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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342390/household-contact-investigation-for-detection-of-tuberculosis-in-vietnam
#1
Greg J Fox, Nguyen V Nhung, Dinh N Sy, Nghiem L P Hoa, Le T N Anh, Nguyen T Anh, Nguyen B Hoa, Nguyen H Dung, Tran N Buu, Nguyen T Loi, Le T Nhung, Nguyen V Hung, Phan T Lieu, Nguyen K Cuong, Pham D Cuong, Jessica Bestrashniy, Warwick J Britton, Guy B Marks
Background Active case finding is a top priority for the global control of tuberculosis, but robust evidence for its effectiveness in high-prevalence settings is lacking. We sought to evaluate the effectiveness of household-contact investigation, as compared with standard, passive measures alone, in Vietnam. Methods We performed a cluster-randomized, controlled trial at clinics in 70 districts (local government areas with an average population of approximately 500,000 in urban areas and 100,000 in rural areas) in eight provinces of Vietnam...
January 18, 2018: New England Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341801/local-vs-national-epidemiology-of-pedestrian-injury-in-a-mid-atlantic-city
#2
Elizabeth D Nesoff, Keshia M Pollack, Amy R Knowlton, Janice V Bowie, Andrea C Gielen
OBJECTIVE: Understanding pedestrian injury trends at the local level is essential for program planning and allocation of funds for urban planning and improvement. Because we hypothesize that local injury trends differ from national trends in significant and meaningful ways, we investigated city-wide pedestrian injury trends to assess injury risk among nationally-identified risk groups, as well as identify risk groups and locations specific to Baltimore City. METHODS: Pedestrian injury data, obtained from the Baltimore City Fire Department, were gathered through EMS records collected from January 1 to December 31, 2014...
January 17, 2018: Traffic Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341387/health-service-utilisation-amongst-urban-aboriginal-and-torres-strait-islander-children-aged-younger-than-5-years-registered-with-a-primary-health-care-service-in-south-east-queensland
#3
Kerry K Hall, Anne B Chang, Jennie Anderson, Daniel Arnold, Michael Otim, Kerry-Ann F O'Grady
AIM: The majority of Australia's Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander children live in urban areas; however, little is known about their health service use. We aimed to describe health service utilisation amongst a cohort of urban Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander children aged <5 years. METHODS: We analysed health service utilisation data collected in an ongoing prospective cohort study of children aged <5 years registered with an Aboriginal-owned and operated primary health-care service...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341246/risk-factors-for-disordered-weight-control-behaviors-among-korean-adolescents-multilevel-analysis-of-the-korea-youth-risk-behavior-survey
#4
Yongjoo Kim, S Bryn Austin, S V Subramanian, Jennifer J Thomas, Kamryn T Eddy, Debra L Franko, Rachel F Rodgers, Ichiro Kawachi
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the prevalence and risk factors for disordered weight control behaviors (DWCB) in South Korean adolescents at multiple levels, including individual, family, school, and geographic area. METHOD: We drew participants from the 11th Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey, conducted in 2015, with 65,529 adolescents (31,687 girls, 33,842 boys) aged 12-18 years. DWCB was defined as engaging in any of the following behaviors for weight control over the past month: fasting, one-food diet (eating only one food over an extended period of time for weight control), vomiting, and taking laxatives/diuretics/unprescribed diet pills...
January 17, 2018: International Journal of Eating Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340468/serosurvey-of-leptospira-spp-and-toxoplasma-gondii-in-rats-captured-from-two-zoos-in-southern-brazil
#5
Maysa Pellizzaro, Francisco de Oliveira Conrado, Camila Marinelli Martins, Sâmea Fernandes Joaquim, Fernando Ferreira, Helio Langoni, Alexander Welker Biondo
INTRODUCTION: Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus) are zoonotic reservoirs for Leptospira spp. and Toxoplasma gondii, and influence diseases in urban areas. METHODS: Free-ranging and laboratory-raised rats from two zoos in southern Brazil were tested for Leptospira spp. and T. gondii using microscopic agglutination and modified agglutination tests, respectively. RESULTS: Overall, 25.6% and 4.6% free-ranging rats tested positive for Leptospira spp...
