets and glomeruli, and it can be activated during pneumococcal infection. The aim of this study was to investigate the predictive value of TA activation for pneumococcal infection and association with the severity of complicated pneumonia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients with lobar pneumonia were routinely tested for TA at the Department of Pediatrics, Mackay Memorial Hospital from January 2010 to December 2015...
September 2, 2017: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology, and Infection, Wei Mian Yu Gan Ran za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28881517/-thoracoscopy-in-diagnosis-and-treatment-of-pleural-diseases-in-children
#5
M Chen, L L Zhong, H Huang, L Lin, H Y Deng, X F Ding, X Hu
Objective: To investigate the value of thoracoscopy in diagnosis and treatment of pleural diseases in children. Method: Clinical manifestations and treatment outcomes of 19 patients who had refractory pleural diseases treated with thoracosocy during May 2011 to August 2016 in Hunan Provincial People's Hospital were retrospectively analyzed. In 19 cases, 15 were male and 4 were female, with an average age of (4.8±2.0) years. Thirteen patients had left pleural lesion, while 5 patients had right lesion, and 1 had bilateral lesions...
September 2, 2017: Zhonghua Er Ke za Zhi. Chinese Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28844414/childhood-community-acquired-pneumonia-a-review-of-etiology-and-antimicrobial-treatment-studies
#6
REVIEW
Gerdien A Tramper-Stranders
Community acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a leading cause of childhood morbidity worldwide. Because of the rising antimicrobial resistance rates and adverse effects of childhood antibiotic use on the developing microbiome, rational prescribing of antibiotics for CAP is important. This review summarizes and critically reflects on the available evidence for the epidemiology, etiology and antimicrobial management of childhood CAP. Larger prospective studies on antimicrobial management derive mostly from low- or middle-income countries as they have the highest burden of CAP...
July 15, 2017: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28827049/the-effect-of-thoracoscopy-upon-the-repair-of-pectus-excavatum
#7
Nicole Mennie, Geoff Frawley, Joe Crameri, Sebastian K King
BACKGROUND/AIMS: The Nuss procedure is the most commonly performed operation to correct pectus excavatum (PE). Thoracoscopic assistance has been anecdotally noted to improve the safety of this operative approach. This study aimed to compare complications and clinical outcomes before and after the introduction of thoracoscopy in a single-center. METHODS: A retrospective review was performed of all patients who underwent the Nuss procedure at The Royal Children's Hospital over an 11-year period (2005-2015), collecting data on all intra-operative and post-operative outcomes...
July 31, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28781127/evolution-of-practice-in-the-management-of-parapneumonic-effusion-and-empyema-in-children
#8
D Griffith, M Boal, T Rogers
AIM: To assess the evolution in management of children with parapneumonic effusion and empyema in a tertiary referral centre. METHOD: We conducted a retrospective case note review of paediatric patients with parapneumonic effusion, pleural effusion and pleural empyema between December 2006 and December 2015. Digital database searches were performed to identify demographic data, referring hospital, radiological and microbiological investigations. Length of stay and morbidity were analysed...
July 24, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770121/necrotizing-pneumonia-an-emerging-problem-in-children
#9
REVIEW
I Brent Masters, Alan F Isles, Keith Grimwood
BACKGROUND: In children, necrotizing pneumonia (NP) is an uncommon, severe complication of pneumonia. It is characterized by destruction of the underlying lung parenchyma resulting in multiple small, thin-walled cavities and is often accompanied by empyema and bronchopleural fistulae. REVIEW: NP in children was first reported in children in 1994, and since then there has been a gradual increase in cases, which is partially explained by greater physician awareness and use of contrast computed tomography (CT) scans, and by temporal changes in circulating respiratory pathogens and antibiotic prescribing...
