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Zefeng Zheng, Weiliang Shen, Huihui Le, Xuesong Dai, Hongwei Ouyang, Weishan Chen
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of three-dimensional parallel collagen scaffold on the cell shape, arrangement and extracellular matrix formation of tendon stem cells. METHODS: Parallel collagen scaffold was fabricated by unidirectional freezing technique, while random collagen scaffold was fabricated by freeze-drying technique. The effects of two scaffolds on cell shape and extracellular matrix formation were investigated in vitro by seeding tendon stem/progenitor cells and in vivo by ectopic implantation...
March 2016: Zhejiang da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Zhejiang University. Medical Sciences
Evyatar Steiner, Sivan Livne, Tammy Kobinson-Katz, Lior Tal, Oded Pri-Tal, Assaf Mosquna, Danuše Tarkowská, Bruno Mueller, Petr Tarkowski, David Weiss
Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) SPINDLY (SPY) is a putative serine and threonine O-linked N-acetylglucosamine transferase (OGT). While SPY has been shown to suppress gibberellin signaling and to promote cytokinin (CK) responses, its catalytic OGT activity was never demonstrated and its effect on protein fate is not known. We previously showed that SPY interacts physically and functionally with TCP14 and TCP15 to promote CK responses. Here, we aimed to identify how SPY regulates TCP14/15 activities and how these TCPs promote CK responses...
June 2016: Plant Physiology
Kai Cao, Lirong Cui, Lin Ye, Xiaoting Zhou, Encai Bao, Hailiang Zhao, Zhirong Zou
Compact and healthy young plants increase crop production and improve vegetable quality. Adverse climatic conditions and shading can cause young plants to become elongated and spindly. We investigated the effects of night break (NB) treatments on tomato plants using red light (RL) with an intensity of 20 μmol·m(2)·s(-1). Tomato plants were subjected to NB treatments with different frequencies ranging from every 1, 2, 3, and 4 h, and plant growth, flowering, and yield were monitored. The results showed that with the increase of RL NB frequency, plant height decreased, stem diameter increased, and flower initiation delayed, the content of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and gibberellin 3 (GA3) in the leaf and stem declined...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
S R He, Y P Bai, H Gong, J Di, L Chen, W D Dai, S T Hu, D G Liu
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the roles of cytomorphology and immunohistochemistry in distinguishing between basaloid squamous cell carcinoma (BSC) and small cell carcinoma (SCC) of lung. METHODS: The direct smears and/or liquid-based cytology preparation (ThinPrep) of bronchial brushing/washing and fine-needle aspiration (FNA) specimens from 17 cases of biopsy-proven BSC of lung were retrospectively reviewed and compared with those from 17 cases of SCC. The cytomorphologic parameters analyzed included proportion of cohesive cell clusters, cell palisades/rosettes, adenoid cystic features, crushing artifact, nuclear maximum diameter, nuclear molding, scantiness of cytoplasm,"salt-and-pepper"nuclei, distinct nucleoli, spindly configuration, individual cell keratinization, necrosis, hyaline material, apoptosis and mitotic activity...
April 8, 2016: Zhonghua Bing Li Xue za Zhi Chinese Journal of Pathology
Jitendra Nasit, Viren Vaghsiya, Srilaxmi Hiryur, Smita Patel
Subependymal giant cell astrocytoma (SEGA) is a low grade (WHO Grade I) tumor, usually seen in patients with tuberous sclerosis complex and commonly occurs at a lateral ventricular location. Intraoperative squash cytologic features can help in differentiating SEGA from gemistocytic astrocytoma (GA), giant cell glioblastoma and ependymoma, in proper clinical context and radiological findings, which may alter the surgical management. Here, we present a case of SEGA with squash cytologic findings and a review of cytology findings of SEGA presently available in the literature...
January 2016: Journal of Laboratory Physicians
Mihoko A Tame, Jonne A Raaijmakers, Pavel Afanasyev, René H Medema
Cortical pulling forces on astral microtubules are essential to position the spindle. These forces are generated by cortical dynein, a minus-end directed motor. Previously, another dynein regulator termed Spindly was proposed to regulate dynein-dependent spindle positioning. However, the mechanism of how Spindly regulates spindle positioning has remained elusive. Here, we find that the misalignment of chromosomes caused by Spindly depletion is directly provoking spindle misorientation. Chromosome misalignments induced by CLIP-170 or CENP-E depletion or by noscapine treatment are similarly accompanied by severe spindle-positioning defects...
