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Xin Zhang, Baihui Ren, Songlin Wu, Yuqing Sun, Baodong Chen, Ruojuan Li
It was documented that arbuscular mycorrhiza fungi (AMF) play an important role in protecting host plants against arsenic (As) contamination. However, most terrestrial ecosystems contain a considerable number of nonmycorrhizal plants. So far little information is available for the interaction of such non-host plants with AMF under As contaminations. By using a dual compartment cultivation system with a plastic board or a nylon mesh separating roots of non-host pepperweed from roots of the AM-host alfafa plants, avoiding direct root competition, the two plant species were grown separately or partially separated (with rhizosphere effects) in the presence or absence of the AMF Rhizophagus irregularis in As-contaminated soil...
May 2018: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
Uwe Druege, Philipp Franken
Adventitious root formation in cuttings and establishment of arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis reflect the enormous plasticity of plants and are key factors in the efficient and sustainable clonal propagation and production of ornamental crops. Based on the high importance of Petunia hybrida for the European and US annual bedding plant markets and its suitability as a model for basic plant sciences, petunia has been established as an experimental system for elucidating the molecular and physiological processes underlying adventitious root formation and mycorrhizal symbiosis...
May 17, 2018: Physiologia Plantarum
Elisabeth Armada, Márcio F A Leite, Almudena Medina, Rosario Azcón, Eiko E Kuramae
Inoculation of plants with beneficial plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB) emerges a valuable strategy for ecosystem recovery. However, drought conditions might compromise plant-microbe interactions especially in semiarid regions. This study highlights the effect of native PGPB after one-year inoculation on autochthonous shrubs growth and rhizosphere microbial community composition and activity under drought stress conditions. We inoculated three plant species of semiarid Mediterranean zones, Thymus vulgaris, Santolina chamaecyparissus and Lavandula dentata with a Bacillus thuringiensis strain IAM 12077 and, evaluated the impact on plant biomass, plant nutrient contents, arbuscular mycorrhiza fungi (AMF) colonization, soil rhizosphere microbial activity, and both the bacterial and fungal communities...
May 16, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
Fang Liu, Yunjian Xu, Guomin Han, Wei Wang, Xiaoyu Li, Beijiu Cheng
Phosphorus (P) is an essential macronutrient for plant life, although it is frequently not readily available to crops. Arbuscular mycorrhiza fungi (AMF) can improve plant P levels by inducing the expression of some phosphate (Pi) transporters. Symbiotic Pi uptake by Pi transporters is crucial for AMF colonization and arbuscule dynamics. However, the functions of mycorrhiza-inducible maize Pi transporters are largely unclear. We focused on the interaction between the Pi concentration and AMF colonization in maize, and detecting the induction of Pi transporter...
May 14, 2018: Plant & Cell Physiology
Salvatore Casarrubia, Stefania Daghino, Annegret Kohler, Emmanuelle Morin, Hassine-Radhouane Khouja, Yohann Daguerre, Claire Veneault-Fourrey, Francis M Martin, Silvia Perotto, Elena Martino
Mutualistic and pathogenic plant-colonizing fungi use effector molecules to manipulate the host cell metabolism to allow plant tissue invasion. Some small secreted proteins (SSPs) have been identified as fungal effectors in both ectomycorrhizal and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, but it is currently unknown whether SSPs also play a role as effectors in other mycorrhizal associations. Ericoid mycorrhiza is a specific endomycorrhizal type that involves symbiotic fungi mostly belonging to the Leotiomycetes (Ascomycetes) and plants in the family Ericaceae...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Daniel B Metcalfe, Wanderley Rocha, Jennifer K Balch, Paulo M Brando, Christopher E Doughty, Yadvinder Malhi
Fire at the dry southern margin of the Amazon rainforest could have major consequences for regional soil carbon (C) storage and ecosystem carbon dioxide (CO2 ) emissions, but relatively little information exists about impacts of fire on soil C cycling within this sensitive ecotone. We measured CO2 effluxes from different soil components (ground surface litter, roots, mycorrhizae, soil organic matter) at a large-scale burn experiment designed to simulate a severe but realistic potential future scenario for the region (Fire plot) in Mato Grosso, Brazil, over one year, and compared these measurements to replicated data from a nearby, unmodified Control plot...
