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Primary psychopaths

Eva R Kimonis, Kostas A Fanti, Natalie Goulter, Jason Hall
Individuals with psychopathic traits show an attenuated emotional response to aversive stimuli. However, recent evidence suggests heterogeneity in emotional reactivity among individuals with psychopathic or callous-unemotional (CU) traits in the identification of primary and secondary subtypes, or variants. We hypothesized that primary CU variants will respond with blunted affect to negatively valenced stimuli, whereas individuals with a history of childhood maltreatment, fitting with theoretical conceptualizations of secondary psychopathy, will display heightened emotional reactivity...
December 29, 2016: Development and Psychopathology
Joseph P Newman, Arielle R Baskin-Sommers
In the first meta-analytic review of the response modulation hypothesis (RMH), an attention-based model for understanding the etiology of psychopathy, Smith and Lilienfeld (2015) report that the average effect size for response modulation deficits in psychopathic individuals fell in the small to medium range (r = .20; p < .001, d = .41). Moreover, support for the RMH extended to both psychopathy dimensions, applied across diverse assessments and settings, and spanned child, adult, female, and male samples...
December 2016: Psychological Bulletin
K Haack, E Kumbier
In the first decades of the 20(th) century stations for observing "psychopathological" children and adolescents were established at a number of psychiatric facilities in the German Reich. Often they functioned as the nucleus for future psychiatric clinics for children and adolescents. Using primary sources of the Landeshauptarchiv Schwerin (main land archive in Schwerin), the local development of the neuropsychiatric clinic in Rostock-Gehlsheim is illustrated in this paper, exploring the question to what degree it caused the specific development of psychiatry in the child and adolescent age group...
October 2016: Fortschritte der Neurologie-Psychiatrie
Gabriele Masi, Annarita Milone, Paola Brovedani, Simone Pisano, Pietro Muratori
Disruptive Behavior Disorders (DBDs) are stable and impairing disorders, heterogeneous in presentation, developmental pathways, and treatment needs. Disentangling subtypes according to psychopathological dimensions is helpful for timely diagnoses, precise prognoses and tailored interventions. Psychopathic traits are relevant in subtyping DBDs with severe antisocial and aggressive behaviors. Three psychopathy dimensions have been found: 1) an affective dimension, the callous-unemotional (CU) trait, with lack of empathy and remorse, and with short-lived emotions; 2) an interpersonal dimension, the narcissistic domain, with manipulative abilities, superficial charm, egocentricity and grandiosity; 3) a behavioral dimension, the impulsivity or impulsive-irresponsibility, with irresponsibility, proneness to boredom, and novelty seeking...
September 25, 2016: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
Lidia Perenc, Mieczysław Radochoński
OBJECTIVE: The primary aim of the study was to assess the prevalence of psychopathic traits in a large sample of Polish adolescents representing both the rural and urban social milieu. An additional aim was to compare the results with similar studies conducted in other countries. MATERIALS AND METHOD: The study was conducted on a sample of 9,415 secondary school students (4,808 boys, 4,607 girls) aged 13 - 16. Psychopathic traits were measured by teacher-report ratings with the Antisocial Process Screening Device scale (APSD)...
June 2, 2016: Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine: AAEM
Elizabeth A Krusemark, Kent A Kiehl, Joseph P Newman
Psychopathic individuals are prone to act on urges without adequate consideration of future consequences or the rights of other individuals. One interpretation of this behavior is that it reflects abnormal selective attention (i.e., a failure to process information that is incongruent with their primary focus of attention; Hiatt, Schmitt, & Newman, Neuropsychology, 18, 50-59, 2004). Unfortunately, it is unclear whether this selective attention abnormality reflects top-down endogenous influences, such as the strength or specificity of attention focus (i...
