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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406671/a-comparison-of-self-report-measures-of-psychopathy-among-nonforensic-samples-using-item-response-theory-analyses
#1
Siny Tsang, Randall T Salekin, C Adam Coffey, Jennifer Cox
This study investigated how well components of the psychopathy trait are measured among college students with the Levenson Self-Report Psychopathy Scale (LSRP), the Personality Assessment Inventory-Antisocial Features Scale (PAI ANT), the Psychopathic Personality Inventory-Short Form (PPI-SF), and the Self-Report Psychopathy Scale-II (SRP-II). Using Samejima (1969)'s graded response model (GRM), the subscales were found to vary in their ability to measure the corresponding latent traits. The LSRP primary psychopathy factor is more precise in measuring the latent trait than the secondary psychopathy factor...
April 13, 2017: Psychological Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406657/using-latent-variable-and-person-centered-approaches-to-examine-the-role-of-psychopathic-traits-in-sex-offenders
#2
Sonja Krstic, Craig S Neumann, Sandeep Roy, Carrie A Robertson, Raymond A Knight, Robert D Hare
The current study employed both latent variable- and person-centered approaches to examine psychopathic traits in a large sample of sex offenders (N = 958). The offenders, who had committed a range of sexual crimes, had been assessed with the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R; Hare, 2003). Structural equation modeling results indicated that the four-factor model of psychopathy (Hare, 2003; Neumann, Hare, & Newman, 2007) provided good representation of the dimensional nature of psychopathic traits across the sample of offenders, and that the PCL-R factors significantly predicted sexual crimes...
April 13, 2017: Personality Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405353/effects-of-25-mg-oxazepam-on-emotional-mimicry-and-empathy-for-pain-a-randomized-controlled-experiment
#3
Gustav Nilsonne, Sandra Tamm, Armita Golkar, Karolina Sörman, Katarina Howner, Marianne Kristiansson, Andreas Olsson, Martin Ingvar, Predrag Petrovic
Emotional mimicry and empathy are mechanisms underlying social interaction. Benzodiazepines have been proposed to inhibit empathy and promote antisocial behaviour. First, we aimed to investigate the effects of oxazepam on emotional mimicry and empathy for pain, and second, we aimed to investigate the association of personality traits to emotional mimicry and empathy. Participants (n=76) were randomized to 25 mg oxazepam or placebo. Emotional mimicry was examined using video clips with emotional expressions...
March 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402565/impulsive-antisocial-psychopathic-traits-linked-to-increased-volume-and-functional-connectivity-within-prefrontal-cortex
#4
Cole Korponay, Maia Pujara, Philip Deming, Carissa Philippi, Jean Decety, David S Kosson, Kent A Kiehl, Michael Koenigs
Psychopathy is a personality disorder characterized by callous lack of empathy, impulsive antisocial behavior, and criminal recidivism. Studies of brain structure and function in psychopathy have frequently identified abnormalities in the prefrontal cortex. However, findings have not yet converged to yield a clear relationship between specific subregions of prefrontal cortex and particular psychopathic traits. We performed a multimodal neuroimaging study of prefrontal cortex volume and functional connectivity in psychopathy, using a sample of adult male prison inmates (N=124)...
April 11, 2017: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399103/-k-birnbaum-s-concept-of-psychopathic-personalities
#5
N Yu Pyatnitskiy
K. Birnbaum's concept of psychopathic personalities is analyzed. K. Birnbaum was one of the first psychiatrists who had suggested the differentiation of psychopathic personalities according to the degree of social damage they caused. As personality abnormality classification according to one prominent trait that led to hiding signs of the general psychopathic constitution in clinical description, as the reliance on erroneous genetic theories with idealization of social behavior norms led to the antihuman medical recommendations...
2017: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397535/validity-of-the-youth-psychopathic-traits-inventory-short-version-in-justice-involved-and-at-risk-adolescents
#6
Christopher T A Gillen, Emily A M MacDougall, Adelle E Forth, Christopher T Barry, Randall T Salekin
The current study examined the reliability and validity of the Youth Psychopathic Traits Inventory-Short Version (YPI-S) in two different samples of at-risk adolescents enrolled in a residential program ( n = 160) and at a detention facility ( n = 60) in the United States. YPI-S scores displayed adequate internal consistency and were moderately associated with concurrent scales on other self-report psychopathy measures and externalizing behaviors. YPI-S scores were moderately related to interviewer-ratings of the construct using the four-factor model of the Psychopathy Checklist: Youth Version...
April 1, 2017: Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28356492/the-moral-bioenhancement-of-psychopaths
#7
Elvio Baccarini, Luca Malatesti
We argue that the mandatory moral bioenhancement of psychopaths is justified as a prescription of social morality. Moral bioenhancement is legitimate when it is justified on the basis of the reasons of the recipients. Psychopaths expect and prefer that the agents with whom they interact do not have certain psychopathic traits. Particularly, they have reasons to require the moral bioenhancement of psychopaths with whom they must cooperate. By adopting a public reason and a Kantian argument, we conclude that we can justify to a psychopath being the recipient of mandatory moral bioenhancement because he has a reason to require the application of this prescription to other psychopaths...
