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Secondary psychopath

Matthew P Kramer, Brittany L Stevenson, Robert D Dvorak
OVERVIEW: Though not an official diagnosis, psychopathy has become an important area of research due to the litany of deleterious outcomes associated with this aspect of temperament. Psychopathy is composed of primary and secondary traits. Research consistently links psychopathy to alcohol pathology, though often only via secondary traits which are comprised of intractable aspects of behavior (e.g., poor impulse control). In contrast, primary psychopathy is comprised of behaviors that can be learned and thus may be more malleable (i...
February 13, 2017: American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse
Siny Tsang, Randall T Salekin, C Adam Coffey, Jennifer Cox
This study investigated how well components of the psychopathy trait are measured among college students with the Levenson Self-Report Psychopathy Scale (LSRP), the Personality Assessment Inventory-Antisocial Features Scale (PAI ANT), the Psychopathic Personality Inventory-Short Form (PPI-SF), and the Self-Report Psychopathy Scale-II (SRP-II). Using Samejima (1969)'s graded response model (GRM), the subscales were found to vary in their ability to measure the corresponding latent traits. The LSRP primary psychopathy factor is more precise in measuring the latent trait than the secondary psychopathy factor...
April 13, 2017: Psychological Assessment
Eva R Kimonis, Kostas A Fanti, Natalie Goulter, Jason Hall
Individuals with psychopathic traits show an attenuated emotional response to aversive stimuli. However, recent evidence suggests heterogeneity in emotional reactivity among individuals with psychopathic or callous-unemotional (CU) traits in the identification of primary and secondary subtypes, or variants. We hypothesized that primary CU variants will respond with blunted affect to negatively valenced stimuli, whereas individuals with a history of childhood maltreatment, fitting with theoretical conceptualizations of secondary psychopathy, will display heightened emotional reactivity...
December 29, 2016: Development and Psychopathology
Svetlana Oshukova, Riittakerttu Kaltiala-Heino, Jouko Miettunen, Riikka Marttila, Eeva T Aronen, Mauri Marttunen, Matti Kaivosoja, Nina Lindberg
BACKGROUND: Psychopathy research has thus far focused mostly on child, male, and delinquent samples, but the results are most likely non-generalizable to adolescent girls with mental health disorders. AIM: The present study aimed to compare self-rated psychopathic traits between female psychiatric outpatients and girls in the community, and to investigate how psychopathic traits relate to psychiatric disorders. METHOD: The outpatient sample comprised 163 girls aged 15-17-years recruited from municipal mental health services...
April 2017: Nordic Journal of Psychiatry
Julia Marshall, Ashley L Watts, Scott O Lilienfeld
Psychopathic individuals are often characterized as lacking a moral sense. Although this hypothesis has received ample experimental attention over the past decade, findings have been inconsistent. To elucidate the relationship between psychopathy and abnormal moral judgment, we conducted a meta-analysis of the research on psychopathy and morality-related variables (k = 23, N = 4376). A random effects model indicated a small but statistically significant relation between psychopathy and moral decision-making (rw = ...
October 31, 2016: Personality Disorders
Gabriele Masi, Annarita Milone, Paola Brovedani, Simone Pisano, Pietro Muratori
Disruptive Behavior Disorders (DBDs) are stable and impairing disorders, heterogeneous in presentation, developmental pathways, and treatment needs. Disentangling subtypes according to psychopathological dimensions is helpful for timely diagnoses, precise prognoses and tailored interventions. Psychopathic traits are relevant in subtyping DBDs with severe antisocial and aggressive behaviors. Three psychopathy dimensions have been found: 1) an affective dimension, the callous-unemotional (CU) trait, with lack of empathy and remorse, and with short-lived emotions; 2) an interpersonal dimension, the narcissistic domain, with manipulative abilities, superficial charm, egocentricity and grandiosity; 3) a behavioral dimension, the impulsivity or impulsive-irresponsibility, with irresponsibility, proneness to boredom, and novelty seeking...