May 10, 2018: Global Change Biology
Andreas Keymer, Caroline Gutjahr
Arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) is a widespread symbiosis between most land plants and fungi of the Glomeromycotina, which has existed for more than 400million years. AM fungi (AMF) improve plant nutrition with mineral nutrients and conversely, their growth and development is fueled by organic carbon supplied from their host. Recent studies demonstrated independently and with different experimental approaches that lipids are transferred from plants to fungi in addition to sugars, and that AMF are dependent on this lipid supply because they lack genes encoding fatty acid synthase I subunits...
May 2, 2018: Current Opinion in Plant Biology
Marzena Sujkowska-Rybkowska, Rafał Ważny
This present paper studies the response of Anthyllis vulneraria-Rhizobium symbiosis to heavy metal stress. The symbiotic rhizobium bacteria isolated from root nodules of A. vulneraria from zinc and lead wastes were examined in this project. Light microscopy (LM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to analyze the nodule anatomy and ultrastructure and conduct a comparison with nonmetal-treated nodules. 16S ribosomal DNA sequence analysis of bacteria isolated from metal-treated nodules revealed the presence of Rhizobium metallidurans and Bradyrhizobium sp...
June 7, 2018: International Journal of Phytoremediation
Aljosa Zavišić, Nan Yang, Sven Marhan, Ellen Kandeler, Andrea Polle
Phosphorus (P) is an important nutrient, whose plant-available form phosphate is often low in natural forest ecosystems. Mycorrhizal fungi mine the soil for P and supply their host with this resource. It is unknown how ectomycorrhizal communities respond to changes in P availability. Here, we used young beech ( Fagus sylvatica L.) trees in natural forest soil from a P-rich and P-poor site to investigate the impact of P amendment on soil microbes, mycorrhizas, beech P nutrition, and photosynthesis. We hypothesized that addition of P to forest soil increased P availability, thereby, leading to enhanced microbial biomass and mycorrhizal diversity in P-poor but not in P-rich soil...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Katie J Field, Silvia Pressel
Contents I. II. III. IV. V. VI. VII. VIII. References SUMMARY: Mycorrhizal symbiosis is an ancient and widespread mutualism between plants and fungi that facilitated plant terrestrialisation > 500 million years ago, with key roles in ecosystem functioning at multiple scales. Central to the symbiosis is the bidirectional exchange of plant-fixed carbon for fungal-acquired nutrients. Within this unifying role of mycorrhizas, considerable diversity in structure and function reflects the diversity of the partners involved...
April 26, 2018: New Phytologist
Mathias Brands, Vera Wewer, Andreas Keymer, Caroline Gutjahr, Peter Dörmann
Arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) fungi establish symbiotic interactions with plants, providing the host plant with minerals, i.e. phosphate, in exchange with organic carbon. AM fungi of the Glominea produce vesicles, which store lipids as energy and carbon source. Acyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) thioesterases (Fat) are essential components of the plant plastid-localized fatty acid synthase and determine the chain length of de novo synthesized fatty acids. In addition to the ubiquitous FatA and FatB thioesterases, AM-competent plants contain an additional, AM-specific FatM gene...
April 23, 2018: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
Jonathan A Bennett, James F Cahill
Pollination is critical for plant fitness and population dynamics, yet little attention is paid to the role of flowering and plant-pollinator interactions in structuring plant communities, including community responses to environmental change. Changes in arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), nutrient abundances, and plant litter all affect plant access to different resources, and are known regulators of community structure. Each factor can also affect flowering and plant-pollinator interactions, potentially contributing to changes in community structure...
April 19, 2018: Ecology
Ruairidh J H Sawers, M Rosario Ramírez-Flores, Víctor Olalde-Portugal, Uta Paszkowski
Contents I. II. III. IV. V. References SUMMARY: Cereals (rice, maize, wheat, sorghum and the millets) provide over 50% of the world's caloric intake, a value that rises to > 80% in developing countries. Since domestication, cereals have been under artificial selection, largely directed towards higher yield. Throughout this process, cereals have maintained their capacity to interact with arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi, beneficial symbionts that associate with the roots of most terrestrial plants. It has been hypothesized that the shift from the wild to cultivation, and above all the last c...