October 2016: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
Douglas H Schultz, Nicholas L Balderston, Arielle R Baskin-Sommers, Christine L Larson, Fred J Helmstetter
Psychopathy is a personality disorder characterized by emotional deficits and a failure to inhibit impulsive behavior and is often subdivided into "primary" and "secondary" psychopathic subtypes. The maladaptive behavior related to primary psychopathy is thought to reflect constitutional "fearlessness," while the problematic behavior related to secondary psychopathy is motivated by other factors. The fearlessness observed in psychopathy has often been interpreted as reflecting a fundamental deficit in amygdala function, and previous studies have provided support for a low-fear model of psychopathy...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Dylan T Gatner, Adam J E Blanchard, Kevin S Douglas, Scott O Lilienfeld, John F Edens
Despite the forensic relevance of psychopathy and the overrepresentation of Hispanics in the United States' criminal justice system, these two issues remain underexplored, particularly with self-report measures of psychopathy. We investigated the criterion validity of three psychopathy measures among African Americans, Caucasians, and Hispanics in a sample of 1,742 offenders. More similarity than dissimilarity emerged across groups. The factor structures of psychopathy measures among Hispanic offenders were consistent with previous findings...
March 17, 2016: Assessment
Wendy Zwaanswijk, Violaine C Veen, Paul Vedder
The current study examines a bifactor model for the Youth Psychopathic Traits Inventory (YPI) in a Dutch community sample of adolescents (N = 2,874). The primary goal was to examine the latent structure of the YPI with a bifactor modeling approach. Furthermore, the study examines the dimensionality and measurement invariance of the YPI. Results show that a bifactor model at subscale level fits the YPI best. The general psychopathy factor influences the 10 subscales of the YPI strongly, indicating that the YPI seems to be rather unidimensional than multidimensional...
February 18, 2016: Assessment
Steven M Gillespie, Pia Rotshtein, Laura J Wells, Anthony R Beech, Ian J Mitchell
Psychopathic traits are linked with impairments in emotional facial expression recognition. These impairments may, in part, reflect reduced attention to the eyes of emotional faces. Although reduced attention to the eyes has been noted among children with conduct problems and callous-unemotional traits, similar findings are yet to be found in relation to psychopathic traits among adult male participants. Here we investigated the relationship of primary (selfish, uncaring) and secondary (impulsive, antisocial) psychopathic traits with attention to the eyes among adult male non-offenders during an emotion recognition task...
2015: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Bariş O Yildirim, Jan J L Derksen
Despite similar emotional deficiencies, primary psychopathic individuals can be situated on a continuum that spans from controlled to disinhibited. The constructs on which primary psychopaths are found to diverge, such as self-control, cognitive flexibility, and executive functioning, are crucially regulated by dopamine (DA). As such, the goal of this review is to examine which specific alterations in the meso-cortico-limbic DA system and corresponding genes (e.g., TH, DAT, COMT, DRD2, DRD4) might bias development towards a more controlled or disinhibited expression of primary psychopathy...
October 30, 2015: Psychiatry Research
Moon-Doo Kim, Hye-Jin Seo, Hyun-Ju Yun, Young-Eun Jung, Joon Hyuk Park, Chang-In Lee, Ji Hyun Moon, Seong-Chul Hong, Bo-Hyun Yoon, Won-Myong Bahk
OBJECTIVE: The primary goals of the present study were to assess intellectual function in participants with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder (BD) and to investigate the relationships between cognitive decline and the severity of each type of psychopathology. METHODS: The present study included 51 patients with schizophrenia and 42 with BD who were recruited from the psychiatry outpatient clinic of Jeju University Hospital between March 2011 and March 2014. The Korean Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (K-WAIS) was administered to each of the 93 participants, and they were categorized into two groups based on their current intelligence quotient (IQ) and their estimated premorbid IQ: severely impaired group (SIG) and mildly impaired group (MIG)...
April 30, 2015: Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience: the Official Scientific Journal of the Korean College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Annika Thomson, Jari Tiihonen, Jouko Miettunen, Eila Sailas, Matti Virkkunen, Nina Lindberg
BACKGROUND: Psychopathy, a severe disorder of personality, is well represented in the criminal and forensic psychiatric population and is significantly associated with increased risk of violence and crime. Fire-setting is a major source of property damage, injury, and death in many Western countries. The primary aim of this study was to evaluate psychopathic traits in a consecutive sample of Finnish male pretrial fire-setting offenders. Further, we wanted to investigate whether fire-setting recidivists show higher traits of psychopathy than one-time firesetters and whether exclusive firesetters show lower traits of psychopathy than those with criminal versatility...