November 2017: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340454/human-leptospirosis-in-the-federal-district-brazil-2011-2015-eco-epidemiological-characterization
#6
Ivanildo de Oliveira Correia Santos, Marina Frota de Albuquerque Landi, Laurício Monteiro Cruz, Maria Isabel Rao Bofill, Divino Eterno Dos Santos, Eduardo Maurício Mendes de Lima, Márcio Botelho de Castro
INTRODUCTION: Leptospirosis is an infectious disease that affects more than 5,000 people per year in Brazil. The Federal District (FD) lacks epidemiological studies of human leptospirosis and presents concerning rates of this disease, especially considering its lethality. METHODS: Seventy-nine autochthonous human cases of leptospirosis between 2011 and 2015 were analyzed, with the probable infection location serving as a basis for the collection and analysis of the environmental and epidemiological variables...
November 2017: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340243/urban-heat-island-effect-on-cicada-densities-in-metropolitan-seoul
#7
Hoa Q Nguyen, Desiree K Andersen, Yuseob Kim, Yikweon Jang
Background: Urban heat island (UHI) effect, the ubiquitous consequence of urbanization, is considered to play a major role in population expansion of numerous insects. Cryptotympana atrata and Hyalessa fuscata are the most abundant cicada species in the Korean Peninsula, where their population densities are higher in urban than in rural areas. We predicted a positive relationship between the UHI intensities and population densities of these two cicada species in metropolitan Seoul. Methods: To test this prediction, enumeration surveys of cicada exuviae densities were conducted in 36 localities located within and in the vicinity of metropolitan Seoul...
2018: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339120/symmetry-of-peripheral-retinal-nonperfusion-in-diabetic-retinopathy-by-ischemic-index
#8
Ashley M Speilburg, Bruce Teitelbaum, Yi Pang, Shaun Ittiara
PURPOSE: Diabetic retinopathy is the leading cause of blindness among working-age adults in most developed countries. It affects eyes bilaterally and is generally believed to be symmetrical, yet there are few studies evaluating the symmetry of diabetic retinopathy. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the symmetry of the amount of peripheral retinal ischemia in patients with diabetic retinopathy. METHODS: Ultra-widefield fluorescein angiography images were obtained on both eyes of 54 subjects, mean age 56...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Optometry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336003/prevalence-of-pre-school-children-for-overweight-obesity-in-turkey
#9
Fatih Santas, Gulcan Santas
BACKGROUND: Most of the studies and interventions are targeted to address undernutrition, but childhood obesity has become a silent killer among children. Developing countries, including Turkey, could recognize the importance of the issue now and have begun to discuss the necessity of studies on this subject. Therefore, this study aims to examine the prevalence of obesity among pre-school children in Turkey. METHODS: The data source of this study is the Turkey Demographic and Health Survey (TDHS)-2013...
January 15, 2018: World Journal of Pediatrics: WJP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335874/mass-balance-of-arsenic-fluxes-in-rivers-impacted-by-gold-mining-activities-in-paracatu-minas-gerais-state-brazil
#10
Edison Bidone, Ricardo Cesar, Maria Carla Santos, Ricardo Sierpe, Emmanuel Vieira Silva-Filho, Vinicius Kutter, Lílian I Dias da Silva, Zuleica Castilhos
Arsenic (As) is a dangerous and carcinogenic element and drinking water is its main pathway of human exposure. Gold mines are widely recognized as important sources of As pollution. This work proposes the assessment of As distribution along watersheds surrounding "Morro do Ouro" gold mine (Paracatu, southeastern Brazil). A balance approach between filtered As fluxes (As < 0.45 μm) and suspended particulate material (AsSPM) in different river segments was applied. Ultrafiltration procedure was used to categorize As into the following classes: particulate > 0...