September 25, 2016: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
Lidia Perenc, Mieczysław Radochoński
OBJECTIVE: The primary aim of the study was to assess the prevalence of psychopathic traits in a large sample of Polish adolescents representing both the rural and urban social milieu. An additional aim was to compare the results with similar studies conducted in other countries. MATERIALS AND METHOD: The study was conducted on a sample of 9,415 secondary school students (4,808 boys, 4,607 girls) aged 13 - 16. Psychopathic traits were measured by teacher-report ratings with the Antisocial Process Screening Device scale (APSD)...
June 2, 2016: Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine: AAEM
Douglas H Schultz, Nicholas L Balderston, Arielle R Baskin-Sommers, Christine L Larson, Fred J Helmstetter
Psychopathy is a personality disorder characterized by emotional deficits and a failure to inhibit impulsive behavior and is often subdivided into "primary" and "secondary" psychopathic subtypes. The maladaptive behavior related to primary psychopathy is thought to reflect constitutional "fearlessness," while the problematic behavior related to secondary psychopathy is motivated by other factors. The fearlessness observed in psychopathy has often been interpreted as reflecting a fundamental deficit in amygdala function, and previous studies have provided support for a low-fear model of psychopathy...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Dylan T Gatner, Adam J E Blanchard, Kevin S Douglas, Scott O Lilienfeld, John F Edens
Despite the forensic relevance of psychopathy and the overrepresentation of Hispanics in the United States' criminal justice system, these two issues remain underexplored, particularly with self-report measures of psychopathy. We investigated the criterion validity of three psychopathy measures among African Americans, Caucasians, and Hispanics in a sample of 1,742 offenders. More similarity than dissimilarity emerged across groups. The factor structures of psychopathy measures among Hispanic offenders were consistent with previous findings...
March 17, 2016: Assessment
Steven M Gillespie, Pia Rotshtein, Laura J Wells, Anthony R Beech, Ian J Mitchell
Psychopathic traits are linked with impairments in emotional facial expression recognition. These impairments may, in part, reflect reduced attention to the eyes of emotional faces. Although reduced attention to the eyes has been noted among children with conduct problems and callous-unemotional traits, similar findings are yet to be found in relation to psychopathic traits among adult male participants. Here we investigated the relationship of primary (selfish, uncaring) and secondary (impulsive, antisocial) psychopathic traits with attention to the eyes among adult male non-offenders during an emotion recognition task...
2015: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Ian J Mitchell, Steven M Gillespie, Monica Leverton, Victoria Llewellyn, Emily Neale, Isobel Stevenson
Studies have consistently shown that both consumption of acute amounts of alcohol and elevated antisocial psychopathic traits are associated with an impaired ability for prepotent response inhibition. This may manifest as a reduced ability to inhibit prepotent race biased responses. Here, we tested the effects of acute alcohol consumption, and elevated antisocial psychopathic traits, on judgments of the attractiveness and health of ethnic ingroup and outgroup faces. In the first study, we show that following acute alcohol consumption, at a dose that is sufficient to result in impaired performance on tests of executive function, Caucasian participants judged White faces to be more attractive and healthier compared to when sober...
2015: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Andreas Mokros, Robert D Hare, Craig S Neumann, Pekka Santtila, Elmar Habermeyer, Joachim Nitschke
As measured with the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R), psychopathy is a dimensional construct underpinned by 4 correlated factors: Interpersonal, Affective, Lifestyle, and Antisocial. Theorists and clinicians (e.g., Karpman and Arieti) have posited 2 variants of "primary" or "true" psychopathy, both distinct from so-called "secondary" or "pseudopsychopathy." We used latent profile analysis to determine if homogeneous classes exist within a sample of 1,451 male offenders with high PCL-R scores (≥ 27)...
May 2015: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
Mark E Olver, Lindsay A Sewall, Gordon E Sarty, Kathy Lewis, Stephen C P Wong
The present study is a cluster analytic examination and validation of psychopathic offender subtypes from 4 combined samples of Canadian federally incarcerated offenders, most of whom were serving sentences for violent offenses. The men were rated on the Hare Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R; Hare, 1991, 2003) on the basis of comprehensive file information and 314 cases were extracted using a PCL-R total cut score of 25. Cluster analysis of the 4 PCL-R facets converged at a 2-cluster solution: a primary subtype characterized by prominent interpersonal and affective features of psychopathy and a secondary subtype characterized by comparatively few interpersonal features and high scores on the remaining facets...
