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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642762/arbuscular-mycorrhiza-augments-arsenic-tolerance-in-wheat-triticum-aestivum-l-by-strengthening-antioxidant-defense-system-and-thiol-metabolism
#1
Surbhi Sharma, Garima Anand, Neeraja Singh, Rupam Kapoor
Arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) can help plants to tolerate arsenic (As) toxicity. However, plant responses are found to vary with the host plant and the AM fungal species. The present study compares the efficacy of two AM fungi Rhizoglomus intraradices (M1) and Glomus etunicatum (M2) in amelioration of As stress in wheat (Triticum aestivum L. var. HD-2967). Mycorrhizal (M) and non-mycorrhizal (NM) wheat plants were subjected to four levels of As (0, 25, 50, and 100 mg As kg(-1) soil). Although As additions had variable effects on the percentage of root colonized by the two fungal inoculants, each mycobiont conferred benefits to the host plant...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622919/diet-of-arbuscular-mycorrhizal-fungi-bread-and-butter
#2
REVIEW
Mélanie K Rich, Eva Nouri, Pierre-Emmanuel Courty, Didier Reinhardt
Most plants entertain mutualistic interactions known as arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) with soil fungi (Glomeromycota) which provide them with mineral nutrients in exchange for reduced carbon from the plant. Mycorrhizal roots represent strong carbon sinks in which hexoses are transferred from the plant host to the fungus. However, most of the carbon in AM fungi is stored in the form of lipids. The absence of the type I fatty acid synthase (FAS-I) complex from the AM fungal model species Rhizophagus irregularis suggests that lipids may also have a role in nutrition of the fungal partner...
June 13, 2017: Trends in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608039/antifungal-genes-expressed-in-transgenic-pea-pisum-sativum-l-do-not-affect-root-colonization-of-arbuscular-mycorrhizae-fungi
#3
Jagroop Gill Kahlon, Hans-Jörg Jacobsen, James F Cahill, Linda M Hall
Genetically modified crops have raised concerns about unintended consequences on non-target organisms including beneficial soil associates. Pea transformed with four antifungal genes 1-3 β glucanase, endochitinase, polygalacturonase-inhibiting proteins, and stilbene synthase is currently under field-testing for efficacy against fungal diseases in Canada. Transgenes had lower expression in the roots than leaves in greenhouse experiment. To determine the impact of disease-tolerant pea or gene products on colonization by non-target arbuscular mycorrhizae and nodulation by rhizobium, a field trial was established...
June 12, 2017: Mycorrhiza
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28586137/adaptive-root-foraging-strategies-along-a-boreal-temperate-forest-gradient
#4
Ivika Ostonen, Marika Truu, Heljä-Sisko Helmisaari, Martin Lukac, Werner Borken, Elena Vanguelova, Douglas L Godbold, Krista Lõhmus, Ulrich Zang, Leho Tedersoo, Jens-Konrad Preem, Katrin Rosenvald, Jürgen Aosaar, Kęstutis Armolaitis, Jane Frey, Naima Kabral, Mai Kukumägi, Jaana Leppälammi-Kujansuu, Antti-Jussi Lindroos, Päivi Merilä, Ülle Napa, Pekka Nöjd, Kaarin Parts, Veiko Uri, Mats Varik, Jaak Truu
The tree root-mycorhizosphere plays a key role in resource uptake, but also in the adaptation of forests to changing environments. The adaptive foraging mechanisms of ectomycorrhizal (EcM) and fine roots of Picea abies, Pinus sylvestris and Betula pendula were evaluated along a gradient from temperate to subarctic boreal forest (38 sites between latitudes 48°N and 69°N) in Europe. Variables describing tree resource uptake structures and processes (absorptive fine root biomass and morphology, nitrogen (N) concentration in absorptive roots, extramatrical mycelium (EMM) biomass, community structure of root-associated EcM fungi, soil and rhizosphere bacteria) were used to analyse relationships between root system functional traits and climate, soil and stand characteristics...