2017: Pneumonia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737622/changes-in-the-nature-and-severity-of-invasive-pneumococcal-disease-in-children-before-and-after-the-7-valent-and-13-valent-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccine-programs-in-calgary-canada
#10
Leah J Ricketson, Nicholas G Conradi, Otto G Vanderkooi, James D Kellner
BACKGROUND: Since the introduction of childhood pneumococcal conjugate vaccines, invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) incidence has decreased in children and the predominant serotypes causing disease have changed. This study describes changes in the clinical features of IPD in children (<18 years) before and after conjugate vaccine introduction. METHODS: The Calgary Area Streptococcus pneumoniae Epidemiology Research (CASPER) study collects information on all IPD cases in Calgary, Alberta, Canada...
July 20, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725562/pleural-empyema-and-streptococcal-toxic-shock-syndrome-due-to-streptococcus-pyogenes-in-a-healthy-spanish-traveler-in-japan
#11
Tetsuya Sakai, Daisuke Taniyama, Saeko Takahashi, Morio Nakamura, Takashi Takahashi
Group A Streptococcus (GAS, Streptococcus pyogenes) causes invasive infections including streptococcal toxic shock syndrome (STSS) and local infections. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a case of an invasive GAS infection with pneumonia and pleural empyema (PE) followed by STSS (disseminated intravascular coagulation [DIC] and acute renal insufficiency) in a healthy male adult. He received combined supportive therapies of PE drainage, anti-DIC agent, hemodialysis, and antimicrobials and eventually made a clinical recovery...
2017: IDCases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673074/pediatric-pleural-empyema-one-of-the-management-challenges-in-children-of-democratic-republic-of-congo
#12
Kibwe Alphonse Simbi, Valentin Kazadi, Louis-Marie Aissi, François Mbahewaka Katsuva, Numbi Oscar Luboya, Léon Tshilolo, Vincenzo Zanardo
Empyema is a serious complication characterized by purulent exudate and bacteria in the pleural space, which may progress to necrosis, cavitations or fistulas in the thoracic cavity. It remains a major challenge throughout low-income countries. Objectives were to emphasize the role of basic medical and radiologic approach and to resolve a severe lung complication when facilities are inadequate. A five-year-old female was referred with distress respiratory to the Emergency Unit of Monkole, a large public-private missionary hospital in Kinshasa, Congo...
June 23, 2017: La Pediatria Medica e Chirurgica: Medical and Surgical Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646887/intrapleural-dornase-and-tissue-plasminogen-activator-in-pediatric-empyema-dtpa-a-study-protocol-for-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#13
Michael H Livingston, Sanjay Mahant, Felix Ratjen, Bairbre L Connolly, Kevin Thorpe, Muhammad Mamdani, Ian Maclusky, Sophie Laberge, Lucy Giglia, J Mark Walton, Connie L Yang, Ashley Roberts, Anna C Shawyer, Mary Brindle, Simon J Parsons, Cristina A Stoian, Eyal Cohen
BACKGROUND: A randomized controlled trial of adults with empyema recently demonstrated decreased length of stay in hospital in patients treated with intrapleurally administered dornase alfa and fibrinolytics compared to fibrinolytics alone. Whether this treatment strategy is safe and effective in children remains unknown. METHODS/DESIGN: This study protocol is for a superiority, placebo-controlled, parallel-design, multicenter randomized controlled trial. The participants are previously well children admitted to a children's hospital with a diagnosis of empyema requiring chest tube insertion and fibrinolytics administered intrapleurally...
June 24, 2017: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626910/intravenous-and-intracavitary-use-of-contrast-enhanced-ultrasound-in-the-evaluation-and-management-of-complicated-pediatric-pneumonia
#14
Annamaria Deganello, Vasileios Rafailidis, Maria E Sellars, Aikaterini Ntoulia, Kleanthi Kalogerakou, Gary Ruiz, David O Cosgrove, Paul S Sidhu
Pediatric pneumonia can be complicated by necrotizing pneumonia or a parapneumonic effusion either in the form of an empyema or a clear effusion. Ultrasonography (US) and computed tomography represent well-established modalities for evaluation of complicated pediatric pneumonia. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) was recently introduced and is gaining increasing acceptance in pediatric imaging. In this case series, we present our initial experience with both intravenous and intracavitary use of CEUS in children with complicated pneumonia...
