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Yusaku Sugimura, Katsuharu Saito
The development of arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) is strongly suppressed under high-phosphate (Pi) conditions. To investigate AM fungal responses during the suppression of AM by high Pi, we performed an RNA-seq analysis of Rhizophagus irregularis colonizing Lotus japonicus roots at different levels of Pi (20, 100, 300, and 500 μM). AM fungal colonization decreased markedly under high-Pi conditions. In total, 163 fungal genes were differentially expressed among the four Pi treatments. Among these genes, a cell cycle-regulatory gene, cyclin-dependent kinase CDK1, and several DNA replication- and mitosis-related genes were repressed under high-Pi conditions...
October 20, 2016: Mycorrhiza
Etienne Laliberté
I. II. III. IV. V. VI. VII. VIII. References SUMMARY: Trait-based approaches have led to significant advances in plant ecology, but are currently biased toward above-ground traits. It is becoming clear that a stronger emphasis on below-ground traits is needed to better predict future changes in plant biodiversity and their consequences for ecosystem functioning. Here I propose six 'below-ground frontiers' in trait-based plant ecology, with an emphasis on traits governing soil nutrient acquisition: redefining fine roots; quantifying root trait dimensionality; integrating mycorrhizas; broadening the suite of root traits; determining linkages between root traits and abiotic and biotic factors; and understanding ecosystem-level consequences of root traits...
October 13, 2016: New Phytologist
E Taschen, F Rousset, M Sauve, L Benoit, M-P Dubois, F Richard, M-A Selosse
The life cycles and dispersal of edible fungi are still poorly known, thus limiting our understanding of their evolution and domestication. The prized Tuber melanosporum produces fruitbodies (fleshy organs where meiospores mature) gathered in natural, spontaneously inoculated forests or harvested in plantations of nursery-inoculated trees. Yet, how fruitbodies are formed remains unclear, thus limiting yields, and how current domestication attempts affect population genetic structure is overlooked. Fruitbodies result from mating between two haploid individuals: the maternal parent forms the flesh and the meiospores, while the paternal parent only contributes to the meiospores...
September 26, 2016: Molecular Ecology
Sandra Varga, Rocío Vega-Frutis, Minna-Maarit Kytöviita
Plants usually interact with other plants, and the outcome of such interaction ranges from facilitation to competition depending on the identity of the plants, including their sexual expression. Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi have been shown to modify competitive interactions in plants. However, few studies have evaluated how AM fungi influence plant intraspecific and interspecific interactions in dioecious species. The competitive abilities of female and male plants of Antennaria dioica were examined in a greenhouse experiment...
October 1, 2016: Plant Biology
Petra Kubisch, Dietrich Hertel, Christoph Leuschner
Advancing our understanding of tree fine root dynamics is of high importance for tree physiology and forest biogeochemistry. In temperate broad-leaved forests, ectomycorrhizal (EM) and arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) tree species often are coexisting. It is not known whether EM and AM trees differ systematically in fine root dynamics and belowground resource foraging strategies. We measured fine root productivity (FRP) and fine root turnover (and its inverse, root longevity) of three EM and three AM broad-leaved tree species in a natural cool-temperate mixed forest using ingrowth cores and combined the productivity data with data on root biomass per root orders...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
José A Martín-Rodríguez, Raúl Huertas, Tania Ho-Plágaro, Juan A Ocampo, Veronika Turečková, Danuše Tarkowská, Jutta Ludwig-Müller, José M García-Garrido
Plant hormones have become appropriate candidates for driving functional plant mycorrhization programs, including the processes that regulate the formation of arbuscules in arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis. Here, we examine the role played by ABA/GA interactions regulating the formation of AM in tomato. We report differences in ABA and GA metabolism between control and mycorrhizal roots. Active synthesis and catabolism of ABA occur in AM roots. GAs level increases as a consequence of a symbiosis-induced mechanism that requires functional arbuscules which in turn is dependent on a functional ABA pathway...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Xiangying Wei, Jianjun Chen, Chunying Zhang, Dongming Pan
A new mycorrhizal fungal strain was isolated from hair roots of Rhododendron fortunei Lindl. grown in Huading Forest Park, Zhejiang Province, China. Morphological characterization and internal transcribed spacer rDNA analysis suggested that it belongs to Oidiodendron maius Barron, and we designated it as strain Om19. Methods for culturing Om19 were established, and the ability of Om19 to form mycorrhizae on R. fortunei was evaluated in a peat-based substrate. Microscopic observations showed hyaline hyphae on the surface of hair roots and crowded hyphal complexes (hyphal coils) inside root cortical cells of R...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Martina Peter, Annegret Kohler, Robin A Ohm, Alan Kuo, Jennifer Krützmann, Emmanuelle Morin, Matthias Arend, Kerrie W Barry, Manfred Binder, Cindy Choi, Alicia Clum, Alex Copeland, Nadine Grisel, Sajeet Haridas, Tabea Kipfer, Kurt LaButti, Erika Lindquist, Anna Lipzen, Renaud Maire, Barbara Meier, Sirma Mihaltcheva, Virginie Molinier, Claude Murat, Stefanie Pöggeler, C Alisha Quandt, Christoph Sperisen, Andrew Tritt, Emilie Tisserant, Pedro W Crous, Bernard Henrissat, Uwe Nehls, Simon Egli, Joseph W Spatafora, Igor V Grigoriev, Francis M Martin
The most frequently encountered symbiont on tree roots is the ascomycete Cenococcum geophilum, the only mycorrhizal species within the largest fungal class Dothideomycetes, a class known for devastating plant pathogens. Here we show that the symbiotic genomic idiosyncrasies of ectomycorrhizal basidiomycetes are also present in C. geophilum with symbiosis-induced, taxon-specific genes of unknown function and reduced numbers of plant cell wall-degrading enzymes. C. geophilum still holds a significant set of genes in categories known to be involved in pathogenesis and shows an increased genome size due to transposable elements proliferation...