2015: BMC Psychiatry
Andreas Mokros, Robert D Hare, Craig S Neumann, Pekka Santtila, Elmar Habermeyer, Joachim Nitschke
As measured with the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R), psychopathy is a dimensional construct underpinned by 4 correlated factors: Interpersonal, Affective, Lifestyle, and Antisocial. Theorists and clinicians (e.g., Karpman and Arieti) have posited 2 variants of "primary" or "true" psychopathy, both distinct from so-called "secondary" or "pseudopsychopathy." We used latent profile analysis to determine if homogeneous classes exist within a sample of 1,451 male offenders with high PCL-R scores (≥ 27)...
May 2015: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
Mark E Olver, Lindsay A Sewall, Gordon E Sarty, Kathy Lewis, Stephen C P Wong
The present study is a cluster analytic examination and validation of psychopathic offender subtypes from 4 combined samples of Canadian federally incarcerated offenders, most of whom were serving sentences for violent offenses. The men were rated on the Hare Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R; Hare, 1991, 2003) on the basis of comprehensive file information and 314 cases were extracted using a PCL-R total cut score of 25. Cluster analysis of the 4 PCL-R facets converged at a 2-cluster solution: a primary subtype characterized by prominent interpersonal and affective features of psychopathy and a secondary subtype characterized by comparatively few interpersonal features and high scores on the remaining facets...
May 2015: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
Cynthia Mathieu, Craig Neumann, Paul Babiak, Robert D Hare
The B-Scan 360 is a relatively new, purpose-built measure of corporate psychopathy that addresses many of the issues inherent in studying psychopathy in organizations. The primary goal of the present study was to measure the relationship between employees' perception of psychopathic features in their supervisor and their rating of their supervisor on the Full-Range Model of Leadership. The second goal of the study was to test the B-Scan 360's factor structure and test its interrater reliability in an organizational sample...
June 2015: Assessment
Darcy Brown, Fintan Larkin, Samrat Sengupta, Jose L Romero-Ureclay, Callum C Ross, Nitin Gupta, Morris Vinestock, Mrigendra Das
OBJECTIVE: A number of studies have demonstrated the anti-aggressive properties of clozapine in schizophrenia and its positive effect in borderline personality disorder. There is no published literature on the treatment of antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) with clozapine. We present a case series of 7 patients with primary ASPD and high psychopathic traits treated with clozapine, having a significant history of serious violence and currently detained in a UK based high-security hospital...
October 2014: CNS Spectrums
Gustavo B Castellana, Daniel M de Barros, Antonio de P Serafim, Geraldo Busatto Filho
OBJECTIVE: To analyze the differences in psychopathic traits between offender and non-offender youths with similar socioeconomic backgrounds. METHOD: The Psychopathy Checklist Revised (PCL-R) scale was used to identify whether 39 young offenders with no history of mental disorders or criteria for psychopathy exhibited differences in its total score, and specifically for factor 1 or factor 2 of this scale, when compared with 32 other young people, living in similar socioeconomic conditions, who had not committed offenses...
September 2014: Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria
Peter Tyrer
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to examine the evidence for a new hypothesis explaining the relationship between personality and mental state disorders. DESIGN: At present, the attribution of personality disorder as a primary diagnosis only applies to patients who are antisocial, and particularly regarded as psychopathic, as in these patients, the mental state disorder that are associated are regarded in many respects as atypical and not representative of other mental disorders...
February 2015: Personality and Mental Health
Laura E Drislane, Christopher J Patrick, Andre Sourander, Lauri Sillanmäki, Steven H Aggen, Henrik Elonheimo, Kai Parkkola, Petteri Multimäki, Kenneth S Kendler
This study used model-based cluster analysis to identify subtypes of men who scored high in overall psychopathy (i.e., ≥ 95th percentile on the Triarchic Psychopathy Measure; n = 193) from a larger sample evaluated for service in the Finnish military (N = 4043). Cluster variates consisted of scores on distinct facets of psychopathy together with a measure of negative affectivity. The best-fitting model specified 2 clusters, representing "primary" (n = 110) and "secondary" psychopathy (n = 83) groups. Compared to a low-psychopathy comparison group (n = 1878), both psychopathy subgroups showed markedly elevated levels of externalizing symptoms and criminal behavior...
April 2014: Personality Disorders
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