January 16, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335085/-impact-of-transition-readiness-on-quality-of-life-in-children-with-chronic-diseases
#11
Jia-Li Ma, Nan Sheng, Wen-Wen Ding, Ying Zhang
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the current quality of life in children with chronic diseases, and to explore the impact of transition readiness on quality of life. METHODS: A total of 332 children with chronic diseases from two children's hospitals in Shanghai, China were enrolled. A self-designed demographic questionnaire, Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory 4.0 Generic Core Scales (PedsQLTM 4.0), and Self-Management and Transition to Adulthood with Rx=Treatment (STARx) Questionnaire were used to evaluate transition readiness and quality of life...
January 2018: Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335061/estimating-hiv-incidence-rates-among-msm-in-an-urban-area-of-chongqing-using-three-approaches
#12
Mei Han, Ping Liang Pan, Guo Hui Wu, Chao Zhou, Yuan Yao, Juan Luo, Jing Bo Zou, Bo Zhang
To evaluate the HIV pandemic in Chongqing, the pooled PCR, IgG-capture BED enzyme immunoassay (BED-CEIA), and cohort observations were used to estimate the HIV incidences among men who have sex with men (MSM). 617 MSM subjects completed the survey at a voluntary counseling and testing (VCT) site. The observed HIV incidence was 12.5 per 100 P-Ys (95% CI = 9.1-15.7). The annual acute HIV infection (AHI) incidence estimated by pooled PCR was 14.0% (95% CI = 10.9-17.1). The HIV-1 annual incidence estimated based on the BED-CEIA was 12...
December 2017: Biomedical and Environmental Sciences: BES
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335004/factors-associated-with-poor-treatment-outcome-of-tuberculosis-in-debre-tabor-northwest-ethiopia
#13
Addisu Melese, Balew Zeleke
OBJECTIVE: Directly observed treatment short course has been implemented as part of the national tuberculosis control program in Ethiopia. The strategy, as evidenced by different studies, has improved the survival and treatment success rate of tuberculosis patients. However, some patients failed to complete their treatments and the factors for this failure were not assessed in the study area. We, therefore sought to identify factors associated with poor treatment outcome of tuberculosis in Debre Tabor, northwest Ethiopia...
January 15, 2018: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334713/-prevalence-and-influential-factors-of-stroke-in-jiangxi-province-in-2014
#14
W Zhou, B Zhang, X Huang, C J You, B M Zhan, R Q Yang, Y F Dong, J X Li, P Li, K Hong, Y Q Wu, Q H Wu, H Su, H H Bao, X S Cheng
Objective: To discuss the prevalence and influential factors of stroke among population in Jiangxi Province. Methods: Four cities in urban areas and four counties in rural areas were selected firstly, in which two districts or townships were selected; and then three communities or villages were chosen from each district and township, respectively, using the simple random sampling (SRS) method. Finally 15 269 subjects aging 15 years old or above, living in Jiangxi Province ≥6 months were randomly selected to participate in this survey from November 2013 to August 2014...
January 6, 2018: Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334637/contamination-characteristics-and-source-apportionment-of-heavy-metals-in-topsoil-from-an-area-in-xi-an-city-china
#15
Xiuduan Chen, Xinwei Lu
As soil-extractable elements potentially pose ecological and health risks, identifying their contamination characteristics and sources is crucial. Therefore, to understand topsoil trace elements in the urban ring zone from the Second Ring Road to the Third Ring of Xi'an city in China, we determined the concentrations of Zn, Co, V, As, Cu, Mn, Ba, Ni and Pb, and analyzed the sources of the contamination. The results showed that the individual pollution indices of Pb, Co, Cu, Zn, Ba, Ni, Mn, As, and V were 1...