May 2015: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
Gustavo B Castellana, Daniel M de Barros, Antonio de P Serafim, Geraldo Busatto Filho
OBJECTIVE: To analyze the differences in psychopathic traits between offender and non-offender youths with similar socioeconomic backgrounds. METHOD: The Psychopathy Checklist Revised (PCL-R) scale was used to identify whether 39 young offenders with no history of mental disorders or criteria for psychopathy exhibited differences in its total score, and specifically for factor 1 or factor 2 of this scale, when compared with 32 other young people, living in similar socioeconomic conditions, who had not committed offenses...
September 2014: Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria
Laura E Drislane, Christopher J Patrick, Andre Sourander, Lauri Sillanmäki, Steven H Aggen, Henrik Elonheimo, Kai Parkkola, Petteri Multimäki, Kenneth S Kendler
This study used model-based cluster analysis to identify subtypes of men who scored high in overall psychopathy (i.e., ≥ 95th percentile on the Triarchic Psychopathy Measure; n = 193) from a larger sample evaluated for service in the Finnish military (N = 4043). Cluster variates consisted of scores on distinct facets of psychopathy together with a measure of negative affectivity. The best-fitting model specified 2 clusters, representing "primary" (n = 110) and "secondary" psychopathy (n = 83) groups. Compared to a low-psychopathy comparison group (n = 1878), both psychopathy subgroups showed markedly elevated levels of externalizing symptoms and criminal behavior...
April 2014: Personality Disorders
Lidia Perenc, Mieczyslaw Radochonski
This paper presents results of the only large-scale study carried-out in Poland to date on the prevalence of psychopathic traits and their relationship with aggressive behaviour in mainstream adolescents. The sample consists of 9,415 students (4,808 boys, 4,607 girls) in the first to third grades at 142 public secondary schools. Psychopathic traits were measured by teacher-report ratings with the antisocial process screening device (APSD), while aggressive behaviours were assessed using the Reactive-Proactive Aggression Questionnaire...
August 2014: Child Psychiatry and Human Development
Diana M Falkenbach, Stephanie B Stern, Caysyn Creevy
Psychopathy is a personality construct typically related to deficits in interpersonal and affective functioning and antisocial behavior. Currently, the majority of research focuses on the omnibus construct of psychopathy as it applies to criminal populations. However, theories of psychopathy and empirical evidence suggest that there may be different variants of psychopathy and diverse expressions of psychopathic traits across individuals. Thus, there is a need to consider psychopathy in terms of subtypes and across more broadly defined populations...
January 2014: Personality Disorders
Samuel J Leistedt, Paul Linkowski
The authors investigated the relationship between cinema and psychopathy to describe and analyze the portrayal of fictional psychopathic characters in popular films and over cinematic history. From 400 films (1915-2010), 126 fictional psychopathic characters (21 female and 105 male) were selected based on the realism and clinical accuracy of their profiles. Movies were then analyzed by senior forensic psychiatrists and cinema critics. Secondary (71%) and manipulative (48%) subtypes were the most common in the female group, while secondary (51%) and prototypical (34%) were the most common in the male group...
January 2014: Journal of Forensic Sciences
Shawn N Geniole, Michael A Busseri, Cheryl M McCormick
Few studies have investigated the influence of changes in testosterone on subsequent competitive, antagonistic behavior in humans. Further, little is known about the extent to which such effects are moderated by personality traits. Here, we collected salivary measures of testosterone before and after a rigged competition. After the competition, participants were given the opportunity to act antagonistically against the competitor (allocate a low honorarium). We hypothesized that changes in testosterone throughout the competition would predict antagonistic behavior such that greater increases would be associated with the allocation of lower honorariums...
November 2013: Hormones and Behavior
Steven M Gillespie, Ian J Mitchell, Ian Johnson, Ellen Dawson, Anthony R Beech
Psychopathic personality traits are linked with selfish and non-cooperative responses during economical decision making games. However, the possibility that these responses may vary when responding to members of the in-group and the out-group has not yet been explored. We aimed to examine the effects of primary (selfish, uncaring) and secondary (impulsive, irresponsible) psychopathic personality traits on the responses of non-offending participants to the in-group and the out-group (defined in terms of affiliation to a UK University) across a series of economical decision making games...
2013: PloS One
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