March 29, 2017: Journal of Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28352238/communicating-the-neuroscience-of-psychopathy-and-its-influence-on-moral-behavior-protocol-of-two-experimental-studies
#8
Robert Blakey, Adrian D Askelund, Matilde Boccanera, Johanna Immonen, Nejc Plohl, Cassandra Popham, Clarissa Sorger, Julia Stuhlreyer
Neuroscience has identified brain structures and functions that correlate with psychopathic tendencies. Since psychopathic traits can be traced back to physical neural attributes, it has been argued that psychopaths are not truly responsible for their actions and therefore should not be blamed for their psychopathic behaviors. This experimental research aims to evaluate what effect communicating this theory of psychopathy has on the moral behavior of lay people. If psychopathy is blamed on the brain, people may feel less morally responsible for their own psychopathic tendencies and therefore may be more likely to display those tendencies...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342766/antisocial-behaviour-and-psychopathy-uncovering-the-externalizing-link-in-the-p3-modulation
#9
REVIEW
Rita Pasion, Carina Fernandes, Mariana R Pereira, Fernando Barbosa
In 2009, Gao and Raine's meta-analysis analysed P3 modulation over the antisocial spectrum. However, some questions remained open regarding the P3 modulation patterns across impulsive and violent manifestations of antisocial behaviour, phenotypic components of psychopathy, and P3 components. A systematic review of 36 studies was conducted (N=3514) to extend previous results and to address these unresolved questions. A clear link between decreased P3 amplitude and antisocial behaviour was found. In psychopathy, dimensional approaches become more informative than taxonomic models...
March 22, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342226/psychopathology-and-personality-traits-associated-with-driving-while-intoxicated-in-beijing-china-implications-for-interventions
#10
Rong-Jiang Zhao, Wei Sun, Li-Li Zhang, Yan-Ping Bao, Liang Huang, Ping Dong, Shuang-Jiang Zhou, Zhi-Qing Wang, Thomas R Kosten, Hong-Qiang Sun
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Driving while intoxicated (DWI) represents an area of grave concern in China, yet little research has focused on it or on the personality traits and psychiatric disorders among these drivers. METHODS: We enrolled 325 of 382 residents charged with DWI in a compulsory detention center in Beijing, China. And 351 male drivers who had never had any alcohol arrests as control participants. All were screened for Axis I disorders using the Chinese version of the Structured Clinical Interview for the Diagnostic Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders IV-TR (SCID), the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI-2), and the Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire (16PF)...
March 24, 2017: American Journal on Addictions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326114/minnesota-multiphasic-personality-inventory-characteristics-of-parricide-offenders-with-schizophrenia-in-korea
#11
Sang Yeop Lee, Myung Ho Lim, Jangkyu Lee, Geumsook Shim, Yeon Kim, Jin Ah Do, Soo Jung Lee, Jong Hyuck Choi, Jae Woo Lee
OBJECTIVE: This study aims to examine the personality characteristics in parricide offenders, by using the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) test, which is commonly used in clinical medicine. METHODS: A total of 73 parricide offenders with schizophrenia who were admitted to National Forensic Hospital in Gongju city between September 2014 and February 2015, and 104 comparison schizophrenia patients who had been admitted to Dankook University Hospital in Cheonan city the same hospital, completed the Korean version of the MMPI...
March 2017: Psychiatry Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315981/the-development-of-severe-and-chronic-violence-among-youth-the-role-of-psychopathic-traits-and-reward-processing
#12
Dennis E Reidy, Elizabeth Krusemark, David S Kosson, Megan C Kearns, Joanne Smith-Darden, Kent A Kiehl
Psychopathic traits are a manifestation of a personality pathology that comprises a core affective-interpersonal dysfunction (callous-unemotional traits) and an impulsive-antisocial behavioral component. Of particular importance, psychopathic traits are associated with the perpetration of some of the most severe acts of violence, and they appear to indicate a subset of youth at risk for earlier onset, greater frequency, and persistence of violent offending. Although these youth represent a minority of the population, they commit a significant proportion of the violence in the general community...
