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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931447/psychopathology-of-terrorists
#1
Armando Piccinni, Donatella Marazziti, Antonello Veltri
Terrorist behavior represents a subtype of human aggression probably determined by a combination of biological, psychological, and social factors, as well as by peculiar environmental influences and group dynamics. As regards terrorists' psychological characteristics, the available studies (mostly carried out with no sound scientific design) have failed to identify the common or typical pathological personality traits of modern terrorists. The popular opinion that terrorists must be insane or psychopathic is still widespread; however, no evidence exists that terrorist behavior may be caused either by prior or current psychiatric disorders or psychopathy...
September 21, 2017: CNS Spectrums
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928687/the-development-and-preliminary-validation-of-a-brief-questionnaire-of-psychopathic-personality-traits
#2
Sonja Etzler, Sonja Rohrmann
The measurement of psychopathic personality traits via self-report has become an important tool in legal psychology. One prominent instrument is the Psychopathic Personality Inventory (PPI; Lilienfeld and Andrews, 1996), a well-validated questionnaire that is widely applied in many countries. In Germany, it is the only questionnaire assessing psychopathic traits that is available from a publisher with a manual edited for easy administration. Nevertheless, the PPI shows certain shortcomings: the high number of 154 items makes it less economic, it was developed on a non-representative undergraduate sample, and studies revealed an inconsistent factor structure...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919277/-accomplices-under-influence-teachers-lovers-incestigators-or-pimps%C3%A2-who-are-females-child-abusers
#3
Virginie Cailleau, Bérangère Thirioux, Ghina Harika-Germaneau, Nematollah Jaafari
According to victimization surveys, the percentage of females among child abusers is much higher than 2 or 5% as usually reported in the devoted literature. The under-estimated percentage of child sexual abuses committed by females would result from the dissimulation of sexual acts within nursing care, a gender bias in favor of women among child protection system professionals and low disclosures. Sexual abuses committed by females are often more harmful for children than sexual abuses committed by males. Although a few female child abusers suffers from psychiatric disorders, most of them are psychologically and emotionally dependent from a man or have psychopathic, manipulative and sometimes sadistic personality traits...
September 14, 2017: La Presse Médicale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905165/interpersonal-relationships-as-protective-and-risk-factors-for-psychopathy-a-follow-up-study-in-adolescent-offenders
#4
Heidi Backman, Taina Laajasalo, Markus Jokela, Eeva T Aronen
Friendships and romantic relationships may function as protective and risk factors for psychopathic traits. To better understand potential causal associations, we investigated whether within-individual changes in relationship characteristics were related to changes in psychopathic traits over time. Data were derived from ten repeated measurements of the Pathways to Desistance longitudinal study of 1354 offending adolescents (14.3% female; 40.1% Black). Analyses were adjusted for age, gender, ethnicity, self-reported offending and living facilities...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Youth and Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902572/unique-and-interactive-associations-between-maltreatment-and-complex-emotion-recognition-deficits-and-psychopathic-traits-in-an-undergraduate-sample
#5
Rebecca Waller, Hannah K McCabe, Hailey L Dotterer, Craig S Neumann, Luke W Hyde
Psychopathy is defined by affective and interpersonal deficits, deviant lifestyle, and antisocial behaviors. Poor recognition of emotions and childhood maltreatment are two risk factors implicated in psychopathy. The current study examined whether childhood maltreatment and complex emotion recognition deficits showed unique and interactive associations with psychopathic traits among 261 undergraduate students. Results indicate that maltreatment was related to higher general psychopathy scores within a bifactor model comprising a general psychopathy factor and four specific factors tapping underlying dimensions of psychopathy (i...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Personality Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900210/alterations-of-brain-functional-architecture-associated-with-psychopathic-traits-in-male-adolescents-with-conduct-disorder
#6
Weidan Pu, Qiang Luo, Yali Jiang, Yidian Gao, Qingsen Ming, Shuqiao Yao
Psychopathic traits of conduct disorder (CD) have a core callous-unemotional (CU) component and an impulsive-antisocial component. Previous task-driven fMRI studies have suggested that psychopathic traits are associated with dysfunction of several brain areas involved in different cognitive functions (e.g., empathy, reward, and response inhibition etc.), but the relationship between psychopathic traits and intrinsic brain functional architecture has not yet been explored in CD. Using a holistic brain-wide functional connectivity analysis, this study delineated the alterations in brain functional networks in patients with conduct disorder...
September 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28851912/association-of-monoamine-oxidase-a-genetic-variants-and-amygdala-morphology-in-violent-offenders-with-antisocial-personality-disorder-and-high-psychopathic-traits
#7
Nathan J Kolla, Raihaan Patel, Jeffrey H Meyer, M Mallar Chakravarty
Violent offending is elevated among individuals with antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) and high psychopathic traits (PP). Morphological abnormalities of the amygdala and orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) are present in violent offenders, which may relate to the violence enacted by ASPD + PP. Among healthy males, monoamine oxidase-A (MAO-A) genetic variants linked to low in vitro transcription (MAOA-L) are associated with structural abnormalities of the amygdala and OFC. However, it is currently unknown whether amygdala and OFC morphology in ASPD relate to MAO-A genetic polymorphisms...
