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NAD AND methylene blue

Semhar Ghirmai, Leif Bülow, Hiromi Sakai
Earlier studies have clarified that NADH and NADPH, re-energized repeatedly by red blood cell (RBC) glycolysis, can be used in extracellular chemical reactions, where electron energies are extracted by electron mediators, such as methylene blue (MB). The electron mediators, which are reduced by NAD(P)H, permeate both the membranes of RBC and phospholipid bilayer of liposomes encapsulating haemoglobin (Hb-vesicles, HbV) and reduce autoxidized ferric methemoglobin (metHb) in HbV to ferrous Hb. Moreover, in vitro screening study clarified some other potential electron mediators with comparable capacity to reduce metHb...
November 6, 2017: Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine, and Biotechnology
T Komlódi, L Tretter
Methylene blue (MB), a potential neuroprotective agent, is efficient in various neurodegenerative disease models. Beneficial effects of MB have been attributed to improvements in mitochondrial functions. Substrate-level phosphorylation (SLP) results in the production of ATP independent from the ATP synthase (ATP-ase). In energetically compromised mitochondria, ATP produced by SLP can prevent the reversal of the adenine nucleotide translocase and thus the hydrolysis of glycolytic ATP. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of MB on mitochondrial SLP catalysed by succinyl-CoA ligase...
September 1, 2017: Neuropharmacology
Jessica M Berthiaume, Chia-Heng Hsiung, Alison B Austin, Sean P McBrayer, Mikayla M Depuydt, Margaret P Chandler, Masaru Miyagi, Mariana G Rosca
Diabetic cardiomyopathy is preceded by mitochondrial alterations, and progresses to heart failure. We studied whether treatment with methylene blue (MB), a compound that was reported to serve as an alternate electron carrier within the mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC), improves mitochondrial metabolism and cardiac function in type 1 diabetes. MB was administered at 10 mg/kg/day to control and diabetic rats. Both echocardiography and hemodynamic studies were performed to assess cardiac function...
August 2017: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
Bohari Noor Aini, Shafiquzzaman Siddiquee, Kamaruzaman Ampon
Electrochemical biosensors are widely recognized in biosensing devices due to the fact that gives a direct, reliable, and reproducible measurement within a short period. During bio-interaction process and the generation of electrons, it produces electrochemical signals which can be measured using an electrochemical detector. A formaldehyde biosensor was successfully developed by depositing an ionic liquid (IL) (e.g., 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium trifluoromethanesulfonate ([EMIM][Otf])), gold nanoparticles (AuNPs), and chitosan (CHIT), onto a glassy carbon electrode (GCE)...
June 30, 2016: Biosensors
Xin-Chi Shi, Ya-Nan Zou, Yong Chen, Cheng Zheng, Bing-Bing Li, Jia-Hui Xu, Xiao-Ning Shen, Han-Jie Ying
BACKGROUND: Water-forming NADH oxidase can oxidize cytosolic NADH to NAD(+), thus relieving cytosolic NADH accumulation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Previous studies of the enzyme were conducted under aerobic conditions, as O2 is the recognized electron acceptor of the enzyme. In order to extend its use in industrial production and to study its effect on anaerobes, the effects of overexpression of this oxidase in S. cerevisiae BY4741 and Clostridium acetobutylicum 428 (Cac-428) under anaerobic conditions were evaluated...
2016: Biotechnology for Biofuels
Hani Atamna, Wafa Atamna, Ghaith Al-Eyd, Gregory Shanower, Joseph M Dhahbi
Methylene blue (MB) delays cellular senescence, induces complex-IV, and activates Keap1/Nrf2; however, the molecular link of these effects to MB is unclear. Since MB is redox-active, we investigated its effect on the NAD/NADH ratio in IMR90 cells. The transient increase in NAD/NADH observed in MB-treated cells triggered an investigation of the energy regulator AMPK. MB induced AMPK phosphorylation in a transient pattern, which was followed by the induction of PGC1α and SURF1: both are inducers of mitochondrial and complex-IV biogenesis...
December 2015: Redox Biology
Karin Kettisen, Leif Bülow, Hiromi Sakai
Developing a functional blood substitute as an alternative to donated blood for clinical use is believed to relieve present and future blood shortages, and to reduce the risks of infection and blood type mismatching. Hemoglobin vesicle (HbV) encapsulates a purified and concentrated human-derived Hb solution in a phospholipid vesicle (liposome). The in vivo safety and efficacy of HbV as a transfusion alternative have been clarified. Auto-oxidation of ferrous Hb in HbV gradually increases the level of ferric methemoglobin (metHb) and impairs the oxygen transport capabilities...
