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Psychopaths

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324826/facial-responsiveness-of-psychopaths-to-the-emotional-expressions-of-others
#1
Janina Künecke, Andreas Mokros, Sally Olderbak, Oliver Wilhelm
Psychopathic individuals show selfish, manipulative, and antisocial behavior in addition to emotional detachment and reduced empathy. Their empathic deficits are thought to be associated with a reduced responsiveness to emotional stimuli. Immediate facial muscle responses to the emotional expressions of others reflect the expressive part of emotional responsiveness and are positively related to trait empathy. Empirical evidence for reduced facial muscle responses in adult psychopathic individuals to the emotional expressions of others is rare...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29294686/working-alliance-and-psychopathy-linkages-to-treatment-outcome-in-a-sample-of-treated-sexual-offenders
#2
Danielle R DeSorcy, Mark E Olver, J Stephen Wormith
The present study examined the working alliance, as measured by the full-length Working Alliance Inventory (WAI), and its association with psychopathy, treatment completion, and recidivism in a sample of 111 incarcerated adult male sexual offenders. The men completed the WAI 3 months into their treatment program, while psychopathy was measured via file-based ratings of the Hare's Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R), and outcome data were collected via the Canadian Police Information Centre. The majority (85%) of high PCL-R scoring men (PCL-R 25+) successfully completed their treatment program, and by and large, the men demonstrated strong working alliances with their primary therapists...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29294642/an-exploratory-study-of-female-psychopathy-and-drug-related-violent-crime
#3
Nicholas D Thomson
There is a clear link between drugs and violence, and the extensive burden drug-related violence inflicts on society. However, drug-related violence is largely understudied, especially in female populations. The aim of the present study was to explore whether women convicted of drug-related violent crime differed on individual-level risk factors from women convicted of a nondrug-related violent crime and women convicted of nonviolent crimes. One hundred and twenty-five female inmates were classified using official criminal records...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29278820/attachment-and-psychopathic-traits-in-inpatient-female-and-male-adolescents
#4
Malgorzata Gambin, Malgorzata Wozniak-Prus, Carla Sharp
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 28, 2017: Comprehensive Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29249948/psychopathy-moderates-the-relationship-between-orbitofrontal-and-striatal-alterations-and-violence-the-investigation-of-individuals-accused-of-homicide
#5
Bess Y H Lam, Yaling Yang, Robert A Schug, Chenbo Han, Jianghong Liu, Tatia M C Lee
Brain structural abnormalities in the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) and striatum (caudate and putamen) have been observed in violent individuals. However, a uni-modal neuroimaging perspective has been used and prior findings have been mixed. The present study takes the multimodal structural brain imaging approaches to investigate the differential gray matter volumes (GMV) and cortical thickness (CTh) in the OFC and striatum between violent (accused of homicide) and non-violent (not accused of any violent crimes) individuals with different levels of psychopathic traits (interpersonal and unemotional qualities, factor 1 psychopathy and the expressions of antisocial disposition and impulsivity, factor 2 psychopathy)...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239628/psychopathy-in-detained-boys-the-search-for-primary-and-secondary-variants-in-a-clinical-setting
#6
Olivier F Colins, Kostas A Fanti, Randall T Salekin, Eva Mulder, Henrik Andershed
This study investigates whether primary and secondary variants of psychopathy can be identified in an applied, forensic setting based on self-reports of psychopathy and anxiety. Data were available for two samples of detained boys (Sample A: N = 847, Sample B: N = 749). Using three psychopathy dimensions and anxiety as clustering variables, latent profile analysis arrived at 4 latent classes (LCs) that were tentatively labeled as control (LC1), high anxiety (LC2), moderate psychopathy (LC3), and high psychopathy (LC4)...
December 14, 2017: Personality Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226782/patterns-of-source-monitoring-bias-in-incarcerated-youths-with-and-without-conduct-problems
#7
Larisa Morosan, Deborah Badoud, George Salaminios, Stephan Eliez, Martial Van der Linden, Patrick Heller, Martin Debbané
INTRODUCTION: Antisocial individuals present behaviours that violate the social norms and the rights of others. In the present study, we examine whether biases in monitoring the self-generated cognitive material might be linked to antisocial manifestations during adolescence. We further examine the association with psychopathic traits and conduct problems (CPs). METHODS: Sixty-five incarcerated adolescents (IAs; M age = 15.85, SD = 1.30) and 88 community adolescents (CAs; M age = 15...