August 29, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28845153/corrigendum-psychopaths-show-enhanced-amygdala-activation-during-fear-conditioning
#8
Douglas H Schultz, Nicholas L Balderston, Arielle R Baskin-Sommers, Christine L Larson, Fred J Helmstetter
[This corrects the article on p. 348 in vol. 7, PMID: 27014154.].
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28836093/on-the-relation-between-general-intelligence-and-psychopathic-traits-an-examination-of-inpatient-adolescents
#9
Nicholas Kavish, Cassandra Bailey, Carla Sharp, Amanda Venta
A substantial literature has investigated relations between intelligence and psychopathic traits. At the construct level, findings have been mixed, with a small negative relation found. At the facet level however, a positive relation between verbal intelligence and the interpersonal facet of psychopathy, and a negative relation between verbal intelligence and the lifestyle factor of psychopathy emerge. To date, this research has largely neglected adolescents and prior research has focused on clinical and incarcerated populations, while failing to control for psychopathology...
August 23, 2017: Child Psychiatry and Human Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810074/preliminary-data-on-the-role-of-emotional-intelligence-in-moderating-the-link-between-psychopathy-and-aggression-in-a-nonforensic-sample
#10
Tiziana Lanciano, Antonietta Curci, Francesca Guglielmi, Emanuela Soleti, Ignazio Grattagliano
This short report presents preliminary data on the role of emotional intelligence (EI) in moderating the relationship between psychopathy and aggression in a nonforensic sample. A sample of 109 volunteer men was administered the Psychopathic Personality Inventory-Revised (PPI-R), the Reactive-Proactive Aggression Questionnaire, and the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso emotional intelligence Test in individual sessions. Correlation and moderation analyzes showed that, at low levels of EI (in terms of strategic ability to understand and manage one's own and others' emotions), people scoring high on the total PPI-R and impulsivity dimension seemed to be both reactively and proactively aggressive...
August 15, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799409/use-of-the-brief-shame-and-guilt-questionnaire-in-deaf-and-hard-of-hearing-children-and-adolescents
#11
Evelien Broekhof, Maartje Kouwenberg, Paul Oosterveld, Johan H M Frijns, Carolien Rieffe
No assessment tools are available to measure shame and guilt in children who are deaf or hard of hearing (DHH), while these self-conscious emotions might play a role in the frequently noted social and behavioral problems in this group. Therefore, the aim of this study was to validate the Brief Shame and Guilt Questionnaire (BSGQ) in DHH children. In addition, we examined associations of shame and guilt with social anxiety, self-esteem, delinquency, and psychopathic behaviors. A sum of 225 hearing ( Mage = 11...
August 1, 2017: Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769746/triarchic-psychopathy-dimensions-in-chimpanzees-pan-troglodytes-investigating-associations-with-genetic-variation-in-the-vasopressin-receptor-1a-gene
#12
Robert D Latzman, Steven J Schapiro, William D Hopkins
Vasopressin is a neuropeptide known to be associated with the development and evolution of complex socio-emotional behaviors including those relevant to psychopathic personality. In both humans and chimpanzees, recent research suggests a strong genetic contribution to individual variation in psychopathic traits. To date, however, little is known concerning specific genes that might explain the observed heritability of psychopathy. In a relatively large sample of captive chimpanzees (N = 164), the current study thus sought to investigate gene-environment associations between triarchic psychopathy dimensions (i...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766714/psychophysiological-responses-of-people-with-psychopathic-tendencies-to-the-concealed-information-test
#13
Hyeon-Gi Hong, Hee-Song Kim, Hyung-Ki Ji, Ki-Pyoung Kim, Jungeun Lee, Sue Hyun Jung, Myoung-Ho Hyun
This study was designed to investigate differences in psychophysiological responses among individuals with psychopathic tendencies. A total 40 students were participated and were divided into two groups based on Levenson Self-Report Psychopathy Scale (LSRP) scores: a high psychopathic tendency group selected from the top 5% of LSRP scores, and a low psychopathic tendency group selected from the bottom 5% of LSRP scores. All participants were instructed to perform a mock crime and complete the concealed information test (CIT)...
