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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786672/the-impacts-of-spatiotemporal-landscape-changes-on-water-quality-in-shenzhen-china
#1
Zhenhuan Liu, Haiyan Yang
The urban landscape in China has changed rapidly over the past four decades, which has led to various environmental consequences, such as water quality degradation at the regional scale. To improve water restoration strategies and policies, this study assessed the relationship between water quality and landscape change in Shenzhen, China, using panel regression analysis. The results show that decreases in natural and semi-natural landscape compositions have had significant negative effects on water quality...
May 22, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785569/association-between-firearm-laws-and-homicide-in-urban-counties
#2
Cassandra K Crifasi, Molly Merrill-Francis, Alex McCourt, Jon S Vernick, Garen J Wintemute, Daniel W Webster
Laws related to the sale, use, and carrying of firearms have been associated with differences in firearm homicide rates at the state level. Right-to-carry (RTC) and stand your ground (SYG) laws are associated with increases in firearm homicide; permit-to-purchase (PTP) laws and those prohibiting individuals convicted of violent misdemeanors (VM) have been associated with decreases in firearm homicide. Evidence for the effect of comprehensive background checks (CBC) not tied to PTP is inconclusive. Because firearm homicide tends to concentrate in urban areas, this study was designed to test the effects of firearm laws on homicide in large, urban U...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785478/changing-trend-of-infectious-diseases-in-nepal
#3
Shiba Kumar Rai
Many infectious/communicable diseases (IDs) are endemic in Nepal. Until a decade and half ago, IDs were the major cause of both morbidity and mortality accounting 70% for both. However, as a result of various preventive measures implemented by both the state and non-state actors, the overall IDs have shown a changing (declining) trend. The most impressive decline has been seen in the intestinal helminth infection. Though the overall burden of IDs is decreasing, several newer infectious diseases (emerging infections) namely, dengue fever, scrub typhus, influenza (H5N1 and H1N1), and others are posing a great public health problem...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785148/the-use-of-augmented-reality-glasses-in-central-line-simulation-see-one-simulate-many-do-one-competently-and-teach-everyone
#4
Cynthia Y Huang, Jonathan B Thomas, Abdullah Alismail, Avi Cohen, Waleed Almutairi, Noha S Daher, Michael H Terry, Laren D Tan
Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of using augmented reality (AR) glasses in central line simulation by novice operators and compare its efficacy to standard central line simulation/teaching. Design: This was a prospective randomized controlled study enrolling 32 novice operators. Subjects were randomized on a 1:1 basis to either simulation using the augmented virtual reality glasses or simulation using conventional instruction...
2018: Advances in Medical Education and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784550/school-environmental-conditions-and-links-to-academic-performance-and-absenteeism-in-urban-mid-atlantic-public-schools
#5
J D Berman, M C McCormack, K A Koehler, F Connolly, D Clemons-Erby, M F Davis, C Gummerson, P J Leaf, T D Jones, F C Curriero
School facility conditions, environment, and perceptions of safety and learning have been investigated for their impact on child development. However, it is important to consider how the environment separately influences academic performance and attendance after controlling for school and community factors. Using results from the Maryland School Assessment, we considered outcomes of school-level proficiency in reading and math plus attendance and chronic absences, defined as missing 20 or more days, for grades 3-5 and 6-8 at 158 urban schools...
May 2, 2018: International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783962/predictors-of-weight-stigma-experienced-by-middle-older-aged-general-practice-patients-with-obesity-in-disadvantaged-areas-of-australia-a-cross-sectional-study
#6
Catherine Spooner, Upali W Jayasinghe, Nighat Faruqi, Nigel Stocks, Mark F Harris
BACKGROUND: Rates of obesity have increased globally and weight stigma is commonly experienced by people with obesity. Feeling stigmatised because of one's weight can be a barrier to healthy eating, physical activity and to seeking help for weight management. The aim of this study was to identify predictors of perceived weight among middle-older aged patients with obesity attending general practices in socioeconomically disadvantaged urban areas of Australia. METHODS: As part of a randomised clinical trial in Australia, telephone interviews were conducted with 120 patients from 17 general practices in socioeconomically disadvantaged of Sydney and Adelaide...
May 21, 2018: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783880/ethnography-of-a-parasite-a-quantitative-ethnographic-observation-of-forest-malaria-in-the-amazon-basin
#7
Alejandro Feged-Rivadeneira, Sian Evans
AIMS: Malaria in the Amazon basin is persistently more prevalent among low density populations (1-4 people/[Formula: see text]). Describing malaria transmission in small populations, such as ethnic minorities in the Amazon basin, living in reserves in groups that amount to 110-450 individuals, is fundamental for the implementation of adequate interventions. Here, we examine malaria transmission in a context of high prevalence in a small population of Nükak ethnicity (ethnic group [Formula: see text] individuals, study group, [Formula: see text] individuals) living in the peri-urban area of a city with [Formula: see text] inhabitants in the Amazon basin...