2016: Nature Communications
Chinnathambi Sarathambal, Premraj Jagoji Khankhane, Yogita Gharde, Bhumesh Kumar, Mayank Varun, Sellappan Arun
In this study, plant growth promoting potential isolates from rhizosphere of 10 weed species grown in heavy metal contaminated areas were identified and their effect on growth, antioxidant enzymes and cadmium (Cd) uptake in Arundo donax was explored. Plant growth promoting traits of isolates were also analysed. These isolates were found to produce siderophores and enzymes like 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase which solubilizes minerals and modulate plant growth and development. Based on the presence of multiple plant growth promoting traits, isolates were selected for molecular characterization and inoculation studies...
September 3, 2016: International Journal of Phytoremediation
Christine L Goodale
The impact of atmospheric nitrogen deposition on forest ecosystems depends in large part on its fate. Past tracer studies show that litter and soils dominate the short-term fate of added (15) N, yet few have examined its longer-term dynamics or differences among forest types. This study examined the fate of a (15) N-NO3 (-) tracer over 5-6 years in a mixed deciduous stand that was evenly composed of trees with ectomycorrhizal and arbuscular mycorrhizal associations. The tracer was expected to slowly mineralize from its main initial fate in litter and surface soil, with some (15) N moving to trees, some to deeper soil, and some net losses...
August 26, 2016: Global Change Biology
Edward Hacskaylo
One of the pioneers of research on ectomycorrhizas in the mid-1900s was Elias Melin in Uppsala Sweden. The author spent a year in the Melin lab conducting his doctoral research. Here he describes that experience and the work of some others of the next generation of mycorrhiza researchers who also were members of the Melin lab.
August 25, 2016: Mycorrhiza
Zeina Daher, Ghislaine Recorbet, Katalin Solymosi, Stefanie Wienkoop, Arnaud Mounier, Dominique Morandi, Jeannine Lherminier, Daniel Wipf, Eliane Dumas-Gaudot, Benoît Schoefs
During arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis, arbuscule-containing root cortex cells display a proliferation of plastids, a feature usually ascribed to an increased plant anabolism despite the lack of studies focusing on purified root plastids. In this study, we investigated mycorrhiza-induced changes in plastidic pathways by performing a label-free comparative subcellular quantitative proteomic analysis targeted on plastid-enriched fractions isolated from Medicago truncatula roots, coupled to a cytological analysis of plastid structure...
August 25, 2016: Physiologia Plantarum
James K Hane, Yao Ming, Lars G Kamphuis, Matthew N Nelson, Gagan Garg, Craig A Atkins, Philipp E Bayer, Armando Bravo, Scott Bringans, Steven Cannon, David Edwards, Rhonda Foley, Ling-Ling Gao, Maria J Harrison, Wei Huang, Bhavna Hurgobin, Sean Li, Cheng-Wu Liu, Annette McGrath, Grant Morahan, Jeremy Murray, James Weller, Jianbo Jian, Karam B Singh
Lupins are important grain legume crops that form a critical part of sustainable farming systems, reducing fertilizer use and providing disease breaks. It has a basal phylogenetic position relative to other crop and model legumes and a high speciation rate. Narrow-leafed lupin (NLL; Lupinus angustifolius L.) is gaining popularity as a health food, which is high in protein and dietary fibre but low in starch and gluten-free. We report the draft genome assembly (609 Mb) of NLL cultivar Tanjil, which has captured > 98% of the gene content, sequences of additional lines and a dense genetic map...