December 10, 2017: Cognitive Neuropsychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225887/a-prospective-longitudinal-study-of-men-with-borderline-personality-disorder-with-and-without-comorbid-antisocial-personality-disorder
#8
Marie-Pier Robitaille, Dave Checknita, Frank Vitaro, Richard E Tremblay, Joel Paris, Sheilagh Hodgins
Background: Some evidence suggests that the prevalence of Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) is elevated among male criminal offenders. It is not presently known whether offending, and violent offending, are limited to those presenting comorbid Antisocial Personality Disorder (ASPD) who have a childhood history of conduct problems and whether offending is linked to psychopathic traits. Methods: A community sample of 311 males followed from age 6 to 33 years, one third of whom had a criminal charge between ages 18 and 24, completed diagnostic interviews and the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised interview...
2017: Borderline Personality Disorder and Emotion Dysregulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217464/the-relationship-between-trait-psychopathy-and-emotional-intelligence-a-meta-analytic-review
#9
REVIEW
A Megías, R Gómez-Leal, M J Gutiérrez-Cobo, R Cabello, P Fernández-Berrocal
Psychopathy is a personality construct that has been related to important emotional deficits. These findings have led to a growing interest in exploring if psychopathic traits are associated with emotional intelligence (EI). However, the literature exploring this association has revealed conflicting results. The aim of the present study was to provide a reliable estimate of the relationship between psychopathy traits and EI (measured as performance-based ability) through meta-analysis. A quantitative and systematic review of the literature using Scopus, Medline, Pubmed, and PsicINFO showed a total of 13 studies meeting inclusion criteria with a combined sample of 2401 participants...
January 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29199502/adhd-among-offenders-prevalence-and-relationship-with-psychopathic-traits
#10
Ana Machado, Diana Rafaela, Tânia Silva, Tânia Veigas, Joaquim Cerejeira
OBJECTIVE: Longitudinal studies have shown a strong association between ADHD and criminal behavior. The aims of this study were to examine the prevalence of adult ADHD in a high-security facility and to investigate the relationship between ADHD symptoms and psychopathic traits in criminal offenders. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Participants were recruited between October 2015 and January 2016 among the inmates from a high-security all-male correctional facility in Portugal...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Attention Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29190802/perceiving-the-evil-eye-investigating-hostile-interpretation-of-ambiguous-facial-emotional-expression-in-violent-and-non-violent-offenders
#11
Niki C Kuin, Erik D M Masthoff, Marcus R Munafò, Ian S Penton-Voak
Research into the causal and perpetuating factors influencing aggression has partly focused on the general tendency of aggression-prone individuals to infer hostile intent in others, even in ambiguous circumstances. This is referred to as the 'hostile interpretation bias'. Whether this hostile interpretation bias also exists in basal information processing, such as perception of facial emotion, is not yet known, especially with respect to the perception of ambiguous expressions. In addition, little is known about how this potential bias in facial emotion perception is related to specific characteristics of aggression...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29188756/psychosocial-correlates-of-attitudes-toward-male-sexual-violence-in-a-sample-of-financial-crime-property-crime-general-violent-and-homicide-offenders
#12
Agata Debowska, Daniel Boduszek, Dominic Willmott
Although those currently serving prison sentences for sexual violence can be identified and receive treatment, the number of prisoners with a history of sexual violence against female partners is unknown. Methods to identify prisoners with a proclivity for such violence and accurately assess the risk they pose before and after incarceration are therefore required. Here, we aimed to assess the level of sexually violent attitudes within dating relationships and to examine their associations with experiences of child abuse and neglect (CAN), psychopathic personality traits, prisonization, number of incarcerations, age, years of schooling, relationship status, and parenting among different types of offenders (financial crime, property crime, general violent, and homicide offenders)...
February 1, 2017: Sexual Abuse: a Journal of Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187772/fearful-faces-do-not-lead-to-faster-attentional-deployment-in-individuals-with-elevated-psychopathic-traits
#13
Sylco S Hoppenbrouwers, Jaap Munneke, Karen A Kooiman, Bethany Little, Craig S Neumann, Jan Theeuwes
In the current study, a gaze-cueing experiment (similar to Dawel et al. 2015) was conducted in which the predictivity of a gaze-cue was manipulated (non-predictive vs highly predictive). This was done to assess the degree to which individuals with elevated psychopathic traits can use contextual information (i.e., the predictivity of the cue). Psychopathic traits were measured with the Self-Report Psychopathy Scale-Short Form (SRP-SF) in a mixed sample (undergraduate students and community members). Results showed no group difference in reaction times between high and non-predictive cueing blocks, suggesting that individuals with elevated psychopathic traits can indeed use contextual information when it is relevant...
