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Primary psychopaths

Ryan C T DeLapp, Gregory S Chasson, Jessica Swerbilow, Brittany Gibby, Ghazel Tellawi, Monnica T Williams
Aggressive intrusive thoughts (AITs) are unwanted and repetitive thoughts, impulses, or desires that enter into consciousness involuntarily. The current study compared the frequency of and distress from AITs in a sample of inmates jailed for violent crimes ( n = 78) versus college students ( n = 103; that is, participant status). The relationship between psychopathic traits and AITs was also explored. Results indicated that, although there were no differences between students and inmates, AIT frequency was positively associated with Primary Psychopathy...
February 1, 2018: International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology
Danielle R DeSorcy, Mark E Olver, J Stephen Wormith
The present study examined the working alliance, as measured by the full-length Working Alliance Inventory (WAI), and its association with psychopathy, treatment completion, and recidivism in a sample of 111 incarcerated adult male sexual offenders. The men completed the WAI 3 months into their treatment program, while psychopathy was measured via file-based ratings of the Hare's Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R), and outcome data were collected via the Canadian Police Information Centre. The majority (85%) of high PCL-R scoring men (PCL-R 25+) successfully completed their treatment program, and by and large, the men demonstrated strong working alliances with their primary therapists...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
Olivier F Colins, Kostas A Fanti, Randall T Salekin, Eva Mulder, Henrik Andershed
This study investigates whether primary and secondary variants of psychopathy can be identified in an applied, forensic setting based on self-reports of psychopathy and anxiety. Data were available for two samples of detained boys (Sample A: N = 847, Sample B: N = 749). Using three psychopathy dimensions and anxiety as clustering variables, latent profile analysis arrived at 4 latent classes (LCs) that were tentatively labeled as control (LC1), high anxiety (LC2), moderate psychopathy (LC3), and high psychopathy (LC4)...
December 14, 2017: Personality Disorders
Marija Pajevic, Borjanka Batinic, Nikola Stevanovic
The aim of the present study was to explore the subtypes of offenders based on psychopathic traits in a sample of 127 adult homicide offenders (n=40.3% convicted of murder, n=32.6% convicted of aggravated murder, n=27.1% convicted of attempted murder). A two-step cluster analysis of the four factors of psychopathy yielded three clusters, which were then compared on the general dimensions of personality defined by the HEXACO model, intelligence, sadism and psychopathology variables conceptualized by the MMPI-202...
November 2017: International Journal of Law and Psychiatry
Monika Dargis, Michael Koenigs
OBJECTIVE: Specification of the etiological mechanisms underlying psychopathy is a key step in developing more effective methods for preventing and remediating the callous and impulsive behavior that characterizes the disorder. Theoretical conceptualizations of psychopathic subtypes propose that a primary variant largely stems from impoverished affect, whereas a secondary variant is hypothesized to develop subsequent to adverse environmental experiences (e.g., childhood maltreatment)...
October 16, 2017: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
Wendy Zwaanswijk, Mitch van Geel, Henrik Andershed, Kostas A Fanti, Paul Vedder
The current study examines variants of psychopathy in a community sample of Dutch adolescents (N = 2,855, 57% male) using three dimensions of psychopathy and trait anxiety. Five subgroups were identified, two with high levels of psychopathic traits. The first seemed consistent with primary psychopathy, high on all dimensions, with additional low levels of anxiety, whereas the second showed elevated levels of anxiety, consistent with secondary psychopathy. Two variants low on psychopathic traits were identified: a low-risk variant and an anxious variant...