April 15, 2015: Bioconjugate Chemistry
Hiromi Sakai, Bing Li, Wei Lee Lim, Yumika Iga
Electron-energy-rich coenzymes in cells, NADH and NADPH, are re-energized repeatedly through the Embden-Meyerhof and pentose-phosphate glycolytic pathways, respectively. This study demonstrates extraction of their electron energies in red blood cells (RBCs) for in vivo extracellular chemical reactions using an electron mediator shuttling across the biomembrane. Hemoglobin-vesicles (HbVs) are an artificial oxygen carrier encapsulating purified and concentrated Hb solution in liposomes. Because of the absence of a metHb-reducing enzymatic system in HbV, HbO2 gradually autoxidizes to form metHb...
July 16, 2014: Bioconjugate Chemistry
Seo Young Shin, Tae Hyun Kim, Hongmin Wu, Young Hee Choi, Sang Geon Kim
Sirtuins maintain energy balance. Particularly, sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) activation mimics calorie restriction and nutrient utilization. However, no medications are available for the up-regulation of SIRT1. Methylene blue (MB) had been in clinical trials for the treatment of neurological diseases. This study investigated the effect of MB on sirtuin expression in association with the treatment of steatosis and steatohepatitis, and explored the underlying basis. The effects of MB on mitochondrial function, molecular markers, pharmacokinetics, and histopathology were assessed using hepatocyte and/or mouse models...
March 15, 2014: European Journal of Pharmacology
Huayu Yi, Wenju Xu, Yali Yuan, Yongmei Wu, Yaqin Chai, Ruo Yuan
In the present study, a sensitive electrochemical aptasensor based on exonuclease-catalyzed target recycling and enzyme-catalysis was developed for thrombin (TB) detection. Firstly, the alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) was abundantly embedded in the 3-(mercaptopropyl)trimethoxysilane (MPTS) sol with a 3-D network that exhibited tunable porosity and high thermal stability. ADH, as an alcohol oxidase, catalyzed the conversation of alcohol into acetaldehyde coupling with the production of NADH in the presence of NAD(+)...
September 15, 2013: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
Zhijie Wang, Mathieu Etienne, Veronika Urbanova, Gert-Wieland Kohring, Alain Walcarius
A reagentless D-sorbitol biosensor based on NAD-dependent D-sorbitol dehydrogenase (DSDH) immobilized in a sol-gel carbon nanotubes-poly(methylene green) composite has been developed. It was prepared by durably immobilizing the NAD(+) cofactor with DSDH in a sol-gel thin film on the surface of carbon nanotubes functionalized with poly(methylene green). This device enables selective determination of D-sorbitol at 0.2 V with a sensitivity of 8.7 μA mmol(-1) L cm(-2) and a detection limit of 0.11 mmol L(-1). Moreover, this biosensor has excellent operational stability upon continuous use in hydrodynamic conditions...
April 2013: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
Richard K Haynes, Kwan-Wing Cheu, Ho-Wai Chan, Ho-Ning Wong, Ka-Yan Li, Maggie Mei-Ki Tang, Min-Jiao Chen, Zu-Feng Guo, Zhi-Hong Guo, Kumar Sinniah, Amanda B Witte, Paolo Coghi, Diego Monti
Artemisinins are proposed to act in the malaria parasite cytosol by oxidizing dihydroflavin cofactors of redox-active flavoenzymes, and under aerobic conditions by inducing their autoxidation. Perturbation of redox homeostasis coupled with the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) ensues. Ascorbic acid-methylene blue (MB), N-benzyl-1,4-dihydronicotinamide (BNAH)-MB, BNAH-lumiflavine, BNAH-riboflavin (RF), and NADPH-FAD-E. coli flavin reductase (Fre) systems at pH 7.4 generate leucomethylene blue (LMB) and reduced flavins that are rapidly oxidized in situ by artemisinins...
December 2012: ChemMedChem
Diego G Arias, Erika L Regner, Alberto A Iglesias, Sergio A Guerrero
BACKGROUND: Entamoeba histolytica, an intestinal protozoan that is the causative agent of amoebiasis, is exposed to elevated amounts of highly toxic reactive oxygen and nitrogen species during tissue invasion. Thioredoxin reductase catalyzes the reversible transfer of reducing equivalents between NADPH and thioredoxin, a small protein that plays key metabolic functions in maintaining the intracellular redox balance. METHODS: The present work deals with in vitro steady state kinetic studies aimed to reach a better understanding of the kinetic and structural properties of thioredoxin reductase from E...
December 2012: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Yasushi Hasebe, Yue Wang, Kazuya Fukuoka
Poly(pheniothiazine) films were prepared on a porous carbon felt (CF) electrode surface by an electrooxidative polymerization of three phenothiazine derivatives (i.e.,Tthionine (TN), Toluidine Blue (TB) and Methylene Blue (MB)) from 0.1 mol/L phosphate buffer solution (pH 7.0). Among the three phenothiazies, the poly(TB) film-modified CF exhibited an excellent electrocatalytic activity for the oxidation of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide reduced form (NADH) at +0.2 V vs. Ag/AgCl. The poly(TB) film-modified CF was successfully used as working electrode unit of highly sensitive amperometric flow-through detector for NADH...
