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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337163/utility-of-ultra-deep-sequencing-for-detection-of-varicella-zoster-virus-antiviral-resistance-mutations
#1
Mélanie Mercier-Darty, David Boutolleau, Raphaël Lepeule, Christophe Rodriguez, Sonia Burrel
We report the first application of ultra-deep sequencing (UDS) to varicella-zoster virus (VZV) genotypic antiviral testing in a case of acyclovir-resistant VZV infection initially detected by Sanger sequencing within a deeply immunocompromised heart transplant recipient. As added-value compared to Sanger analysis, UDS revealed complex dynamics of viral population under antiviral pressure. Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) is a ubiquitous human herpesvirus affecting populations worldwide. VZV is commonly acquired in youth whose primary infection usually manifests as benign varicella (chickenpox)...
January 11, 2018: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327261/chronic-rejection-after-intestinal-transplant-where-are-we-in-order-to-avert-it
#2
REVIEW
Augusto Lauro, Mihai Oltean, Ignazio R Marino
Chronic rejection affects the long-term survival of all solid organ transplants and, among intestinal allografts, occurs in up to 10% of the recipients. The insidious clinical evolution of the chronic allograft enteropathy, the absence of noninvasive biomarkers, and the late endoscopic findings delay its diagnosis. No pharmacological approach has been proven effective, and allograft removal nowadays still represents the only available therapy. The inclusion of the liver in the visceral allograft appears to be the only intervention affecting the development of chronic rejection, as revealed by large-center studies and registry reports...
January 11, 2018: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243551/donor-leucocytosis-predicts-bacterial-and-fungal-contamination-of-the-preservation-solution-in-visceral-organ-transplantation
#3
Georgios C Sotiropoulos, Jörg Steinmann, Sabrina Stern, Sonia Raduenz, Nikolaos Machairas, Peter M Rath, Fuat H Saner, Andreas Paul, Anja Gallinat
INTRODUCTION: Contamination of the preservation solution may contribute to septic complications that can occur after transplantation and cause higher morbidity and mortality among recipients. The aim of this study was to determine potential donor-related predictors of positive microbiological findings in the preservation solution. DESIGN: We retrospectively studied 16 donor parameters on data from our center for microbiological findings in the preservation solution used in solid-organ recovery...
January 1, 2017: Progress in Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198627/analytic-morphomics-predict-outcomes-after-lung-transplantation
#4
Michael J Pienta, Peng Zhang, Brian A Derstine, Binu Enchakalody, William B Weir, Tyler Grenda, Rebecca Goulson, Rishindra M Reddy, Andrew C Chang, Stewart C Wang, Jules Lin
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to identify morphomic factors on standard, pretransplantation computed tomography (CT) scans associated with outcomes after lung transplantation. METHODS: A retrospective review of 200 patients undergoing lung transplantation at a single institution from 2003 to 2014 was performed. CT scans obtained within 1 year before transplantation underwent morphomic analysis. Morphomic characteristics included lung, dorsal muscle group, bone, and subcutaneous and visceral fat area and density...
December 1, 2017: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29194322/direct-peritoneal-resuscitation-reduces-intestinal-permeability-after-brain-death
#5
Jessica L Weaver, Paul J Matheson, Amy Matheson, Brian G Harbrecht, Cynthia D Downard, R Neal Garrison, Jason W Smith
BACKGROUND: The profound inflammatory response associated with brain death is frequently cited as the reason organs procured from brain dead donors are associated with worse graft function. The intestine releases inflammatory mediators in other types of shock, but its role is brain death has not been well-studied. Direct peritoneal resuscitation (DPR) improves visceral organ blood flow and reduces inflammation after hemorrhagic shock. We hypothesized that use of DPR would maintain intestinal integrity and reduce circulating inflammatory mediators after brain death...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106496/transplantation-of-brown-adipose-tissue-inhibits-atherosclerosis-in-apoe-mice-contribution-of-the-activated-fgf-21-adiponectin-axis
#6
Masakazu Kikai, Hiroyuki Yamada, Noriyuki Wakana, Kensuke Terada, Keita Yamamoto, Naotoshi Wada, Shinichiro Motoyama, Makoto Saburi, Takeshi Sugimoto, Daisuke Irie, Taku Kato, Hiroyuki Kawahito, Takehiro Ogata, Satoaki Matoba
Aims: Brown adipose tissue (BAT) has been identified as an endocrine organ that maintains metabolic homeostasis; however, the effects on atherosclerosis remain undefined. Here, we investigated the effect of experimental BAT transplantation on atherosclerosis. Methods and Results: Interscapular BAT was dissected from 12-week-old wild-type mice and transplanted into the visceral cavity of 12-week-old apoE-/- mice. Oil-red O staining of whole aortas after 3 months of a high-cholesterol diet showed a significant decrease in atherosclerotic lesion area in BAT-transplanted mice by 20% compared with the sham control mice...