April 15, 2018: New Phytologist
Mohamed Hijri, Amadou Bâ
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Jonathan B González, Renee H Petipas, Oscar Franken, E Toby Kiers, Kari E Veblen, Alison K Brody
The functional relationship between arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and their hosts is variable on small spatial scales. Here, we hypothesized that herbivore exclusion changes the AMF community and alters the ability of AMF to enhance plant tolerance to grazing. We grew the perennial bunchgrass, Themeda triandra Forssk in inoculum from soils collected in the Kenya Long-term Exclosure Experiment where treatments representing different levels of herbivory have been in place since 1995. We assessed AMF diversity in the field, using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism and compared fungal diversity among treatments...
March 29, 2018: Oecologia
Matthew E Craig, Benjamin L Turner, Chao Liang, Keith Clay, Daniel J Johnson, Richard P Phillips
Forest soils store large amounts of carbon (C) and nitrogen (N), yet how predicted shifts in forest composition will impact long-term C and N persistence remains poorly understood. A recent hypothesis predicts that soils under trees associated with arbuscular mycorrhizas (AM) store less C than soils dominated by trees associated with ectomycorrhizas (ECM), due to slower decomposition in ECM-dominated forests. However, an incipient hypothesis predicts that systems with rapid decomposition - e.g., most AM-dominated forests - enhance soil organic matter (SOM) stabilization by accelerating the production of microbial residues...
March 24, 2018: Global Change Biology
Christine Strullu-Derrien, Marc-André Selosse, Paul Kenrick, Francis M Martin
Contents I. II. III. IV. V. VI. VII. ORCID References SUMMARY: The ability of fungi to form mycorrhizas with plants is one of the most remarkable and enduring adaptations to life on land. The occurrence of mycorrhizas is now well established in c. 85% of extant plants, yet the geological record of these associations is sparse. Fossils preserved under exceptional conditions provide tantalizing glimpses into the evolutionary history of mycorrhizas, showing the extent of their occurrence and aspects of their evolution in extinct plants...
March 24, 2018: New Phytologist
Rui Xing, Hui-Ying Yan, Qing-Bo Gao, Fa-Qi Zhang, Jiu-Li Wang, Shi-Long Chen
Floccularia luteovirens, an important edible mushroom widely distributed in the Qinghai-Tibet plateau, is ecologically important as an ectomycorrhizal fungus and can form the fairy ring. To explore the influence of F. luteovirens fairy ring on soil microbial communities, we compared the soil microbial communities in three different fairy ring zones (inside the fairy ring (IN); beneath the fairy ring (ON); and outside the fairy ring (OUT)). A total of 1.77 million bacterial reads and 1.59 million fungal reads were obtained...
March 23, 2018: Journal of Basic Microbiology
Michael Bitterlich, Philipp Franken, Jan Graefe
Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) proliferate in soils and are known to affect soil structure. Although their contribution to structure is extensively investigated, the consequences of those processes for soil water extractability and transport has, so far, gained surprisingly little attention. Therefore we asked, whether AMF can affect water retention and unsaturated hydraulic conductivity under exclusion of root ingrowth, in order to minimize plant driven effects. We carried out experiments with tomato inoculated with Rhizoglomus irregulare in a soil substrate with sand and vermiculite that created variation in colonization by mixed pots with wild type (WT) plants and mycorrhiza resistant (RMC) mutants...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Zhongfeng Sun, Jiabin Song, Xi'an Xin, Xianan Xie, Bin Zhao
Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi are soil-borne fungi belonging to the ancient phylum Glomeromycota and are important symbionts of the arbuscular mycorrhiza, enhancing plant nutrient acquisition and resistance to various abiotic stresses. In contrast to their significant physiological implications, the molecular basis involved is poorly understood, largely due to their obligate biotrophism and complicated genetics. Here, we identify and characterize three genes termed Fm201 , Ri14-3-3 and RiBMH2 that encode 14-3-3-like proteins in the AM fungi Funneliformis mosseae and Rhizophagus irregularis , respectively...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
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