October 3, 2017: Journal of Personality Disorders
Takahiro Osumi, Hideki Ohira
Psychopathy is a group of personality traits that are associated with violations of social norms. Previous studies have suggested that people with psychopathic traits in subclinical populations do not necessarily display antisocial, self-defeating behaviors, and instead may strategically show adaptive behaviors in response to cues during reciprocal social interactions. Therefore, in the present study, we examined whether the association between psychopathic traits and unfair behavior can be moderated by a potential for punishment and social distance (anonymity), which are known to facilitate fair behavior...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
Matthew P Kramer, Brittany L Stevenson, Robert D Dvorak
OVERVIEW: Though not an official diagnosis, psychopathy has become an important area of research due to the litany of deleterious outcomes associated with this aspect of temperament. Psychopathy is composed of primary and secondary traits. Research consistently links psychopathy to alcohol pathology, though often only via secondary traits which are comprised of intractable aspects of behavior (e.g., poor impulse control). In contrast, primary psychopathy is comprised of behaviors that can be learned and thus may be more malleable (i...
November 2017: American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse
Holly A Miller, Jeffrey A Bouffard, Cassidy A DeHaan
Researchers have consistently found a relationship between psychopathy and the use of sexual coercion in samples of males with and without previous sexual arrests (Abbey, Jacques-Tiura, & LeBreton, 2011; Hare, 1991; Hersh & Gray-Little, 1998; Seto & Lalumiere, 2000). Although there is growing recognition that females also engage in sexually coercive behavior, current understanding of female coercion is limited (Bouffard, Bouffard, & Miller, 2015; Cortoni, Hanson, & Coache, 2010; Muñoz, Khan, & Cordwell, 2011)...
June 1, 2017: Violence and Victims
Siny Tsang, Randall T Salekin, C Adam Coffey, Jennifer Cox
This study investigated how well components of the psychopathy trait are measured among college students with the Levenson Self-Report Psychopathy Scale (LSRP), the Personality Assessment Inventory-Antisocial Features Scale (PAI ANT), the Psychopathic Personality Inventory-Short Form (PPI-SF), and the Self-Report Psychopathy Scale-II (SRP-II). Using Samejima (1969)'s graded response model (GRM), the subscales were found to vary in their ability to measure the corresponding latent traits. The LSRP primary psychopathy factor is more precise in measuring the latent trait than the secondary psychopathy factor...
April 13, 2017: Psychological Assessment
Dennis E Reidy, Elizabeth Krusemark, David S Kosson, Megan C Kearns, Joanne Smith-Darden, Kent A Kiehl
Psychopathic traits are a manifestation of a personality pathology that comprises a core affective-interpersonal dysfunction (callous-unemotional traits) and an impulsive-antisocial behavioral component. Of particular importance, psychopathic traits are associated with the perpetration of some of the most severe acts of violence, and they appear to indicate a subset of youth at risk for earlier onset, greater frequency, and persistence of violent offending. Although these youth represent a minority of the population, they commit a significant proportion of the violence in the general community...
December 2017: Child Psychiatry and Human Development
Eva R Kimonis, Kostas A Fanti, Natalie Goulter, Jason Hall
Individuals with psychopathic traits show an attenuated emotional response to aversive stimuli. However, recent evidence suggests heterogeneity in emotional reactivity among individuals with psychopathic or callous-unemotional (CU) traits in the identification of primary and secondary subtypes, or variants. We hypothesized that primary CU variants will respond with blunted affect to negatively valenced stimuli, whereas individuals with a history of childhood maltreatment, fitting with theoretical conceptualizations of secondary psychopathy, will display heightened emotional reactivity...
December 29, 2016: Development and Psychopathology
Joseph P Newman, Arielle R Baskin-Sommers
In the first meta-analytic review of the response modulation hypothesis (RMH), an attention-based model for understanding the etiology of psychopathy, Smith and Lilienfeld (2015) report that the average effect size for response modulation deficits in psychopathic individuals fell in the small to medium range (r = .20; p < .001, d = .41). Moreover, support for the RMH extended to both psychopathy dimensions, applied across diverse assessments and settings, and spanned child, adult, female, and male samples...
December 2016: Psychological Bulletin
K Haack, E Kumbier
In the first decades of the 20(th) century stations for observing "psychopathological" children and adolescents were established at a number of psychiatric facilities in the German Reich. Often they functioned as the nucleus for future psychiatric clinics for children and adolescents. Using primary sources of the Landeshauptarchiv Schwerin (main land archive in Schwerin), the local development of the neuropsychiatric clinic in Rostock-Gehlsheim is illustrated in this paper, exploring the question to what degree it caused the specific development of psychiatry in the child and adolescent age group...