November 2, 2017: Cardiovascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102862/reno-portal-shunt-for-liver-transplant-an-alternative-inflow-for-recipients-with-grade-iii-iv-portal-vein-thrombosis-tips-for-a-better-outcome
#7
Mustafa Nazzal, Yifei Sun, Obi Okoye, Laurence Diggs, Neil Evans, Tamara Osborn, Kambiz Etesami, Chintalapati Varma
INTRODUCTION: Portal vein thrombosis (PVT) poses an extremely difficult problem in cirrhotic patients who are in need of a liver transplant. The prevalence of PVT in patients with cirrhosis ranges from 0.6% to 26% Nery et al. (2015) [1]. The presence of PVT is associated with more technically difficult liver transplant and in certain cases can be a contraindication to liver transplant. The only option for these patients with extensive PVT would be a multi-visceral transplant, the later unfortunately has a much higher morbidity and mortality compared to liver only transplant Smith et al...
October 12, 2017: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081901/role-of-reduced-size-liver-bowel-grafts-in-the-abdominal-wall-transplantation-era
#8
REVIEW
Augusto Lauro, Anil Vaidya
The evolution of multi-visceral and isolated intestinal transplant techniques over the last 3 decades has highlighted the technical challenges related to the closure of the abdomen at the end of the procedure. Two key factors that contribute to this challenge include: (1) Volume/edema of donor graft; and (2) loss of abdominal domain in the recipient. Not being able to close the abdominal wall leads to a variety of complications and morbidity that range from complex ventral hernias to bowel perforation. At the end of the 90's this challenge was overcome by graft reduction during the donor operation or bench table procedure (especially reducing liver and small intestine), as well as techniques to increase the volume of abdominal cavity by pre-operative expansion devices...
September 27, 2017: World Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29074725/adipose-tissue-macrophages-induce-hepatic-neutrophil-recruitment-and-macrophage-accumulation-in-mice
#9
Mitchell Bijnen, Tatjana Josefs, Ilona Cuijpers, Constantijn J Maalsen, José van de Gaar, Maria Vroomen, Erwin Wijnands, Sander S Rensen, Jan Willem M Greve, Marten H Hofker, Erik A L Biessen, Coen D A Stehouwer, Casper G Schalkwijk, Kristiaan Wouters
OBJECTIVE: Obesity is a risk factor for non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). This risk has been attributed to visceral adipose tissue (vAT) expansion associated with increased proinflammatory mediators. Accumulation of CD11c+ proinflammatory adipose tissue macrophages (ATM) is an important driver of vAT inflammation. We investigated the role of ATMs in hepatic inflammation during NASH development. DESIGN: vAT isolated from lean, obese or ATM-depleted (using clodronate liposomes) obese mice was transplanted to lean ldlr-/- acceptor mice...
October 26, 2017: Gut
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29065258/characterization-of-body-composition-and-definition-of-sarcopenia-in-patients-with-alcoholic-cirrhosis-a-computed-tomography-based-study
#10
Jaya Benjamin, Varsha Shasthry, Chetan Ramesh Kaal, Lovkesh Anand, Ankit Bhardwaj, Vanshja Pandit, Ankur Arora, Sasidharan Rajesh, Viniyendra Pamecha, Vikas Jain, Guresh Kumar, Anthony Loria, Puneet Puri, Yogendra Kumar Joshi, Shiv Kumar Sarin
BACKGROUND: Alterations in body composition (BC) as loss of fat and muscle mass (sarcopenia) are associated with poor outcome in alcoholic cirrhosis (ALC). Prevalence of sarcopenia depends upon the method of assessment. Computed Tomography (CT) is a gold standard tool for assessing BC. AIM: To characterize BC and define sarcopenia in ALC patients using CT. METHODS: Single slice CT images at L3 vertebrae of healthy controls (HC) - organ transplant donors and ALC patients were analysed to give cross-sectional area of five skeletal muscles normalized for height -skeletal muscle index (SMI; cm(2) /m(2) ), area of subcutaneous (SAT;cm(2) ) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT;cm(2) )...