August 2, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749547/comparing-the-lexical-similarity-of-the-triarchic-model-of-psychopathy-to-contemporary-models-of-psychopathy
#14
Dylan T Gatner, Kevin S Douglas, Stephen D Hart
OBJECTIVE: The Triarchic model of psychopathy (Patrick, Fowles, & Krueger, 2009) posits that psychopathic personality comprises three domains: Boldness, Meanness, and Disinhibition. The present study aimed to clarify conceptual overlap between contemporary definitions of psychopathy, with particular emphasis given to the relevance of Boldness (i.e., social dominance, venturesomeness, emotional resiliency)-a topic of recent debate. METHOD: Undergraduate students (N = 439) compared the lexical similarity of Triarchic domains with two contemporary models of psychopathy: the Comprehensive Assessment of Psychopathic Personality (CAPP; Cooke, Hart, Logan, & Michie, 2012) and Five Factor Model of psychopathy (FFM; Widiger & Lynam, 1998)...
July 27, 2017: Journal of Personality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745673/-doctrine-of-psychopathy-typology-e-kretschmer-s-concept-of-key-experience-and-inherited-defect
#15
N Yu Pyatnitskyi
The author analyzes the first concept of E. Kretschmer which preceded his famous concept of cycloid and schizoid temperaments: specific 'root' or 'key' experience characteristic of the personality type. This concept was built on the clinical data of patients with delusions but E. Kretschmer assumed that the difference in the degree of disease was not essential ('neurosis of reference' and 'sensitive delusion of reference' were more close than 'sensitive delusion of reference' and 'expansive delusion'). For a sensitive psychopath, the key and specific experience is 'shameful defeat', for expansive psychopath - 'the violence over will by the common will'...
2017: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743994/autistic-traits-and-positive-psychotic-experiences-modulate-the-association-of-psychopathic-tendencies-with-theory-of-mind-in-opposite-directions
#16
Steven M Gillespie, Ian J Mitchell, Ahmad M Abu-Akel
Various clinical disorders, including psychopathy, and autism and schizophrenia spectrum disorders, have been linked with impairments in Theory of Mind (ToM). However, although these conditions can co-occur in the same individual, the effect of their inter-play on ToM abilities has not been investigated. Here we assessed ToM abilities in 55 healthy adults while performing a naturalistic ToM task, requiring participants to watch a short film and judge the actors' mental states. The results reveal for the first time that autistic traits and positive psychotic experiences interact with psychopathic tendencies in opposite directions to predict ToM performance-the interaction of psychopathic tendencies with autism traits was associated with a decrement in performance, whereas the interaction of psychopathic tendencies and positive psychotic experiences was associated with improved performance...
July 25, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743409/moral-cognition-emotion-and-behavior-in-male-youth-with-varying-levels-of-psychopathic-traits
#17
Maaike Cima, Andries Korebrits, Geert Jan Stams, Peter Bleumer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 22, 2017: International Journal of Law and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742075/are-individuals-with-higher-psychopathic-traits-better-learners-at-lying-behavioural-and-neural-evidence
#18
R Shao, T M C Lee
High psychopathy is characterized by untruthfulness and manipulativeness. However, existing evidence on higher propensity or capacity to lie among non-incarcerated high-psychopathic individuals is equivocal. Of particular importance, no research has investigated whether greater psychopathic tendency is associated with better 'trainability' of lying. An understanding of whether the neurobehavioral processes of lying are modifiable through practice offers significant theoretical and practical implications. By employing a longitudinal design involving university students with varying degrees of psychopathic traits, we successfully demonstrate that the performance speed of lying about face familiarity significantly improved following two sessions of practice, which occurred only among those with higher, but not lower, levels of psychopathic traits...
July 25, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741393/psychometric-properties-in-forensic-application-of-the-screening-version-of-the-psychopathy-checklist
#19
Tamsin Higgs, Ruth J Tully, Kevin D Browne
The Psychopathy Checklist: Screening Version (PCL: SV) is a short form of the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R), an expert-rated assessment that measures psychopathic personality traits in research, clinical, and community settings. The PCL-R is an extensively relied upon tool in psycho-legal contexts. The screening version is also widely used; however, it has received far less empirical attention than the PCL-R. This review examines the psychometric properties of the PCL: SV, specifically in relation to forensic samples, and evaluates its comparability with the full PCL-R...
July 1, 2017: International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729022/boldness-psychopathic-traits-predict-reduced-gaze-toward-fearful-eyes-in-men-with-a-history-of-violence
#20
Steven M Gillespie, Pia Rotshtein, Anthony R Beech, Ian J Mitchell
Research with developmental and adult samples has shown a relationship of psychopathic traits with reduced eye gaze. However, these relationships remained to be investigated among forensic samples. Here we examined the eye movements of male violent offenders during an emotion recognition task. Violent offenders performed similar to non-offending controls, and their eye movements varied with the emotion and intensity of the facial expression. In the violent offender group Boldness psychopathic traits, but not Meanness or Disinhibition, were associated with reduced dwell time and fixation counts, and slower first fixation latencies, on the eyes compared with the mouth...
September 2017: Biological Psychology
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