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Violent psychopaths

Suvi Saukkonen, Eeva T Aronen, Taina Laajasalo, Venla Salmi, Janne Kivivuori, Markus Jokela
We examined different forms of victimization experiences in relation to psychopathic features and whether these associations differed in boys and girls among 4855 Finnish school adolescents aged 15-16 years. Psychopathic features were measured with the Antisocial Process Screening Device- Self Report (APSD-SR). Victimization was assessed with questions about violent and abusive experiences across lifetime and within the last 12 months. Results from linear regression analysis showed that victimization was significantly associated with higher APSD-SR total scores, more strongly in girls than boys...
October 2016: Child Abuse & Neglect
Edelyn Verona
Researchers have long acknowledged heterogeneity among persons who exhibit antisocial and violent behaviours. The study of psychopathic personality or psychopathy can help elucidate this heterogeneity through examination of the different facets that constitute this disorder. In particular, the distinct correlates of the interpersonal-affective traits (Factor 1) and the impulsive-antisocial traits (Factor 2) of psychopathy suggest at least two possible pathways to antisocial behaviours. Building on basic studies in cognitive and affective neuroscience, we provide a focused, non-comprehensive review of work identifying the biopsychological mechanisms involved in these two pathways, with special attention to studies using event-related potential (ERP) methods...
2016: Santé Mentale Au Québec
Bruno Verschuere, Willem In T Hout
The cognitive view on deception holds that lying typically requires additional mental effort as compared to truth telling. Psychopathy, however, has been associated with swift and even compulsive lying, leading us to explore the ease and compulsive nature of lying in psychopathic offenders. We explored the costs of instructed lying versus truth telling through RTs and error rates in 52 violent male offenders, who were assessed with the Youth Psychopathic Traits Inventory (YPI). Our deception paradigm also included trials with the free choice to lie or tell the truth...
2016: PloS One
Verena Ly, Anna Katinka Louise von Borries, Inti Angelo Brazil, Behrend Hendrik Bulten, Roshan Cools, Karin Roelofs
Instrumental or goal-directed aggression is a core feature in violent offenders with psychopathic tendencies. To understand this type of behavior, previous work in the field of aggression has focused on affective processing, with mixed results. We propose that instrumental aggression is best understood in terms of the consequences of affective processing for instrumental behavior rather than affective processing per se. Therefore, we assessed the degree of affective biasing of instrumental action in a group of violent offenders with psychopathic tendencies and healthy controls using a validated affective decision-making task...
July 2016: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
Melina Nicole Kyranides, Kostas A Fanti, Maria Sikki, Christopher J Patrick
This study examined associations of psychopathy facets of boldness, meanness, and disinhibition with clinically relevant variables and physiological reactivity to affective stimuli. These associations were examined after accounting for developmental associations with adolescent psychopathic traits, namely callous-unemotional traits, narcissism, and impulsivity. Psychopathic traits were assessed during adolescence using the Antisocial Process Screening Device and the Inventory of Callous Unemotional traits and during young adulthood via the Triarchic Psychopathy Measure...
May 12, 2016: Personality Disorders
Adam D LaMotte, Nancy A Remington, Casey Rezac, Christopher M Murphy
This study investigated positive and negative reactions and conciliatory behaviors after perpetration of intimate partner violence (IPV). The goals were to examine the rates of these reactions and their associations with key attitudinal and personality factors. During program intake at a community agency, 172 partner violent men completed assessments of positive reactions (e.g., feeling justified) and negative reactions (e.g., feeling ashamed) after IPV, conciliatory behaviors after IPV (e.g., buying flowers for the partner), frequency of physical assault and abuse perpetration, and motivational readiness to change...
April 18, 2016: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
Scott Risser, Katy Eckert
The present study investigated the relations between morally disengaged attitudes, psychopathic affective traits, and a variety of antisocial and risky behaviors in a sample of adults (N=181). A second aim of the study was to examine the unique contributions of moral disengagement and psychopathic traits in predicting problematic behavior while the other construct is statistically controlled. Results indicated that whereas psychopathic traits and moral disengagement were both uniquely predictive of non-violent antisocial behaviors, only remorselessness was uniquely predictive of violence and only morally disengaged attitudes were uniquely predictive of academic cheating...
March 2016: International Journal of Law and Psychiatry
Doriana Chialant, Judith Edersheim, Bruce H Price
The authors provide a comprehensive review of the neurobiology of empathy and compare this with the neurobiology of psychopathic predatory violence-the most extreme deficit of empathy. This suggests that the specific areas of the prefrontal cortex and limbic system, which have been associated with violent behavior, also appear to subserve the capacity for empathy. Damage to these regions may result in the emergence of aggression, but not of empathy, suggesting a structurally inverse relationship between the two...
February 22, 2016: Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
Eva R Kimonis, Patrick J Kennealy, Natalie Goulter
Callous-unemotional (CU) traits, that is, a lack of guilt or empathy and poverty of emotion, are believed to be the developmental precursor to psychopathy in adulthood, capturing its emotional detachment dimension. Similar to psychopathic adults, research shows that children and adolescents with high CU traits represent an important population at heightened risk for criminal behavior. The present study is the first to examine whether a self-report measure of CU traits, the Inventory of Callous-Unemotional Traits (ICU), predicts general and violent recidivism postinstitutional release among a sample of 227 juvenile justice-involved adolescent boys (M age = 15...
February 4, 2016: Psychological Assessment
Nicholas D Thomson, Graham J Towl, Luna C M Centifanti
Psychopathy is considered one of the best predictors of violence and prison misconducts and is arguably an important clinical construct in the correctional setting. However, we tested whether psychopathy can be used to predict misconducts in prison environments for women as has been done for men. To date, few studies exist that examine and validate this association in female offender samples. The present study included 182 ethnically diverse female offenders. The aim was to prospectively predict violent and nonviolent misconducts over a 9-month period using official records of prior violent criminal history (e...
