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elderly population

Hui Zhao, Nainan Hei, Yiling Wu, Winston Chan, Xiudong Lei, Carrie Cameron, Shine Chang, Mariana Chavez-MacGregor, Sharon H Giordano
BACKGROUND: The National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project B35 and International Breast Cancer Intervention Studies II Ductal Carcinoma In Situ trials showed similar treatment effects of anastrozole and tamoxifen in reducing cancer recurrence risk among ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) patients. Studies have shown low levels of hormone therapy drug initiation for DCIS patients, but the current body of literature lacks information on the 5-year adherence rates for these drugs from population-based studies...
October 25, 2016: Cancer
Shu-Fang Chang
PURPOSE: We investigated the relationships among geriatric syndrome, physiological functions, and body composition in community-dwelling older people with varying nutritional statuses. Other factors correlated with nutritional status in community-dwelling older people were also explored. BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization has initiated preventive programs for addressing malnutrition. However, few studies have focused on the correlations among geriatric syndrome, physiological functions, and body composition in older people at risk of malnutrition...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Nursing Scholarship
Lori L Jervis, William Sconzert-Hall
The problem of how to conceptualize elder mistreatment goes back several decades, and is especially important for ethnic minority populations, who may have perspectives that differ from the dominant society. This Community Based Participatory Research study, which examined perceptions of mistreatment by family among 100 urban and rural older American Indians, permits a rare glimpse into how Native elders themselves understand this issue. Here, good treatment was conceptualized in terms of being taken care of, having one's needs met, and being respected...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Elder Abuse & Neglect
Jennifer E Isenor, Jessica L Killen, Beverly A Billard, Shelly A McNeil, Donna MacDougall, Beth A Halperin, Kathryn L Slayter, Susan K Bowles
BACKGROUND: Annual immunization is the most effective way to prevent influenza and its associated complications. However, optimal immunization rates are not being met in Nova Scotia, Canada. Additional providers, such as pharmacists, may improve access and convenience to receive vaccines. Pharmacists began immunizing patients 5 years of age and older within the publicly funded universal influenza vaccination program during the 2013-2014 influenza season. The objective of this study was to evaluate influenza immunization coverage rates before and after pharmacists in Nova Scotia gained authority to immunize as part of the publicly funded universal influenza vaccination program...
2016: Journal of Pharmaceutical Policy and Practice
Annie Y Lam, Juliet K Nguyen, Jason J Parks, Donald E Morisky, Donna L Berry, Seth E Wolpin
OBJECTIVES: To test the effect of "Talking Pill Bottles" on medication self-efficacy, knowledge, adherence, and blood pressure readings among hypertensive patients with low health literacy and to assess patients' acceptance of this innovation. DESIGN: Longitudinal nonblinded randomized trial with standard treatment and intervention arms. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Two community pharmacies serving an ethnically diverse population in the Pacific Northwest...
October 21, 2016: Journal of the American Pharmacists Association: JAPhA
Sapan H Shah, Brian E Schwartz, Aaron R Schwartz, Benjamin A Goldberg, Samuel J Chmell
The rate of total knee arthroplasty (TKA) utilization in younger patients (< 65 years old) is increasing. Little is known regarding demographics and in-hospital outcomes in this population. The National Hospital Discharge Survey (NHDS) database was searched using International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision (ICD-9) procedure codes for patients admitted to U.S. hospitals for unilateral primary TKA between 2001 and 2010. Patients were separated into young (< 65 years of age) and senior cohorts (≥ 65 years of age)...
October 24, 2016: Journal of Knee Surgery
Line Lisbeth Olesen, Andreas Andersen
AIMS: Due to the demographic development there is an increasing number of senior citizens with left ventricular systolic dysfunction (LVSD), defined as ejection fraction (EF) < 40%. Unfortunately there are under-diagnosis and under-treatment in the elderly of this serious condition. Echocardiography is the gold standard to diagnose LVSD, but access is limited. Simple screening methods may ensure reduction of undetected cases, and this study investigates if electrocardiogram (ECG) can be used to screen for LVSD in the geriatric population...