June 6, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28560606/biological-invasion-influences-the-outcome-of-plant-soil-feedback-in-the-invasive-plant-species-from-the-brazilian-semi-arid
#5
Tancredo Augusto Feitosa de Souza, Leonaldo Alves de Andrade, Helena Freitas, Aline da Silva Sandim
Plant-soil feedback is recognized as the mutual interaction between plants and soil microorganisms, but its role on the biological invasion of the Brazilian tropical seasonal dry forest by invasive plants still remains unclear. Here, we analyzed and compared the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) communities and soil characteristics from the root zone of invasive and native plants, and tested how these AMF communities affect the development of four invasive plant species (Cryptostegia madagascariensis, Parkinsonia aculeata, Prosopis juliflora, and Sesbania virgata)...
May 30, 2017: Microbial Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28556511/host-specific-effects-of-soil-microbial-filtrates-prevail-over-those-of-arbuscular-mycorrhizae-in-a-fragmented-landscape
#6
Camila Pizano, Scott A Mangan, James H Graham, Kaoru Kitajima
Plant-soil interactions have been shown to determine plant community composition in a wide range of environments. However, how plants distinctly interact with beneficial and detrimental organisms across mosaic landscapes containing fragmented habitats is still poorly understood. We experimentally tested feedback responses between plants and soil microbial communities from adjacent habitats across a disturbance gradient within a human-modified tropical montane landscape. In a greenhouse experiment, two components of soil microbial communities were amplified; arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and a filtrate excluding AMF spores from the soils of pastures (high disturbance), coffee plantations (intermediate disturbance), and forest fragments (low disturbance), using potted seedlings of 11 plant species common in these habitats (pasture grass, coffee, and 9 native species)...
May 28, 2017: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548654/arbuscular-mycorrhiza-a-new-role-for-n-acetylglucosamine
#7
Benoit Lefebvre
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 26, 2017: Nature Plants
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547294/seasonal-dynamics-of-extraradical-mycelium-and-mycorrhizas-in-a-black-truffle-tuber-melanosporum-plantation
#8
Mikel Queralt, Javier Parladé, Joan Pera, Ana María DE Miguel
Seasonal dynamics of black truffle (Tuber melanosporum) extraradical mycelium as well as the associated mycorrhizal community have been evaluated in a 16-year-old plantation with productive and non-productive trees. Mycelium biomass was seasonally quantified by real-time PCR over two consecutive years and the correlation with environmental variables explored. Extraradical mycelium biomass varied seasonally and between the two consecutive years, being correlated with the precipitation that occurred 1 month before sampling...
May 25, 2017: Mycorrhiza
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537795/the-influences-of-arbuscular-mycorrhizal-fungus-on-phytostabilization-of-lead-zinc-tailings-using-four-plant-species
#9
Hai-Hong Gu, Zheng Zhou, Yu-Qian Gao, Xue-Tao Yuan, Yan-Jun Ai, Jun-Ying Zhang, Wen-Zhe Zuo, Alicia A Taylor, Shi-Qing Nan, Fu-Ping Li
A greenhouse experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Funneliformis mosseae on three parameters: Pb, Zn, Cu and Cd accumulation, translocation and plant growth in perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne), tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea), showy stonecrop (Hylotelephium spectabile) and Purple Heart (Tradescantia pallida). The purpose of this work is to enhance site-specific phytostabilization of lead/zinc mine tailings using native plant species. The results showed that mycorrhizal fungi inoculation significantly increased plant biomass of F...