August 24, 2016: Plant Biotechnology Journal
Amandine Viollet, Barbara Pivato, Christophe Mougel, Jean-Claude Cleyet-Marel, Cécile Gubry-Rangin, Philippe Lemanceau, Sylvie Mazurier
Type three secretion systems (T3SSs) mediate cell-to-cell interactions between Gram-negative bacteria and eukaryotes. We hypothesized that fluorescent pseudomonads harboring T3SS (T3SS+) would be beneficial to arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis because non-pathogenic fluorescent pseudomonads have been previously shown to be much more abundant in mycorrhizal than in non-mycorrhizal roots. We tested this hypothesis by comparing mycorrhization and the associated rhizosphere microbial communities of Medicago truncatula grown in a non-sterile soil inoculated with either the T3SS+ mycorrhiza helper bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens (C7R12) or a T3SS- mutant of the strain...
August 22, 2016: Mycorrhiza
Hazel R Maboreke, Lasse Feldhahn, Markus Bönn, Mika T Tarkka, Francois Buscot, Sylvie Herrmann, Ralph Menzel, Liliane Ruess
BACKGROUND: Pedunculate oak (Quercus robur L.), an important forest tree in temperate ecosystems, displays an endogenous rhythmic growth pattern, characterized by alternating shoot and root growth flushes paralleled by oscillations in carbon allocation to below- and aboveground tissues. However, these common plant traits so far have largely been neglected as a determining factor for the outcome of plant biotic interactions. This study investigates the response of oak to migratory root-parasitic nematodes in relation to rhythmic growth, and how this plant-nematode interaction is modulated by an ectomycorrhizal symbiont...
2016: BMC Genomics
Joanna Weremijewicz, Kotaro Seto
Over the past decade, functional traits that influence plant performance and thus, population, community, and ecosystem biology have garnered increasing attention. Generally lacking, however, has been consideration of how ubiquitous arbuscular mycorrhizas influence plant allometric and stoichiometric functional traits. We assessed how plant dependence on and responsiveness to mycorrhizas influence plant functional traits of a warm-season, C4 grass, Andropogon gerardii Vitman, and the contrasting, cool-season, C3 grass, Elymus canadensis L...
June 2016: Ecology and Evolution
Yue Jin, Huan Liu, Dexian Luo, Nan Yu, Wentao Dong, Chao Wang, Xiaowei Zhang, Huiling Dai, Jun Yang, Ertao Wang
Legumes form symbiotic associations with either nitrogen-fixing bacteria or arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Formation of these two symbioses is regulated by a common set of signalling components that act downstream of recognition of rhizobia or mycorrhizae by host plants. Central to these pathways is the calcium and calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CCaMK)-IPD3 complex which initiates nodule organogenesis following calcium oscillations in the host nucleus. However, downstream signalling events are not fully understood...
2016: Nature Communications
Kevin Garcia, Joan Doidy, Sabine D Zimmermann, Daniel Wipf, Pierre-Emmanuel Courty
Soil nutrient acquisition and exchanges through symbiotic plant-fungus interactions in the rhizosphere are key features for the current agricultural and environmental challenges. Improved crop yield and plant mineral nutrition through a fungal symbiont has been widely described. In return, the host plant supplies carbon substrates to its fungal partner. We review here recent progress on molecular players of membrane transport involved in nutritional exchanges between mycorrhizal plants and fungi. We cover the transportome, from the transport proteins involved in sugar fluxes from plants towards fungi, to the uptake from the soil and exchange of nitrogen, phosphate, potassium, sulfate, and water...
August 8, 2016: Trends in Plant Science
Shivani Srivastava, Xavier A Conlan, David M Cahill, Alok Adholeya
Arbuscular mycorrhiza is a symbiotic association formed between plant roots and soil borne fungi that alter and at times improve the production of secondary metabolites. Detailed information is available on mycorrhizal development and its influence on plants grown under various edapho-climatic conditions, however, very little is known about their influence on transformed roots that are rich reserves of secondary metabolites. This raises the question of how mycorrhizal colonization progresses in transformed roots grown in vitro and whether the mycorrhizal fungus presence influences the production of secondary metabolites...
November 2016: Mycorrhiza
Shao-Feng Jiang, Yi Liu, Mi-Yun Xiao, Chu-Jin Ruan, Zu-Jun Lu
The draft genome sequences of Klebsiella variicola strain KV321, which was isolated from rhizosphere soil of Pisolithus tinctorius-Eucalyptus mycorrhiza, are reported here. The genome sequences contain genes involved in ABC transporter function in multiple-antibiotic drug resistance and colonization. This genomic analysis will help understand the genomic basis of K. variicola virulence genes and how the genes play a part in its interaction with other living organisms.
2016: Genome Announcements
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