May 1, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783261/epidemiology-of-acute-myocardial-infarction-in-ukraine-and-poltava-region
#8
Viacheslav M Zhdan, Grigory А Oksak, Oleh V Radomskyi, Denis I Shaposhnikov
OBJECTIVE: Introduction: The number of elderly people in society is increasing. Alike in all European countries, ageing population in Ukraine is observed, which affects the structure and dynamics of morbidity and mortality of the population towards the increase of chronic non-communicable diseases, which is the epidemic of the 21st century civilization. In 2010 in Ukraine, the proportion of people over the age of 60 was 20.6% of the total. The prevalence of all diseases among the elderly in 2010 amounted to 283522,8, and among the general population - 186746,4...
2018: Wiadomości Lekarskie: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783213/-socioecological-features-of-the-epidemiology-of-sarcoidosis-in-the-poltava-region-ukraine
#9
Dmytro M Boiko, Volodymyr H Pecherytsia, Oksana S Boiko, Svitlana M Kulyk
OBJECTIVE: Introduction: Lung sarcoidosis is a systemic granulomatous disease that can affect various organs and systems of a person. Due to the lack of a uniform standardized approach to the diagnosis of sarcoidosis, the epidemiological pattern is heterogeneous and depends on many factors. The aim: To investigate the correlation between the number of patients with sarcoidosis among the population of the Poltava region (Ukraine) and the ecological characteristics of the industrial activity of the region in comparison with the data on the availability of subspecialists in respiratory diseases...
2018: Wiadomości Lekarskie: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783054/application-of-indices-to-evaluate-lid-facilities-for-sediment-and-heavy-metal-removal
#10
Sher Bahadur Gurung, Franz Kevin Geronimo, Jungsun Hong, Lee-Hyung Kim
Heavy metal and sediments transported from the urban catchment are the prime interest among researchers these days due to its toxic behaviour and hazardous effect on the animals, plants and human. The inflow from urban catchments and outflow from the Low impact development technologies (LID) were evaluated using different types of indices. Indices like fd , fp and Kd showed that heavy metals like Pb, Cd and Ni were dominantly observed in the dissolved form. These metals possess higher threat to the water bodies receiving urban runoff without any treatments...
May 14, 2018: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782937/health-disparities-among-children-with-asthma-in-the-u-s-by-place-of-residence
#11
Patrick W Sullivan, Vahram Ghushchyan, Abhishek Kavati, Prakash Navaratnam, Howard S Friedman, B Ortiz
BACKGROUND: Children residing in poor-urban areas may have greater asthma morbidity. It is unclear if this is due to individual characteristics like race and ethnicity or place of residence. OBJECTIVE: Assess indicators of control and treatment by residence. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional analysis of children (aged 1-17) in the 2000-2014 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS). Indicators of poor control included use of > 3 canisters of short-acting beta agonist (SABA) in 3 months, asthma attack, and Emergency Department (ED) or inpatient (IP) visit during the year...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology in Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782477/sociodemographic-factors-affecting-the-disease-acceptance-and-the-quality-of-life-in-patients-with-parkinson-s-disease-a-preliminary-study
#12
Joanna Rosińczuk, Aleksandra Pytel, Aleksandra Kołtuniuk
PURPOSE: Parkinson's disease (PD) significantly affects functioning of patients, thereby lowering their quality of life. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of sociodemographic variables on illness acceptance and quality of life in patients with idiopathic PD. DESIGN: This is a cross-sectional research study. METHODS: The study was conducted with 50 patients with PD. The diagnostic survey method was applied for the purposes of this study with the use of the Parkinson's Disease Questionnaire, the Acceptance of Illness Scale, and a study-specific demographic questionnaire that included questions about sociodemographic data...
May 19, 2018: Rehabilitation Nursing: the Official Journal of the Association of Rehabilitation Nurses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782211/attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-symptoms-depression-risk-and-quality-of-life-in-black-pregnant-women
#13
Heather A Jones, Laura D Eddy, Elizaveta Bourchtein, Amanda M Parks, Tiffany L Green, Nicole W Karjane, Dace S Svikis
BACKGROUND: Experiencing mental health difficulties during pregnancy predicts a variety of quality-of-life (QoL) outcomes for Black women. However, one area of prenatal mental health remains underresearched: attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Given the impairments reported by adults with significant symptoms of ADHD and the linkages between depression and ADHD in nonpregnant samples, the current study aimed to examine the relationships among ADHD symptoms, depression, and QoL in Black pregnant women...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Women's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781691/enabling-factors-for-specialist-outreach-in-western-kwazulu-natal
#14
Robert I Caldwell, Merridy Grant, Bernard Gaede, Colleen Aldous
BACKGROUND: There exists a major disparity in access to specialist care between patients in urban and rural areas. Specialists are a scarce resource and are concentrated in urban areas. Specialist outreach attempts to fill the gap in service provision for patients situated remotely. While there is international evidence that multifaceted specialist outreach has achieved varying levels of success, factors that influence the effectiveness of outreach have not yet been fully elucidated in South Africa...