November 2017: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051398/relationship-between-postoperative-complications-and-survival-after-gastrectomy-for-cancer
#11
Paolo Del Rio, Emiliano Bernuzzi, Elisa Bertocchi, Lorenzo Viani, Federico Cozzani, Chiara Montana
BACKGROUND: Surgical resection remains the main curative treatment for gastric cancer but is still affected by high postoperative morbidity and mortality rates, especially in Western countries. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We've analyzed patients treated for gastric cancer at our Operative Unit of ent, extent of lymphadenectomy and survival. General Surgery and Organ Transplantation of the University Hospital of Parma from January 2006 till December 2010, relating the occurrence of eventual complications to sex, age at diagnosis, definitive histological examination, type and duration of surgical treatment...
2017: Annali Italiani di Chirurgia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025384/renal-transplant-failure-due-to-infiltrating-kaposi-sarcoma
#12
Awais Nauman, Adeel Arshad, Imaad Mujeeb, Muhammad Asim
Kaposi sarcoma is one of the most common malignancies seen during the posttransplant period, and it usually manifests in its cutaneous form. Renal transplant involvement is rare, whereas renal transplant parenchymal involvement causing transplant dysfunction is exceptionally rare. We report a case of visceral Kaposi sarcoma that led to renal transplant failure due to neoplastic infiltration of the renal allograft.
October 12, 2017: Experimental and Clinical Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023899/visceral-adiposity-increases-risk-for-hepatocellular-carcinoma-in-male-patients-with-cirrhosis-and-recurrence-after-liver-transplant
#13
Aldo J Montano-Loza, Vera C Mazurak, Maryam Ebadi, Judith Meza-Junco, Michael B Sawyer, Vickie E Baracos, Norman Kneteman
Visceral adipose tissue (VAT) is a metabolically active organ, associated with higher risk of malignancies. We aimed to evaluate if VAT is associated with the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in patients presenting with cirrhosis as well as HCC recurrence after liver transplantation (LT). Cirrhotic patients (n=678; 457 males) who were assessed for LT (289 with HCC) were evaluated for body composition analysis. Patients who underwent LT (n=247, 168 males) were subsequently evaluated for body composition, and 96 of these patients (78 males) had HCC...
October 10, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016284/is-visceral-leishmaniasis-different-in-immunocompromised-patients-without-human-immunodeficiency-virus-a-comparative-multicenter-retrospective-cohort-analysis
#14
MULTICENTER STUDY
José M Ramos, Rafael León, Esperanza Merino, Marta Montero, Asunción Aljibe, Marino Blanes, Sergio Reus, Vicente Boix, Miguel Salavert, Joaquín Portilla
Although visceral leishmaniasis (VL) can affect immunocompromised patients, data from the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection context are limited, and the characteristics of VL in other immunosuppression scenarios are not well defined. A retrospective review of all cases of VL in immunocompromised patients from January 1997 to December 2014 in two Spanish hospitals on the Mediterranean coast was performed. We included 18 transplant recipients (kidney: 7, liver: 4, lung: 3, heart: 2, and blood marrow: 2), 12 patients with other causes of immunosuppression (myasthenia gravis: 3 and rheumatoid arthritis: 2), and 73 VL HIV-positive patients...