August 3, 2017: International Journal of Phytoremediation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531954/arbuscular-mycorrhiza-fungi-facilitate-rapid-adaptation-of-elsholtzia-splendens-to-copper
#10
Junmin Li, Huijuan Liang, Ming Yan, Luxi Chen, Huating Zhang, Jie Liu, Suizi Wang, Zexin Jin
Closely associated microbes have been shown to drive local adaptation of plants. However, few studies provide direct evidence, disclosing the role of arbuscular mycorrhiza fungi (AMF) in their rapid adaptation of plants toward heavy metal tolerance. Elsholtzia splendens is a Cu-tolerant plant that was used as a model plant to study seed morphological traits as well as traits related to seed germination and seedling growth. This was achieved after acclimation for two generations with 1000mg/kg CuSO4 in either absence or presence of AMF...
December 1, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529515/changes-in-leaf-anatomical-traits-enhanced-photosynthetic-activity-of-soybean-grown-in-hydroponics-with-plant-growth-promoting-microorganisms
#11
Roberta Paradiso, Carmen Arena, Veronica De Micco, Maria Giordano, Giovanna Aronne, Stefania De Pascale
The use of hydroponic systems for cultivation in controlled climatic conditions and the selection of suitable genotypes for the specific environment help improving crop growth and yield. We hypothesized that plant performance in hydroponics could be further maximized by exploiting the action of plant growth-promoting organisms (PGPMs). However, the effects of PGPMs on plant physiology have been scarcely investigated in hydroponics. Within a series of experiments aimed to identify the best protocol for hydroponic cultivation of soybean [Glycine max (L...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28517039/genetics-of-mycorrhizal-symbiosis-in-winter-wheat-triticum-aestivum
#12
Heike Lehnert, Albrecht Serfling, Matthias Enders, Wolfgang Friedt, Frank Ordon
Bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) is a major staple food and therefore of prime importance for feeding the Earth's growing population. Mycorrhiza is known to improve plant growth, but although extensive knowledge concerning the interaction between mycorrhizal fungi and plants is available, genotypic differences concerning the ability of wheat to form mycorrhizal symbiosis and quantitative trait loci (QTLs) involved in mycorrhization are largely unknown. Therefore, a diverse set of 94 bread wheat genotypes was evaluated with regard to root colonization by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi...
May 18, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508206/rapid-use-of-resources-as-a-basis-of-the-heracleum-sosnowskyi-invasive-syndrome
#13
D V Veselkin, L A Ivanova, L A Ivanov, M A Mikryukova, V N Bolshakov, A A Betekhtina
The functional properties of the invasive Heracleum sosnowskyi were compared with those of the native Heracleum sibiricum. The leaf and root traits, as well as those of a whole plant and of the mycorrhiza formation, were studied. H. sosnowskyi can fulfill the high-productivity potential only under the optimum availability of resources (especially water), while it is poorly adapted to maintain a high physiological activity under the unfavorable soil conditions. An important component of the H. sosnowskyi invasiveness is an ability to utilize rapidly resources in both the above- and underground areas at the optimum conditions...
March 2017: Doklady Biological Sciences: Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Biological Sciences Sections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488060/arbuscular-mycorrhizal-fungi-and-pseudomonas-in-reduce-drought-stress-damage-in-flax-linum-usitatissimum-l-a-field-study
#14
Saeedeh Rahimzadeh, Alireza Pirzad
Drought stress, which is one of the most serious world environmental threats to crop production, might be compensated by some free living and symbiotic soil microorganisms. The physiological response of flax plants to inoculation with two species of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi (Funneliformis mosseae or Rhizophagus intraradices) and a phosphate solubilizing bacterium (Pseudomonas putida P13; PSB) was evaluated under different irrigation regimes (irrigation after 60, 120, and 180 mm of evaporation from Class A pan as well-watered, mild, and severe stress, respectively)...
May 10, 2017: Mycorrhiza
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474559/new-prospective-for-enhancement-in-bioenergy-resources-through-fungal-engineering
#15
Rafia Azmat, Sumeira Moin, Ailyan Saleem, Neelofer Hamid, Anum Khursheed, Waseem Ahmed
BACKGROUND: Lignin and cellulose, organic constituents of plant or plant based material not commonly used for feeding purpose are referred as Biomass. This can be used as best resource of renewable energy. Vesicular arbuscular mycorrhizae (VAM) fungi can play an effective role in biomass manufacturing through activated metabolism of plant under dual symbiosis. During C acclimatization, mycorrhizal inoculated plants existent greater number of leaves with height of plants as compared to non-mycorrhizal plants...