2011: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
Richard K Haynes, Kwan-Wing Cheu, Ka-Yan Li, Maggie Mei-Ki Tang, Ho-Ning Wong, Min-Jiao Chen, Zu-Feng Guo, Zhi-Hong Guo, Paolo Coghi, Diego Monti
Artemisinins rapidly oxidize leucomethylene blue (LMB) to methylene blue (MB); they also oxidize dihydroflavins such as the reduced conjugates RFH₂ of riboflavin (RF), and FADH₂ of the cofactor flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD), to the corresponding flavins. Like the artemisinins, MB oxidizes FADH₂, but unlike artemisinins, it also oxidizes NAD(P)H. Like MB, artemisinins are implicated in the perturbation of redox balance in the malaria parasite by interfering with parasite flavoenzyme disulfide reductases...
September 5, 2011: ChemMedChem
Nandi Zhou, Joshua R Windmiller, Gabriela Valdés-Ramírez, Ming Zhou, Jan Halámek, Evgeny Katz, Joseph Wang
We report on the development of a rapid enzyme logic gate-based electrochemical assay for the assessment of traumatic brain injury (TBI). The concept harnesses a biocatalytic cascade that emulates the functionality of a Boolean NAND gate in order to process relevant physiological parameters in the biochemical domain. The enzymatic backbone ensures that a high-fidelity diagnosis of traumatic brain injury can be tendered in a rapid fashion when the concentrations of key serum-based biomarkers reach pathological levels...
October 3, 2011: Analytica Chimica Acta
Rosalba A Rincón, Carolin Lau, Heather R Luckarift, Kristen E Garcia, Emily Adkins, Glenn R Johnson, Plamen Atanassov
One of the key goals of enzymatic biofuel cells research has been the development of a fully enzymatic biofuel cell that operates under a continuous flow-through regime. Here, we present our work on achieving this task. Two NAD(+)-dependent dehydrogenase enzymes; malate dehydrogenase (MDH) and alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) were independently coupled with poly-methylene green (poly-MG) catalyst for biofuel cell anode fabrication. A fungal laccase that catalyzes oxygen reduction via direct electron transfer (DET) was used as an air-breathing cathode...
September 15, 2011: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
Richard K Haynes, Wing-Chi Chan, Ho-Ning Wong, Ka-Yan Li, Wai-Keung Wu, Kit-Man Fan, Herman H Y Sung, Ian D Williams, Davide Prosperi, Sergio Melato, Paolo Coghi, Diego Monti
The antimalarial drug methylene blue (MB) affects the redox behaviour of parasite flavin-dependent disulfide reductases such as glutathione reductase (GR) that control oxidative stress in the malaria parasite. The reduced flavin adenine dinucleotide cofactor FADH(2) initiates reduction to leucomethylene blue (LMB), which is oxidised by oxygen to generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) and MB. MB then acts as a subversive substrate for NADPH normally required to regenerate FADH(2) for enzyme function. The synergism between MB and the peroxidic antimalarial artemisinin derivative artesunate suggests that artemisinins have a complementary mode of action...
August 2, 2010: ChemMedChem
Anne E Blackwell, Michael J Moehlenbrock, Jacob R Worsham, Shelley D Minteer
This paper details the comparison of different electropolymerized thiazine electrocatalysts for NADH oxidation. Electropolymerized thiazines have been shown to be electrocatalysts for NADH, but no comprehensive comparison of their properties in the same environment has been performed. The electropolymerization and electrocatalysis is very dependent on chemical and electrochemical environment, so the thiazines (methylene green, methylene blue, toluidine blue, azure a, azure b, and azure c) were all electropolymerized in the same chemical and electrochemical environment and tested for NADH electrocatalysis...
March 2009: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
Yuqing Lin, Ningning Zhu, Ping Yu, Lei Su, Lanqun Mao
This study demonstrates a new electroanalytical method with a high physiological relevance for simultaneous online monitoring of glucose and lactate in the striatum of the rat brain following global cerebral ischemia/reperfusion. The online analytical method is based on the efficient integration of in vivo microdialysis sampling with an online selective electrochemical detection with the electrochemical biosensors with dehydrogenases, i.e., glucose and lactate dehydrogenases, as recognition elements. The dehydrogenase-based electrochemical biosensors are developed onto the dual split-disk plastic carbon film (SPCF) electrodes with methylene green (MG) adsorbed onto single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) as the electrocatalyst for the oxidation of dihydronicotiamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) at a low potential of 0...
March 15, 2009: Analytical Chemistry
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