March 2016: EMBO Reports
Haijian Huang, Xiaoyan Chen, Zhiyong Zheng
OBJECTIVE: To study the clinicopathologic features, diagnosis and differential diagnosis of extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcoma (EMC). METHODS: The clinical and pathologic features of 7 cases of EMC encountered in Fujian Provincal Hospital and Fuzhou General Hospital of Nanjing Military Command during the period of 2005 to 2015 were analyzed. Immunohistochemical study and PAS staining were carried out. Relevant literature was reviewed. RESULTS: The male-to-female ratio was 6 to 1...
January 2016: Zhonghua Bing Li Xue za Zhi Chinese Journal of Pathology
Laura Wood, Daniel G Booth, Giulia Vargiu, Shinya Ohta, Flavia deLima Alves, Kumiko Samejima, Tatsuo Fukagawa, Juri Rappsilber, William C Earnshaw
Most studies using knockout technologies to examine protein function have relied either on shutting off transcription (conventional conditional knockouts with tetracycline-regulated gene expression or gene disruption) or destroying the mature mRNA (RNAi technology). In both cases, the target protein is lost at a rate determined by its intrinsic half-life. Thus, protein levels typically fall over at least 1-3 days, and cells continue to cycle while exposed to a decreasing concentration of the protein. Here we characterise the kinetochore proteome of mitotic chromosomes isolated from a cell line in which the essential kinetochore protein CENP-T is present as an auxin-inducible degron (AID) fusion protein that is fully functional and able to support the viability of the cells...
January 2016: Open Biology
Gaetano Magro, Giuseppe Angelico, Giorgia Leone, Juan Palazzo
We herein report the clinical, radiological, and pathological findings of a rare case of a solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) occurring in the breast parenchyma of a 62-year-old female. The tumor was incidentally detected at a mammographic screening, and, ultrasonographically, presented as a single, well-circumscribed nodule. On needle core biopsy, the diagnosis of SFT was suggested based on a proliferation of CD34-positive spindly cells set in a fibrous stroma containing medium-sized blood vessels with hyalinization of their walls and branching configuration...
May 2016: Pathology, Research and Practice
Uma Sakhadeo, Rajesh Mundhe, Maria A DeSouza, Roshan F Chinoy
Pleomorphic lipoma is a relatively rare adipocytic neoplasm, occurring predominantly in elderly males in the subcutaneous tissues of the neck or shoulder. To the best of our knowledge, only five cases have been reported in which the lesion was intramuscular. We hereby report a case of a 60-year-old female patient, presenting with an intramuscular, posterior shoulder mass. The aspirate showed a giant cell-rich lesion, admixed with short, plump-looking, spindly cells. There was no overt evidence of malignancy; however, the cell cytology was sufficiently atypical to warrant concern...
July 2015: Journal of Cytology
Itaru Samejima, Christos Spanos, Flavia de Lima Alves, Tetsuya Hori, Marinela Perpelescu, Juan Zou, Juri Rappsilber, Tatsuo Fukagawa, William C Earnshaw
Kinetochores orchestrate mitotic chromosome segregation. Here, we use quantitative mass spectrometry of mitotic chromosomes isolated from a comprehensive set of chicken DT40 mutants to examine the dependencies of 93 confirmed and putative kinetochore proteins for stable association with chromosomes. Clustering and network analysis reveal both known and unexpected aspects of coordinated behavior for members of kinetochore protein complexes. Surprisingly, CENP-T depends on CENP-N for chromosome localization. The Ndc80 complex exhibits robust correlations with all other complexes in a "core" kinetochore network...
December 21, 2015: Journal of Cell Biology
Michael J Poellmann, Jonathan B Estrada, Thomas Boudou, Zachary T Berent, Christian Franck, Amy J Wagoner Johnson
Osteogenesis is the process by which mesenchymal stem cells differentiate to osteoblasts and form bone. The morphology and root mean squared (RMS) traction of four cell types representing different stages of osteogenesis were quantified. Undifferentiated D1, differentiated D1, MC3T3-E1, and MLO-A5 cell types were evaluated using both automated image analysis of cells stained for F-actin and by traction force microscopy (TFM). Undifferentiated mesenchymal stem cell lines were small, spindly, and exerted low traction, while differentiated osteoblasts were large, had multiple processes, and exerted higher traction...
December 2015: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
Katia Koelle, David A Rasmussen
Recent phylogenetic analyses indicate that RNA virus populations carry a significant deleterious mutation load. This mutation load has the potential to shape patterns of adaptive evolution via genetic linkage to beneficial mutations. Here, we examine the effect of deleterious mutations on patterns of influenza A subtype H3N2's antigenic evolution in humans. By first analyzing simple models of influenza that incorporate a mutation load, we show that deleterious mutations, as expected, act to slow the virus's rate of antigenic evolution, while making it more punctuated in nature...