January 11, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334564/validating-the-electronic-cardiac-arrest-risk-triage-ecart-score-for-risk-stratification-of-surgical-inpatients-in-the-postoperative-setting-retrospective-cohort-study
#16
Bartlomiej Bartkowiak, Ashley M Snyder, Andrew Benjamin, Andrew Schneider, Nicole M Twu, Matthew M Churpek, Kevin K Roggin, Dana P Edelson
OBJECTIVE: Assess the accuracy of 3 early warning scores for predicting severe adverse events in postoperative inpatients. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Postoperative clinical deterioration on inpatient hospital services is associated with increased morbidity, mortality, and cost. Early warning scores have been developed to detect inpatient clinical deterioration and trigger rapid response activation, but knowledge regarding the application of early warning scores to postoperative inpatients is limited...
January 12, 2018: Annals of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334514/monitoring-depression-rates-in-an-urban-community-use-of-electronic-health-records
#17
Arthur J Davidson, Stanley Xu, Carlos Irwin A Oronce, M Josh Durfee, Emily V McCormick, John F Steiner, Edward Havranek, Arne Beck
OBJECTIVES: Depression is the most common mental health disorder and mediates outcomes for many chronic diseases. Ability to accurately identify and monitor this condition, at the local level, is often limited to estimates from national surveys. This study sought to compare and validate electronic health record (EHR)-based depression surveillance with multiple data sources for more granular demographic subgroup and subcounty measurements. DESIGN/SETTING: A survey compared data sources for the ability to provide subcounty (eg, census tract [CT]) depression prevalence estimates...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Public Health Management and Practice: JPHMP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333080/comparisons-of-traffic-related-ultrafine-particle-number-concentrations-measured-in-two-urban-areas-by-central-residential-and-mobile-monitoring
#18
Matthew C Simon, Neelakshi Hudda, Elena N Naumova, Jonathan I Levy, Doug Brugge, John L Durant
Traffic-related ultrafine particles (UFP; <100 nanometers diameter) are ubiquitous in urban air. While studies have shown that UFP are toxic, epidemiological evidence of health effects, which is needed to inform risk assessment at the population scale, is limited due to challenges of accurately estimating UFP exposures. Epidemiologic studies often use empirical models to estimate UFP exposures; however, the monitoring strategies upon which the models are based have varied between studies. Our study compares particle number concentrations (PNC; a proxy for UFP) measured by three different monitoring approaches (central-site, short-term residential-site, and mobile on-road monitoring) in two study areas in metropolitan Boston (MA, USA)...
November 2017: Atmospheric Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332273/pollution-and-ecological-risk-assessment-of-nutrients-associated-with-deposited-sediments-collected-from-roof-and-road-surfaces
#19
Xiao Wu, Jianghua Yu, Hui Qiu, Hua Fang
Surface-deposited sediment in urban areas is an essential environmental medium for assessing nutrient contamination. The total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) pollution associated with surface-deposited sediments can be transported into urban water bodies by runoff and can cause eutrophication of those water bodies. By analyzing the samples collected on roof surfaces and road surfaces, this study provides a comparison of the differences in TN and TP pollution loading in sediments on these two different impervious surface materials...
January 13, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331835/integrating-priority-areas-and-ecological-corridors-into-national-network-for-conservation-planning-in-china
#20
Jie Liang, Xinyue He, Guangming Zeng, Minzhou Zhong, Xiang Gao, Xin Li, Xiaodong Li, Haipeng Wu, Chunting Feng, Wenle Xing, Yilong Fang, Dan Mo
Considering that urban expansion and increase of human activities represent important threats to biodiversity and ecological processes in short and long term, developing protected area (PA) network with high connectivity is considered as a valuable conservation strategy. However, conservation planning associated with the large-scale network in China involves important information loopholes about the land cover and landscape connectivity. In this paper, we made an integrative analysis for the identification of conservation priority areas and least-cost ecological corridors (ECs) in order to promote a more representative, connected and efficient ecological PA network for this country...
January 11, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
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