June 2016: Law and Human Behavior
Catherine Shaffer, Dylan Gatner, Andrew L Gray, Kevin S Douglas, Jodi L Viljoen, Roger Tweed, Gira Bhatt, Stephen Dooley, Nathalie Gagnon
The Antisocial Process Screening Device (APSD) is a well-supported tool for assessing psychopathic features in youth. However, most research with the APSD has been derived from clinical and forensic samples comprised mainly of male Caucasian and African American adolescents. In this prospective study, the incremental and predictive validity of the self-report APSD for violent and non-violent offending was examined in an ethnically diverse community sample of male and female youth (N = 335) aged 12 to 14. High-school students from a moderate sized city in Western Canada completed the self-report APSD and then completed the Self-Report of Offending 6 months later...
February 1, 2016: Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology
Abigail J V Thornton, Nicola Graham-Kevan, John Archer
We studied intimate partner violence (IPV) within a framework of other violent and nonviolent offending, to explore whether the risk factors for offending were similar across the different offense categories, and also for men and women. A comprehensive measure of offending behavior was administered to 184 men and 171 women, together with measures of anger, self-control, and psychopathic traits. The measure, the nonviolent and violent offending behavior scale (NVOBS), assesses IPV, general violence, and nonviolent offending behavior...
July 2016: Aggressive Behavior
Teresa C Silva, Håkan Stattin
We aimed to analyze the impact of several parenting factors on the relationship between psychopathy and antisocial behavior. Nine hundred youths and their mothers reported on parent-youth interactions, and youth self-report measures of psychopathy, delinquency and violent behavior were taken. Multiple regression was used to test for the significance of interactions between parenting and psychopathy scores. In terms of delinquency, linear interactions between psychopathy and the level of conflict with parents and parents' knowledge of their youths' whereabouts/youths' willingness to disclose information were found based on the data reported by the youths...
May 2016: Development and Psychopathology
Steven M Gillespie, Ian J Mitchell, Rose-Marie Satherley, Anthony R Beech, Pia Rotshtein
Early descriptions of psychopathy emphasise fearlessness and a lack of nervousness or anxiety as key characteristics of the disorder. However, conflicting evidence suggests that anxiety may be positively correlated with some aspects of the psychopathy construct. This position may seem somewhat paradoxical when considered alongside impaired processing of fear related stimuli in psychopathic personality. The aim of the current paper was to examine the distinct relations of callous, egocentric, and antisocial psychopathic traits with measures of anxiety and social anxiety in samples of non-offenders (Study 1) and violent offenders (Study 2)...
2015: PloS One
Ana Calzada-Reyes, Alfredo Alvarez-Amador, Lídice Galán-García, Mitchell Valdés-Sosa
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2015: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
Vaughn R Steele, J Michael Maurer, Edward M Bernat, Vince D Calhoun, Kent A Kiehl
Psychopathy is a serious personality disorder characterized by dysfunctional affective and behavioral symptoms. In incarcerated populations, elevated psychopathic traits have been linked to increased rates of violent recidivism. Cognitive processes related to error processing have been shown to differentiate individuals with high and low psychopathic traits and may contribute to poor decision making that increases the risk of recidivism. Error processing abnormalities related to psychopathy may be attributable to error-monitoring (error detection) or posterror processing (error evaluation)...
January 2016: Personality Disorders
Maarten Herman Walter Van Zalk, Nejra Van Zalk
Evidence for the risks of psychopathic personality traits for adolescent antisocial behavior are well documented in the literature. Little is known, however, about who the peers of adolescents with these traits are and to what extent they influence one another. In the current study, three dimensions of psychopathic traits were distinguished: grandiose-manipulative traits, callous-unemotional traits, and impulsive-irresponsible traits. A dynamic social network approach was used with three waves of longitudinal data from 1,772 adolescents (51...
November 2015: Development and Psychopathology
V Leutgeb, M Leitner, A Wabnegger, D Klug, W Scharmüller, T Zussner, A Schienle
Measures of psychopathy have been proved to be valuable for risk assessment in violent criminals. However, the neuronal basis of psychopathy and its contribution to the prediction of criminal recidivism is still poorly understood. We compared structural imaging data from 40 male high-risk violent offenders and 37 non-delinquent healthy controls via voxel-based morphometry. Psychopathic traits and risk of violence recidivism were correlated with gray matter volume (GMV) of regions of interest previously shown relevant for criminal behavior...
November 12, 2015: Neuroscience
Rebecca L Fix, Spencer T Fix
Research focusing on individuals high on trait psychopathy remains limited. Higher trait psychopathy is associated with lower levels of emotional intelligence and increased participation in illegal behavior. Additionally, research has confirmed significantly higher levels of criminal thinking and lower levels of empathy in the incarcerated psychopathic population. However, the relationships between trait psychopathy and criminal thinking have not been researched in the community or college population. To test for such differences, questionnaires containing relevant measures were administered to 111 college students...
September 2015: International Journal of Law and Psychiatry
Julie De Ganck, Stijn Vanheule
Most discussions of the social and interpersonal styles in individuals with strong psychopathic traits focus on their dangerousness or their affective and interpersonal deficiencies. This study has a different focus, and starts from the idea that such focus on the threat emanating from individuals with a psychopathic style might blind us from the logic inherent to their way of relating with the world. By means of a qualitative analysis (thematic analysis) of narratives from a Lacanian talking therapy, this study examines how 15 youngsters with strong psychopathic traits make sense of interpersonal events and relations...
2015: Frontiers in Psychology
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