May 17, 2018: African Journal of Primary Health Care & Family Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780680/evaluation-of-the-impact-of-construction-products-on-the-environment-by-leaching-of-possibly-hazardous-substances
#15
REVIEW
Nicole Bandow, Stefan Gartiser, Outi Ilvonen, Ute Schoknecht
Construction products are in contact with water (e.g., rain, seepage water) during their service lifetime and may release potentially harmful compounds by leaching processes. Monitoring studies showed that compounds attributed to construction products are found in storm water and the receiving bodies of water and that the release of biocides in urban areas can be comparable to the input of pesticides from agricultural uses. Therefore, a prospective risk assessment of such products is necessary. Laboratory leaching tests have been developed by the Technical Committee CEN/TC 351 and are ready to use...
2018: Environmental Sciences Europe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780668/impact-of-front-range-sources-on-reactive-nitrogen-concentrations-and-deposition-in-rocky-mountain-national-park
#16
Katherine B Benedict, Anthony J Prenni, Amy P Sullivan, Ashley R Evanoski-Cole, Emily V Fischer, Sara Callahan, Barkley C Sive, Yong Zhou, Bret A Schichtel, Jeffrey L Collett
Human influenced atmospheric reactive nitrogen (RN) is impacting ecosystems in Rocky Mountain National Park (ROMO). Due to ROMO's protected status as a Class 1 area, these changes are concerning, and improving our understanding of the contributions of different types of RN and their sources is important for reducing impacts in ROMO. In July-August 2014 the most comprehensive measurements (to date) of RN were made in ROMO during the Front Range Air Pollution and Photochemistry Éxperiment (FRAPPÉ). Measurements included peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN), C1 -C5 alkyl nitrates, and high-time resolution NOx , NOy , and ammonia...
2018: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780271/development-and-evaluation-of-the-r-line-model-algorithms-to-account-for-chemical-transformation-in-the-near-road-environment
#17
Alejandro Valencia, Akula Venkatram, David Heist, David Carruthers, Saravanan Arunachalam
With increased urbanization, there is increased mobility leading to higher amount of traffic-related activity on a global scale. Most NOx from combustion sources (about 90-95%) are emitted as NO, which is then readily converted to NO2 in the ambient air, while the remainder is emitted largely as NO2 . Thus, the bulk of ambient NO2 is formed due to secondary production in the atmosphere, and which R-LINE cannot predict given that it can only model the dispersion of primary air pollutants. NO2 concentrations near major roads are appreciably higher than those measured at monitors in existing networks in urban areas, motivating a need to incorporate a mechanism in R-LINE to account for NO2 formation...
2018: Transportation Research. Part D, Transport and Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780057/prevalence-and-risk-factors-of-dengue-infection-in-khanh-hoa-province-viet-nam-a-stratified-cluster-sampling-survey
#18
Vien Quang Mai, Trịnh Thị Xuan Mai, Ngo Le Minh Tam, Le Trung Nghia, Kenichi Komada, Hitoshi Murakami
BACKGROUND: Dengue is a clinically important arthropod-borne viral disease with increasing global incidence. Here we aimed to estimate the prevalence of dengue infections in Khanh Hoa Province, central Viet Nam, and to identify risk factors for infection. METHODS: We performed a stratified cluster sampling survey including residents of 3-60 years of age in Nha Trang City, Ninh Hoa District and Dien Khanh District, Khanh Hoa Province, in October 2011. Immunoglobulin G (IgG) and immunoglobulin M (IgM) against dengue were analyzed using a rapid test kit...
May 19, 2018: Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778993/risk-profile-for-drowning-deaths-in-children-in-the-indian-state-of-bihar-results-from-a-population-based-study
#19
Rakhi Dandona, G Anil Kumar, Sibin George, Amit Kumar, Lalit Dandona
BACKGROUND: We report on incidence of drowning deaths and related contextual factors in children from a population-based study in the Indian state of Bihar which estimated the causes of death using verbal autopsy (VA). METHODS: Interviews were conducted for deaths in 1-14 years population that occurred from January 2012 to March 2014 in 109 689 households (87.1% participation) in 1017 clusters representative of the state. The Population Health Metrics Research Consortium shortened VA questionnaire was used for interview and cause of death was assigned using the SmartVA automated algorithm...
May 19, 2018: Injury Prevention: Journal of the International Society for Child and Adolescent Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778992/school-area-road-safety-assessment-and-improvements-sarsai-programme-reduces-road-traffic-injuries-among-children-in-tanzania
#20
Ayikai Poswayo, Simon Kalolo, Katheryn Rabonovitz, Jeffrey Witte, Alejandro Guerrero
PURPOSE: To determine the impact of a paediatric road traffic injury (RTI) prevention programme in urban Sub-Saharan Africa. SETTING: Dares Salaam, Republic of Tanzania. METHODS: Household surveys were conducted in catchment areas around 18 primary schools in Dar es Salaam, Republic of Tanzania; the catchment areas were divided into control and intervention groups. Collected data included basic demographic information on all school-aged household members and whether or not they had been involved in an RTI in the previous 12 months, and, if so, what the characteristics of that RTI were...
May 19, 2018: Injury Prevention: Journal of the International Society for Child and Adolescent Injury Prevention
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