September 2017: Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine: Official Journal of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474099/a-three-step-diagnosis-of-pediatric-pneumonia-at-the-emergency-department-using-clinical-predictors-c-reactive-protein-and-pneumococcal-pcr
#15
Gabriel Alcoba, Kristina Keitel, Veronica Maspoli, Laurence Lacroix, Sergio Manzano, Mario Gehri, René Tabin, Alain Gervaix, Annick Galetto-Lacour
Recommendations for the management of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) advocate that, in the absence of the clinical and laboratory findings typical of bacterial CAP, antibiotics are not required. However, the true value of the clinical and laboratory predictors of pediatric CAP still needs to be assessed. This prospective cohort study in three emergency departments enrolled 142 children with radiological pneumonia. Pneumonia with lung consolidation was the primary endpoint; complicated pneumonia (bacteremia, empyema, or pleural effusion) was the secondary endpoint...
June 2017: European Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28468869/question-1-what-is-the-best-treatment-option-for-empyema-requiring-drainage-in-children
#16
Christopher William Course, Ruth Hanks, Iolo Doull
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2017: Archives of Disease in Childhood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28450195/evaluation-of-the-eazyplex-mrsa-assay-for-the-rapid-detection-of-staphylococcus-aureus-in-pleural-and-synovial-fluid
#17
D Henares, P Brotons, X Buyse, I Latorre, H D de Paz, C Muñoz-Almagro
OBJECTIVE: Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) is a simple and sensitive technique for rapid microbiological diagnosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the analytical and diagnostic performance of the LAMP eazyplex MRSA test for the direct detection and differentiation of methicillin-susceptible (MSSA) and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in synovial/pleural fluid. METHODS: Analytical validation included the determination of the limit of detection (LoD) and analytical specificity of the eazyplex MRSA test...
June 2017: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339727/rapid-decrease-in-rates-of-hospitalization-resulting-from-invasive-pneumococcal-disease-and-community-acquired-pneumonia-in-children-aged-60-months-after-13-valent-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccine-introduction-in-argentina
#18
Eduardo L López, Eduardo Glatstein, Gustavo C Ezcurra, Marisa Iacono, Eduardo Teplitz, Analía V Garnero, Daniela L Lazzarini, Miryan Vázquez, María M Contrini
Background.: In January 2012, Argentina included universal pneumococcal vaccination in the routine childhood vaccination program using a 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13). A 2 + 1 schedule (2 doses in the first year of life and a booster dose at 12 months of age) in children aged <2 years and 2-dose catch-up immunization in children aged 13 to 24 months was administered during the first year of vaccine introduction. The purpose of this study was to assess the burdens of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) and/or community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in hospitalized children younger than 5 years during the first 2 years of the program compared to those in the prevaccination period in our setting...
February 23, 2017: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28304084/surgical-versus-non-surgical-management-for-pleural-empyema
#19
REVIEW
Mark D Redden, Tze Yang Chin, Mieke L van Driel
BACKGROUND: Empyema refers to pus in the pleural space, commonly due to adjacent pneumonia, chest wall injury, or a complication of thoracic surgery. A range of therapeutic options are available for its management, ranging from percutaneous aspiration and intercostal drainage to video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) or thoracotomy drainage. Intrapleural fibrinolytics may also be administered following intercostal drain insertion to facilitate pleural drainage. There is currently a lack of consensus regarding optimal treatment...
March 17, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289673/chronic-suppurative-lung-disease-in-children-definition-and-spectrum-of-disease
#20
REVIEW
Gregory J Redding, Edward R Carter
The most common clinical suppurative lung conditions in children are empyema, lung abscess, and bronchiectasis, and to a less often necrotizing pneumonia. Until recently, bronchiectasis was the most common form of persistent suppurative lung disease in children. Protracted bacterial bronchitis is a newly described chronic suppurative condition in children, which is less persistent but more common than bronchiectasis (1). In addition, the term "chronic suppurative lung disease" has been used recently to describe the clinical features of bronchiectasis when the radiographic features needed to make a diagnosis of bronchiectasis are absent...
2017: Frontiers in Pediatrics
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