March 2016: ESC Heart Failure
Andreas Herweg, Julian Gutzeit, Sonja Kleih, Andrea Kübler
Tactile event-related potential (ERP) controlled brain-computer-interfaces (BCI) are rarely used as input signal due to their low accuracy and speed (information transfer rate, ITR). Age-related loss of tactile sensibility might further decrease their viability for the target population of BCI. In this study we investigated whether training improves tactile ERP-BCI performance within a virtual wheelchair navigation task. Elderly subjects participated in 5 sessions and tactors were placed at legs, abdomen and back...
October 20, 2016: Biological Psychology
Guido Grassi, Fosca Quarti-Trevano, Anna Casati, Raffaella Dell'Oro
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Detection of elevated blood pressure values in elderly patients represents a common clinical condition associated with an increased cardiovascular risk. This has been shown to be the case in both systodiastolic and isolated systolic hypertension as well. However, despite the evidence of the benefits of the blood pressure lowering intervention in terms of reduction of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, at least two issues related to antihypertensive drug treatment in aged individuals are still undefined: (1) the blood pressure threshold at which antihypertensive drug should be initiated and (2) the blood pressure goals of the therapeutic intervention...
December 2016: Current Atherosclerosis Reports
Adela Brahimaj, Taulant Muka, Maryam Kavousi, Joop S E Laven, Abbas Dehghan, Oscar H Franco
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Previous literature documents controversial results for the impact of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) in glucose metabolism. We aimed to assess the associations between serum levels of DHEA and its main derivatives DHEA sulphate (DHEAS) and androstenedione, as well as the ratio of DHEAS to DHEA, and risk of type 2 diabetes. METHODS: We used data on serum levels of DHEA, DHEAS and androstenedione from 5189 middle-aged and elderly men and women from the prospective population-based Rotterdam Study...
October 22, 2016: Diabetologia
Esmeralda Castillo-Rodriguez, Raul Fernandez-Prado, Catalina Martin-Cleary, Maria Soledad Pizarro-Sánchez, Maria Dolores Sanchez-Niño, Ana Belen Sanz, Beatriz Fernandez-Fernandez, Alberto Ortiz
The current categorization of chronic kidney disease (CKD) is based on biomarkers of the glomerular function (estimated glomerular filtration rate, eGFR) and injury (urinary albumin creatinine ratio, UACR) and provides information on the risk of death and of progression of kidney disease. However, there are gaps in knowledge regarding the risk stratification of elderly patients with eGFR 45-60 ml/min/1.73 m2 and of younger patients with higher eGFR but physiological albuminuria. In this regard, most of the kidney cell mass is composed of tubules...
October 22, 2016: Nephron
Jiangjun Hui, Gaifeng Feng, Caifeng Zheng, Hui Jin, Ning Jia
Alzheimer's disease (AD), the most common neurodegenerative disorder that gradually destroys memory and cognitive abilities in the elderly, makes a huge emotional and economic burden on the patients and their families. The presence of senile plaques and the loss of cholinergic neurons in the brain are two neuropathological hallmarks of AD. Maternal separation (MS) is an animal paradigm designed to make early life stress. Studies on wild type rodents showed that MS could induce AD-like cognitive deficit and pathological changes...
October 19, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
Samah Nassereddine, Taiga Nishihori, Eric Padron, Rami Mahfouz, Ali Bazarbachi, Rami S Komrokji, Mohamed A Kharfan-Dabaja
Myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) is a heterogeneous group of clonal hematopoietic neoplastic disorders most commonly occurring in the elderly population; MDS has a tendency to progress to acute leukemia. Although epigenetic therapies have improved the outcomes of MDS patients, allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation remains the only curative option. Molecular characterization of MDS using next-generation sequencing has expanded not only the knowledge on MDS but also the depth of understanding of evolution and contribution of recurrent somatic mutations in precursor conditions...
September 16, 2016: Clinical Lymphoma, Myeloma & Leukemia
Juan José Palacios, Yurena Navarro, Beatriz Romero, Ana Penedo, Ángela Menéndez González, M Dolores Pérez Hernández, Ana Fernández-Verdugo, Francisca Copano, Aurora Torreblanca, Emilio Bouza, Lucas Domínguez, Lucía de Juan, Darío García-de-Viedma
Human Mycobacterium bovis infections are considered to be due to reactivations, when involve elderly people, or to recent transmissions, when exposure is occupational. We determined the cause of M. bovis infections by genotyping M. bovis isolates in a population-based study integrating human and animal databases. Among the 1,586 tuberculosis (TB) cases in Asturias, Northern Spain (1,080,000 inhabitants), 1,567 corresponded to M. tuberculosis and 19 to M. bovis. The number of human isolates sharing genotype with cattle isolates was higher than expected (47%) for a setting with low prevalence of bovine TB and efficient control programs in cattle...