September 15, 2015: ELife
I A Bryantseva, V A Gaisin, V M Gorlenko
Two alkaliphilic strains of nonsulfur purple bacteria (NPB), B7-4 and B8-2, were isolated from southeast Siberia moderately saline alkaline steppe lakes with pH values above 9.0. The isolates were motile, polymorphous cells (from short rods to long spindly cells) 2.0-3.2 x 9.6-20.0 μm. Intracellular membranes of vesicular type were mostly located at the cell periphery. The microorganisms contained bacteriochlorophyll a and carotenoids of the spheroidene and spirilloxanthin series. The photosynthetic apparatus was represented by LH2 and LH1 light-harvesting complexes...
March 2015: Mikrobiologiia
Ahrim Moon, Nara Yoon, Hyun-Soo Kim
Dermatofibroma is a common benign fibrohistiocytic tumor with many clinicopathological variants. Myxoid dermatofibroma is one of these variants, which is characterized by marked stromal mucin deposition. This report presents a case of myxoid dermatofibroma on a great toe that had been slowly growing for two years. Histopathologically, the relatively well-circumscribed dermal tumor was separated from the epidermis by a small grenz zone. The tumor tissue consisted of oval to spindle-shaped cells with well-defined cell borders and spindly condensed nuclei...
2015: International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Pathology
Najma Latif, Alfred Quillon, Padmini Sarathchandra, Ann McCormack, Alec Lozanoski, Magdi H Yacoub, Adrian H Chester
Valve interstitial cells (VICs) are fibroblastic in nature however in culture it is widely accepted that they differentiate into a myofibroblastic phenotype. This study assessed a fibroblast culture media formulation for its ability to maintain the phenotype and function of VICs as in the intact healthy valve. Normal human VICs were cultured separately in standard DMEM and in fibroblast media consisting of FGF2 (10 ng/ml), insulin (50 ng/ml) and 2% FCS for at least a week. Cell morphology, aspect ratio, size, levels and distribution of protein expression, proliferation, cell cycle, contraction and migration were assessed...
2015: PloS One
Devinderjit Kaur Moudgil, Gordon K T Chan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2015: Cell Cycle
Devinderjit K Moudgil, Nathan Westcott, Jakub K Famulski, Kinjal Patel, Dawn Macdonald, Howard Hang, Gordon K T Chan
Kinetochore (KT) localization of mitotic checkpoint proteins is essential for their function during mitosis. hSpindly KT localization is dependent on the RZZ complex and hSpindly recruits the dynein-dynactin complex to KTs during mitosis, but the mechanism of hSpindly KT recruitment is unknown. Through domain-mapping studies we characterized the KT localization domain of hSpindly and discovered it undergoes farnesylation at the C-terminal cysteine residue. The N-terminal 293 residues of hSpindly are dispensable for its KT localization...
March 30, 2015: Journal of Cell Biology
Andrew J Holland, Rita M Reis, Sherry Niessen, Cláudia Pereira, Douglas A Andres, H Peter Spielmann, Don W Cleveland, Arshad Desai, Reto Gassmann
The clinical interest in farnesyltransferase inhibitors (FTIs) makes it important to understand how these compounds affect cellular processes involving farnesylated proteins. Mitotic abnormalities observed after treatment with FTIs have so far been attributed to defects in the farnesylation of the outer kinetochore proteins CENP-E and CENP-F, which are involved in chromosome congression and spindle assembly checkpoint signaling. Here we identify the cytoplasmic dynein adaptor Spindly as an additional component of the outer kinetochore that is modified by farnesyltransferase (FTase)...
May 15, 2015: Molecular Biology of the Cell
Na Liu, Zhouping Tang, Zhiyuan Yu, Minjie Xie, Yu Zhang, Erfang Yang, Shabei Xu
This study aimed to examine the differences in the morphological properties and proliferation of olfactory ensheathing cells in three-dimensional culture on collagen-heparan sulfate biological scaffolds and in two-dimensional culture on common flat culture plates. The proliferation rate of olfactory ensheathing cells in three-dimensional culture was higher than that in two-dimensional culture, as detected by an MTT assay. In addition, more than half of the olfactory ensheathing cells subcultured using the trypsinization method in three-dimensional culture displayed a spindly Schwann cell-like morphology with extremely long processes, while they showed a flat astrocyte-like morphology in two-dimensional culture...
June 5, 2012: Neural Regeneration Research
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