October 2016: Fortschritte der Neurologie-Psychiatrie
Gabriele Masi, Annarita Milone, Paola Brovedani, Simone Pisano, Pietro Muratori
Disruptive Behavior Disorders (DBDs) are stable and impairing disorders, heterogeneous in presentation, developmental pathways, and treatment needs. Disentangling subtypes according to psychopathological dimensions is helpful for timely diagnoses, precise prognoses and tailored interventions. Psychopathic traits are relevant in subtyping DBDs with severe antisocial and aggressive behaviors. Three psychopathy dimensions have been found: 1) an affective dimension, the callous-unemotional (CU) trait, with lack of empathy and remorse, and with short-lived emotions; 2) an interpersonal dimension, the narcissistic domain, with manipulative abilities, superficial charm, egocentricity and grandiosity; 3) a behavioral dimension, the impulsivity or impulsive-irresponsibility, with irresponsibility, proneness to boredom, and novelty seeking...
September 25, 2016: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
Lidia Perenc, Mieczysław Radochoński
OBJECTIVE: The primary aim of the study was to assess the prevalence of psychopathic traits in a large sample of Polish adolescents representing both the rural and urban social milieu. An additional aim was to compare the results with similar studies conducted in other countries. MATERIALS AND METHOD: The study was conducted on a sample of 9,415 secondary school students (4,808 boys, 4,607 girls) aged 13 - 16. Psychopathic traits were measured by teacher-report ratings with the Antisocial Process Screening Device scale (APSD)...
June 2, 2016: Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine: AAEM
Elizabeth A Krusemark, Kent A Kiehl, Joseph P Newman
Psychopathic individuals are prone to act on urges without adequate consideration of future consequences or the rights of other individuals. One interpretation of this behavior is that it reflects abnormal selective attention (i.e., a failure to process information that is incongruent with their primary focus of attention; Hiatt, Schmitt, & Newman, Neuropsychology, 18, 50-59, 2004). Unfortunately, it is unclear whether this selective attention abnormality reflects top-down endogenous influences, such as the strength or specificity of attention focus (i...
October 2016: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
Douglas H Schultz, Nicholas L Balderston, Arielle R Baskin-Sommers, Christine L Larson, Fred J Helmstetter
Psychopathy is a personality disorder characterized by emotional deficits and a failure to inhibit impulsive behavior and is often subdivided into "primary" and "secondary" psychopathic subtypes. The maladaptive behavior related to primary psychopathy is thought to reflect constitutional "fearlessness," while the problematic behavior related to secondary psychopathy is motivated by other factors. The fearlessness observed in psychopathy has often been interpreted as reflecting a fundamental deficit in amygdala function, and previous studies have provided support for a low-fear model of psychopathy...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Dylan T Gatner, Adam J E Blanchard, Kevin S Douglas, Scott O Lilienfeld, John F Edens
Despite the forensic relevance of psychopathy and the overrepresentation of Hispanics in the United States' criminal justice system, these two issues remain underexplored, particularly with self-report measures of psychopathy. We investigated the criterion validity of three psychopathy measures among African Americans, Caucasians, and Hispanics in a sample of 1,742 offenders. More similarity than dissimilarity emerged across groups. The factor structures of psychopathy measures among Hispanic offenders were consistent with previous findings...
March 17, 2016: Assessment
Wendy Zwaanswijk, Violaine C Veen, Paul Vedder
The current study examines a bifactor model for the Youth Psychopathic Traits Inventory (YPI) in a Dutch community sample of adolescents ( N = 2,874). The primary goal was to examine the latent structure of the YPI with a bifactor modeling approach. Furthermore, the study examines the dimensionality and measurement invariance of the YPI. Results show that a bifactor model at subscale level fits the YPI best. The general psychopathy factor influences the 10 subscales of the YPI strongly, indicating that the YPI seems to be rather unidimensional than multidimensional...
October 2017: Assessment
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