March 18, 2017: Child Psychiatry and Human Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293987/risk-taking-and-the-triarchic-model-of-psychopathy
#13
Robert J Snowden, Chloe Smith, Nicola S Gray
INTRODUCTION: High risk behaviors, such as aggression, criminality, sexual promiscuity, drug use, and gambling, are often associated with psychopathic traits. Such behaviors might arise due to a lack of fear of the consequences (boldness) or due to impulsive actions (disinhibition). We examined risk taking behavior in the laboratory setting using the Balloon Analogue Risk Task (BART), where an individual can inflate a balloon to earn a reward, but will lose this accumulated reward if the balloon bursts...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287840/a-statistical-consideration-regarding-the-threshold-of-the-psychopathy-checklist-revised
#14
Steve Balsis, Alexander J Busch, Kevin M Wilfong, Joseph W Newman, John F Edens
The Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R; Hare, 2003 ) is one of the most commonly used measures of psychopathy. Scores range from 0 to 40, and legal and mental health professionals sometimes rely on a cut score or threshold to classify individuals as psychopaths. This practice, among other things, assumes that all items contribute equally to the overall raw score. Results from an item response theory analysis (Bolt, Hare, Vitale, & Newman, 2004 ), however, indicate that PCL-R items differ in the amount of information they can provide about psychopathy...
March 13, 2017: Journal of Personality Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286371/further-evidence-for-reliability-and-validity-of-the-triarchic-psychopathy-measure-in-a-forensic-sample-and-a-community-sample
#15
Josanne D M van Dongen, Laura E Drislane, Henk Nijman, Sabrina E Soe-Agnie, Hjalmar J C van Marle
Psychopathy is often described as a constellation of personality characteristics encompassing features such as impulsivity and antisociality, and a lack of empathy and guilt. Although the use of self-reports to assess psychopathy is still debated, there are distinct advantages to such measures and recent research suggests that they may not be as problematic as previously thought. This study further examined the reliability and validity of the Triarchic Psychopathy Measure (TriPM) in a community sample (N = 496) and forensic psychiatric patient sample (N = 217)...
2017: Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286370/interaction-between-prenatal-maternal-stress-and-autonomic-arousal-in-predicting-conduct-problems-and-psychopathic-traits-in-children
#16
Yu Gao, Yonglin Huang, Xiaobo Li
BACKGROUND: Evidence has suggested that neurobiological deficits combine with psychosocial risk factors to impact on the development of antisocial behavior. The current study concentrated on the interplay of prenatal maternal stress and autonomic arousal in predicting antisocial behavior and psychopathic traits. METHODS: Prenatal maternal stress was assessed by caregiver's retrospective report, and resting heart rate and respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) were measured in 295 8- to 10-year-old children...
March 2017: Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258396/emotional-facial-recognition-in-proactive-and-reactive-violent-offenders
#17
Florence Philipp-Wiegmann, Michael Rösler, Petra Retz-Junginger, Wolfgang Retz
The purpose of this study is to analyse individual differences in the ability of emotional facial recognition in violent offenders, who were characterised as either reactive or proactive in relation to their offending. In accordance with findings of our previous study, we expected higher impairments in facial recognition in reactive than proactive violent offenders. To assess the ability to recognize facial expressions, the computer-based Facial Emotional Expression Labeling Test (FEEL) was performed. Group allocation of reactive und proactive violent offenders and assessment of psychopathic traits were performed by an independent forensic expert using rating scales (PROREA, PCL-SV)...
March 3, 2017: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237833/stable-psychological-functioning-after-surgery-for-epilepsy-an-informant-based-perspective
#18
Marcie L King, Daniel Tranel
OBJECTIVE: Psychological adjustment following surgery for epilepsy has been assessed primarily with self-report measures. In the current work, we investigated pre- to postoperative changes in various dimensions of personality and behavior from the perspective of a well-known family member or friend for 27 patients operated on for medically intractable epilepsy. METHODS: For each patient, a close family member or friend ("informant") provided pre- and postoperative ratings on five dimensions of personality and behavior...
February 23, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28171793/response-inhibition-in-the-parametric-go-no-go-task-in-psychopathic-offenders
#19
Kathrin Weidacker, Robert J Snowden, Frederic Boy, Stephen J Johnston
Previous research on response inhibition in psychopaths has failed to find consistent evidence for aberrant inhibitory ability, despite strong expectations to the contrary. However, previous examinations have utilised inhibition paradigms that suffer from critical shortcomings, such as a lack of ecological validity and overly simplistic response criteria. To assess inhibition under conditions close to the demands of everyday settings, the current study employs a parametric Go/No-go task in male offenders (n77)...
January 31, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28169823/-empathy-deficit-in-adolescents-how-to-characterize-and-evaluate-it-clinically-a-litterature-review
#20
Mélanie Piñon, Aline Forestier, Marc Diby
Introduction : empathy has been considered since a long time under the angle of human sciences. Today, certain neuro-scientific postulates complement this knowledge. Context : observation of adolescents presenting psychiatric disorders, accompagnied by conduct disorders and/or psychopathic traits, frequently describe empathy deficits ; nurses should evaluate the nature and the degree of empathy of these adolescents. Aims : this litterature review aims to expose the clinical characteristics of empathy deficit from its definition and to describe the clinical evaluation tools...
2016: Recherche en Soins Infirmiers
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