October 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28953954/epidemiological-clinical-diagnostic-and-economic-features-of-an-immigrant-population-of-chronic-schistosomiasis-sufferers-with-long-term-residence-in-a-non-endemic-country-north-metropolitan-area-of-barcelona-2002-2016
#15
Sílvia Roure, Lluís Valerio, Olga Pérez-Quílez, Gema Fernández-Rivas, Octavio Martínez-Cuevas, Albert Alcántara-Román, Diego Viasus, M Luisa Pedro-Botet, Miquel Sabrià, Bonaventura Clotet
BACKGROUND: Schistosomiasis, one of the neglected tropical diseases (NTD) listed by the WHO, is an acute and chronic parasitic disease caused by blood flukes (trematode worms) of the genus Schistosoma. Complications of long-term infestation include liver cirrhosis, bladder tumors and kidney failure. The objective of this study was to carry out a clinical and epidemiological characterization of a schistosomiasis-diagnosed immigrant population with long-term residencein the EU as well as to evaluate the diagnostic methods available to date...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936708/impact-of-visceral-adiposity-as-well-as-sarcopenic-factors-on-outcomes-in-patients-undergoing-liver-resection-for-colorectal-liver-metastases
#16
Atsushi Kobayashi, Toshimi Kaido, Yuhei Hamaguchi, Shinya Okumura, Hisaya Shirai, Naoko Kamo, Shintaro Yagi, Kojiro Taura, Hideaki Okajima, Shinji Uemoto
OBJECTIVES: We have reported preoperative low skeletal muscularity as an independent risk factor for poor outcomes after liver transplantation, resection of hepatocellular carcinoma, pancreatic cancer and extrahepatic biliary malignancies. However, the impacts of visceral adiposity and muscularity on outcomes after liver resection for colorectal liver metastases (CLM) have not been fully investigated. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed 124 patients undergoing primary liver resection for CLM between 2005 and 2014...
September 21, 2017: World Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930104/liver-transplantation-in-the-obese-cirrhotic-patient
#17
REVIEW
Erin K Spengler, Jacqueline G O'Leary, Helen S Te, Shari Rogal, Anjana A Pillai, Abdullah Al-Osaimi, Archita Desai, James N Fleming, Daniel Ganger, Anil Seetharam, Georgios Tsoulfas, Martin Montenovo, Jennifer C Lai
Despite the rapidly increasing prevalence of obesity in the transplant population, the optimal management of obese liver transplant candidates remains undefined. Setting strict body mass index cutoffs for transplant candidacy remains controversial, with limited data to guide this practice. Body mass index is an imperfect measure of surgical risk in this population, partly due to volume overload and variable visceral adiposity. Weight loss before transplantation may be beneficial, but it remains important to avoid protein calorie malnutrition and sarcopenia...
October 2017: Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900442/impact-of-preoperative-three-dimensional-computed-tomography-cholangiography-on-postoperative-resection-margin-status-in-patients-operated-due-to-hilar-cholangiocarcinoma
#18
A Andert, P Bruners, C Heidenhain, F Ulmer, C D Klink, P H Alizai, C Kuhl, U P Neumann, M Binnebösel
INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this study was to analyse the value of 3-dimensional computed tomography cholangiography (3D-ERC) compared to conventional retrograde cholangiography in the preoperative diagnosis of hilar cholangiocarcinoma (HC) with special regard to the resection margin status (R0/R1). PATIENTS AND METHODS: All hepatic resections performed between January 2011 and November 2013 in patients with HC at the Department of General, Visceral and Transplant Surgery of the RWTH Aachen University Hospital were analysed...
2017: Gastroenterology Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884961/bartonellosis-in-chronic-kidney-disease-an-unrecognized-and-unsuspected-diagnosis
#19
REVIEW
Fateme Shamekhi Amiri
Systemic cat scratch disease or bartonellosis is a clinical entity caused by Bartonella henselae, which manifests with necrotizing granulomas in visceral organs. The cat flea, Ctenocephalides felis, is the vector responsible for horizontal transmission of the disease from cat to cat, and its bite can also infect humans. In immunocompromised patients including chronic kidney disease and renal transplant recipients, it can cause persistent and disseminated cat scratch disease. The aim of this paper is to perform a systematic review of the studies that have addressed the diagnostic methods of cat scratch disease in chronic kidney disease and renal transplant recipients...
October 2017: Therapeutic Apheresis and Dialysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28872191/cutaneous-t-cell-lymphoma-2017-update-on-diagnosis-risk-stratification-and-management
#20
REVIEW
Ryan A Wilcox
DISEASE OVERVIEW: Cutaneous T-cell lymphomas are a heterogenous group of T-cell lymphoproliferative disorders involving the skin, the majority of which may be classified as Mycosis Fungoides (MF) or Sézary Syndrome (SS). DIAGNOSIS: The diagnosis of MF or SS requires the integration of clinical and histopathologic data. RISK-ADAPTED THERAPY: TNMB (tumor, node, metastasis, blood) staging remains the most important prognostic factor in MF/SS and forms the basis for a "risk-adapted," multi-disciplinary approach to treatment...
October 2017: American Journal of Hematology
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