November 15, 2016: Veterinary Microbiology
Taulant Muka, Lauren C Blekkenhorst, Joshua R Lewis, Richar L Prince, Nicole S Erler, Albert Hofman, Oscar H Franco, Fernando Rivadeneira, Jessica C Kiefte-de Jong
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to study whether dietary fat composition (n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids ratio (PUFAs) and PUFAs and saturated fatty acids (SFAs) ratio) is associated with total body fat (TF) and body fat distribution and whether this association was modified by the presence of chronic disease in middle-aged and elderly women in two population-based cohorts in the Netherlands and Australia. METHODS: The study was performed in the Rotterdam Study (RS), a prospective cohort study among subjects aged 55 years and older (N = 1182 women) and the Calcium Intake Fracture Outcome Study (CAIFOS), a 5-year randomized controlled trial among women age 70+ (N = 891)...
September 28, 2016: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
Qiang Zeng, Yang Ni, Guohong Jiang, Guoxing Li, Xiaochuan Pan
Years of life lost (YLL) is a more informative and accurate indicator than daily death counts for assessing air pollution related premature death. However, there is limited evidence available about the relationship of air pollution with YLL, especially in China. We conducted a ten-year (from January 1st, 2001 to December 31st, 2010) multi-district time-series study to estimate the effects of ambient particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of less than 10 μm in size (PM10) on daily non-accidental deaths and YLL in six districts of Tianjin, China...
October 18, 2016: Environmental Pollution
Shawneequa L Callier, Rachel Abudu, Maxwell J Mehlman, Mendel E Singer, Duncan Neuhauser, Charlisse Caga-Anan, Georgia L Wiesner
PURPOSE: This review identifies the prominent topics in the literature pertaining to the ethical, legal, and social issues (ELSI) raised by research investigating personalized genomic medicine (PGM). METHODS: The abstracts of 953 articles extracted from scholarly databases and published during a 5-year period (2008-2012) were reviewed. A total of 299 articles met our research criteria and were organized thematically to assess the representation of ELSI issues for stakeholders, health specialties, journals, and empirical studies...
November 2016: Bioethics
Hideto Ohtsuki, Masayoshi Kawakami, Tetsuji Kawakami, Kazuya Takahashi, Tadaaki Kirita, Yutaka Komasa
OBJECTIVE: Osteoporosis has become a critical public health problem with the rapidly aging population in Japan. It is necessary for dentists to know their patients' status because it influences dental treatment. The purpose of this study was to predict the risk of osteoporosis in elderly patients visiting a dental clinic by assessing mandibular cortical morphology on panoramic radiographs. METHOD: Three-hundred and thirty patients were divided into three classes based on the morphology of their mandibular cortex on panoramic radiographs...
October 21, 2016: International Dental Journal
Keishi Mizuguchi, Hiroshi Minato, Hitomi Onishi, Yuki Mitani, Jun Kawai
Primary pulmonary neoplasms of the Ewing family of tumors (EFT) are extremely rare and usually occur in adolescents or young adults. Only about 40 cases of pulmonary EFT have been reported in English literature, and no cytological studies have been documented. In this report, we describe the cytopathological findings of a primary pulmonary EFT in an elderly patient. A 70-year-old man sought care because of a progressing cough and dyspnea. Chest computed tomography revealed a circumscribed mass of 6 cm in the left upper lobe...
September 2016: Thoracic Cancer
Jayita De, Anne P F Wand, Peter I Smerdely, Glenn E Hunt
OBJECTIVE: To measure the diagnostic accuracy of the 4A's test in screening for delirium in geriatric inpatients from culturally diverse backgrounds. METHODS: A prospective study was conducted with patients admitted to the geriatric and orthogeriatric services of a tertiary teaching hospital. Consenting participants aged 65 years and over were screened for delirium with the 4AT by nursing staff within 72 h of admission. The diagnosis of delirium was made separately by expert assessors, responsible for the participant's clinical care, blinded to the 4AT score, within 30 min of the 4AT assessment using the DSM 5 criteria and the Confusion Assessment Method...
October 20, 2016: International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
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