2017: Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29180243/investigating-error-related-processing-in-incarcerated-adolescents-with-self-report-psychopathy-measures
#14
J Michael Maurer, Vaughn R Steele, Brandi C Fink, Gina M Vincent, Vince D Calhoun, Kent A Kiehl
Disparate results have been found in previous reports when incorporating both interview-based and self-report measures of psychopathic traits within the same sample, suggesting such assessments should not be used interchangeably. We previously found Total and Facet 4 scores from Hare's Psychopathy Checklist: Youth Version (PCL:YV) were negatively related to amplitude of the error-related positivity (Pe) event-related potential (ERP) component. Here, we investigated using the same previously published sample whether scores on four different self-report measures of adolescent psychopathic traits (the Antisocial Process Screening Device [APSD], Child Psychopathy Scale [CPS], Inventory of Callous and Unemotional Traits [ICU], and Youth Psychopathic Traits Inventory [YPI]) were similarly associated with reduced Pe amplitude...
November 24, 2017: Biological Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29171491/-the-efficacy-and-tolerability-of-pericyazine-in-the-treatment-of-patients-with-schizotypal-disorder-organic-personality-disorders-and-pathocharacterological-changes-within-personality-disorders
#15
D S Danilov
AIM: To assess the efficacy and tolerability of pericyazine in the treatment of patients with mental disorders manifesting with psychopathic-like symptoms and correction of pathocharacterological disorders in patients with personality disorders during the short-term admission to the hospital or the long-term outpatient treatment. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Sixty-three patients with schizotypal personality disorder and organic personality disorder with psychopathic-like symptoms and pathocharacterological changes within the diagnosis of dissocial personality disorder and borderline personality disorder were examined...
2017: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163318/anger-as-a-basic-emotion-and-its-role-in-personality-building-and-pathological-growth-the-neuroscientific-developmental-and-clinical-perspectives
#16
Riccardo Williams
Anger is probably one of the mostly debated basic emotions, owing to difficulties in detecting its appearance during development, its functional and affective meaning (is it a positive or a negative emotion?), especially in human beings. Behaviors accompanied by anger and rage serve many different purposes and the nuances of aggressive behaviors are often defined by the symbolic and cultural framework and social contexts. Nonetheless, recent advances in neuroscientific and developmental research, as well as clinical psychodynamic investigation, afford a new view on the role of anger in informing and guiding many aspects of human conducts...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157511/subtypes-of-homicide-offenders-based-on-psychopathic-traits
#17
Marija Pajevic, Borjanka Batinic, Nikola Stevanovic
The aim of the present study was to explore the subtypes of offenders based on psychopathic traits in a sample of 127 adult homicide offenders (n=40.3% convicted of murder, n=32.6% convicted of aggravated murder, n=27.1% convicted of attempted murder). A two-step cluster analysis of the four factors of psychopathy yielded three clusters, which were then compared on the general dimensions of personality defined by the HEXACO model, intelligence, sadism and psychopathology variables conceptualized by the MMPI-202...
November 2017: International Journal of Law and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152733/factorial-and-convergent-validity-of-the-youth-psychopathic-traits-inventory-short-version-in-ghana
#18
Samuel Adjorlolo, Bruce D Watt
Studies have shown the existence of psychopathy construct in Western cultures. However, there is a general lack of research on this topical issue in non-Western countries, specifically sub-Saharan Africa. Consequently, this study investigated the factorial and convergent validity of the Youth Psychopathic Traits Inventory-Short Version (YPI-S) in 327 adolescents in Ghana. Confirmatory factor analysis supported a three-factor structure (interpersonal, behavioural and affective) of psychopathy that was invariant across gender...
November 20, 2017: International Journal of Psychology: Journal International de Psychologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134867/the-best-of-leaders-at-the-worst-of-times-medical-scientist-and-war-premier
#19
Nicholas Coni
Professor Juan Negrín López was Prime Minister of the democratically elected left-wing government of Spain for the latter two-and-a-half years of the three-year Civil War which ravaged the country between 1936 and 1939. The side loyal to the government lost, partly because of the generous aid received by their opponents from Germany and Italy, partly because of the Anglo-French agreement, observed by most countries but ignored by Germany and Italy, to outlaw arms supplies to either side, partly because of internal dissent, and partly because of the greater military capability of the enemy...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Medical Biography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130147/callous-unemotional-traits-modulate-brain-drug-craving-response-in-high-risk-young-offenders
#20
Gina M Vincent, Lora M Cope, Jean King, Prashanth Nyalakanti, Kent A Kiehl
Adults with psychopathy have a high propensity for substance abuse, generally starting from a young age. This investigation tested hypotheses about differences in the neural responses associated with drug craving among high-risk young offenders with histories of abuse of stimulants and other drugs as a function of psychopathic traits. Fifty-four male adolescents (44 with a history of stimulant abuse and 10 controls) incarcerated at a maximum-security facility (M age = 17.08 years) completed a drug-cue exposure task while brain hemodynamic activity was monitored using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) with a mobile MRI scanner stationed at the facility...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology
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