May 3, 2017: Recent Patents on Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469630/abscisic-acid-as-pathogen-effector-and-immune-regulator
#16
REVIEW
Laurens Lievens, Jacob Pollier, Alain Goossens, Rudi Beyaert, Jens Staal
Abscisic acid (ABA) is a sesquiterpene signaling molecule produced in all kingdoms of life. To date, the best known functions of ABA are derived from its role as a major phytohormone in plant abiotic stress resistance. Different organisms have developed different biosynthesis and signal transduction pathways related to ABA. Despite this, there are also intriguing common themes where ABA often suppresses host immune responses and is utilized by pathogens as an effector molecule. ABA also seems to play an important role in compatible mutualistic interactions such as mycorrhiza and rhizosphere bacteria with plants, and possibly also the animal gut microbiome...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28459003/influence-of-arbuscular-mycorrhiza-fungi-amf-on-drought-tolerance-and-charcoal-rot-disease-of-cowpea
#17
B O Oyewole, O J Olawuyi, A C Odebode, M A Abiala
The influence of Arbuscular mycorrhiza fungi (AMF) (Glomus deserticola and Gigaspora gigantea) were evaluated on drought tolerance and charcoal rot disease of cowpea genotypes: IT90K-277-2, IT84S-2246-4 and IT06K123-1. IT90K-277-2 and IT84S-2246-4 were sown in 3 kg of sterilized soil for drought experiment with five treatments. Treatment was established thirty days after germination with inoculation of G. deserticola, the mycorrhizal treated cowpea withstand the water stress and produced high yield. Biocontrol experiment had 2 kg sterilized soil potted into bags with cultivars IT90K-277-2 and IT06K123-1, fourteen treatments were established with soil drenched before planting and simultaneous inoculation...
March 2017: Biotechnology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28452982/corrigendum-arbuscular-mycorrhiza-enhance-the-rate-of-litter-decomposition-while-inhibiting-soil-microbial-community-development
#18
Heng Gui, Kevin Hyde, Jianchu Xu, Peter Mortimer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 28, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424712/a-functional-approach-towards-understanding-the-role-of-the-mitochondrial-respiratory-chain-in-an-endomycorrhizal-symbiosis
#19
Louis Mercy, Eva Lucic-Mercy, Amaia Nogales, Areg Poghosyan, Carolin Schneider, Birgit Arnholdt-Schmitt
Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are crucial components of fertile soils, able to provide several ecosystem services for crop production. Current economic, social and legislative contexts should drive the so-called "second green revolution" by better exploiting these beneficial microorganisms. Many challenges still need to be overcome to better understand the mycorrhizal symbiosis, among which (i) the biotrophic nature of AMF, constraining their production, while (ii) phosphate acts as a limiting factor for the optimal mycorrhizal inoculum application and effectiveness...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421312/an-annotated-translation-of-no%C3%A3-l-bernard-s-1899-article-on-the-germination-of-neottia-nidus-avis
#20
Marc-André Selosse, Julita Minasiewicz, Bernard Boullard
We translate Noël Bernard's discovery of orchid symbiotic germination discovered on Neottia nidus-avis, as published in the May 1899 issue of the Comptes rendus hebdomadaires des séances de l'Académie des sciences. In his note, Bernard (1874-1911) establishes the need for a fungus, which is also forming mycorrhizae in adults, for seeds germination. We provide illustrations reproduced from his later works, and summaries of the French text he cited. In our annotations, we show how early this discovery was done in Bernard's career, and insist on the scientific framework at the end of the nineteenth century, where orchid germination was mysterious and the need for vicinity of parents was not fully understood...
April 18, 2017: Mycorrhiza
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