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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803341/gypsy-moth-herbivory-induced-volatiles-and-reduced-parasite-attachment-to-cranberry-hosts
#1
Muvari C Tjiurutue, Hilary A Sandler, Monica F Kersch-Becker, Nina Theis, Lynn S Adler
Interactions between species can have cascading effects that shape subsequent interactions. For example, herbivory can induce plant defenses that affect subsequent interactions with herbivores, pathogens, mycorrhizae, and pollinators. Parasitic plants are present in most ecosystems, and play important roles in structuring communities. However, the effects of host herbivory on parasitic plants, and the potential mechanisms underlying such effects, are not well known. We conducted a greenhouse study to ask whether gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar) damage, host cultivar, and their interaction affected preference of the stem parasite dodder (Cuscuta spp...
August 12, 2017: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799726/external-hyphae-of-rhizophagus-irregularis-daom-197198-are-less-sensitive-to-low-ph-than-roots-in-arbuscular-mycorrhizae-evidence-from-axenic-culture-system
#2
Ning Wang, Zengwei Feng, Yang Zhou, Honghui Zhu, Qing Yao
The growth of plant roots and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) can be inhibited by low pH; however, it is largely unknown which is more sensitive to low pH. This study aimed to compare the physiological and molecular responses of external hyphae (EH) and roots to low pH in terms of growth, development and functioning. We established AM symbiosis in a two-compartmented system (root compartment, RC; hyphal compartment, HC) using AMF and transformed hairy roots and exposed them to pH 6.5 and/or pH 4.5. The results showed that pH 4...
August 11, 2017: Environmental Microbiology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28789611/role-of-the-gras-transcription-factor-ata-ram1-in-the-transcriptional-reprogramming-of-arbuscular-mycorrhiza-in-petunia-hybrida
#3
Mélanie K Rich, Pierre-Emmanuel Courty, Christophe Roux, Didier Reinhardt
BACKGROUND: Development of arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) requires a fundamental reprogramming of root cells for symbiosis. This involves the induction of hundreds of genes in the host. A recently identified GRAS-type transcription factor in Petunia hybrida, ATA/RAM1, is required for the induction of host genes during AM, and for morphogenesis of the fungal endosymbiont. To better understand the role of RAM1 in symbiosis, we set out to identify all genes that depend on activation by RAM1 in mycorrhizal roots...
August 8, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771548/differentially-expressed-genes-in-mycorrhized-and-nodulated-roots-of-common-bean-are-associated-with-defense-cell-wall-architecture-n-metabolism-and-p-metabolism
#4
Kalpana Nanjareddy, Manoj-Kumar Arthikala, Brenda-Mariana Gómez, Lourdes Blanco, Miguel Lara
Legumes participate in two important endosymbiotic associations, with phosphorus-acquiring arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM, soil fungi) and with nitrogen-fixing bacterial rhizobia. These divergent symbionts share a common symbiotic signal transduction pathway that facilitates the establishment of mycorrhization and nodulation in legumes. However, the unique and shared downstream genes essential for AM and nodule development have not been identified in crop legumes. Here, we used ion torrent next-generation sequencing to perform comparative transcriptomics of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) roots colonized by AM or rhizobia...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769964/application-of-mycorrhiza-and-soil-from-a-permaculture-system-improved-phosphorus-acquisition-in-naranjilla
#5
Sarah Symanczik, Michelle Gisler, Cécile Thonar, Klaus Schlaeppi, Marcel Van der Heijden, Ansgar Kahmen, Thomas Boller, Paul Mäder
Naranjilla (Solanum quitoense) is a perennial shrub plant mainly cultivated in Ecuador, Colombia, and Central America where it represents an important cash crop. Current cultivation practices not only cause deforestation and large-scale soil degradation but also make plants highly susceptible to pests and diseases. The use of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) can offer a possibility to overcome these problems. AMF can act beneficially in various ways, for example by improving plant nutrition and growth, water relations, soil structure and stability and protection against biotic and abiotic stresses...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726631/lipid-transfer-from-plants-to-arbuscular-mycorrhiza-fungi
#6
Andreas Keymer, Priya Pimprikar, Vera Wewer, Claudia Huber, Mathias Brands, Simone L Bucerius, Pierre-Marc Delaux, Verena Klingl, Edda von Röpenack-Lahaye, Trevor L Wang, Wolfgang Eisenreich, Peter Dörmann, Martin Parniske, Caroline Gutjahr
Arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) symbioses contribute to global carbon cycles as plant hosts divert up to 20% of photosynthate to the obligate biotrophic fungi. Previous studies suggested carbohydrates as the only form of carbon transferred to the fungi. However, de novo fatty acid (FA) synthesis has not been observed in AM fungi in absence of the plant. In a forward genetic approach, we identified two Lotus japonicus mutants defective in AM-specific paralogs of lipid biosynthesis genes (KASI and GPAT6). These mutants perturb fungal development and accumulation of emblematic fungal 16:1ω5 FAs...
July 20, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725961/the-plasma-membrane-proteome-of-medicago-truncatula-roots-as-modified-by-arbuscular-mycorrhizal-symbiosis
#7
Achref Aloui, Ghislaine Recorbet, Christelle Lemaître-Guillier, Arnaud Mounier, Thierry Balliau, Michel Zivy, Daniel Wipf, Eliane Dumas-Gaudot
In arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) roots, the plasma membrane (PM) of the host plant is involved in all developmental stages of the symbiotic interaction, from initial recognition to intracellular accommodation of intra-radical hyphae and arbuscules. Although the role of the PM as the agent for cellular morphogenesis and nutrient exchange is especially accentuated in endosymbiosis, very little is known regarding the PM protein composition of mycorrhizal roots. To obtain a global overview at the proteome level of the host PM proteins as modified by symbiosis, we performed a comparative protein profiling of PM fractions from Medicago truncatula roots either inoculated or not with the AM fungus Rhizophagus irregularis...
July 19, 2017: Mycorrhiza
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725395/reduced-aboveground-tree-growth-associated-with-higher-arbuscular-mycorrhizal-fungal-diversity-in-tropical-forest-restoration
#8
Ellen K Holste, Karen D Holl, Rakan A Zahawi, Richard K Kobe
Establishing diverse mycorrhizal fungal communities is considered important for forest recovery, yet mycorrhizae may have complex effects on tree growth depending on the composition of fungal species present. In an effort to understand the role of mycorrhizal fungi community in forest restoration in southern Costa Rica, we sampled the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal (AMF) community across eight sites that were planted with the same species (Inga edulis, Erythrina poeppigiana, Terminalia amazonia, and Vochysia guatemalensis) but varied twofold to fourfold in overall tree growth rates...
October 2016: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698354/enhanced-secondary-and-hormone-metabolism-in-leaves-of-arbuscular-mycorrhizal-medicago-truncatula
#9
Lisa Adolfsson, Hugues Nziengui, Ilka N Abreu, Jan Šimura, Azeez Beebo, Andrei Herdean, Jila Aboalizadeh, Jitka Široká, Thomas Moritz, Ondřej Novák, Karin Ljung, Benoît Schoefs, Cornelia Spetea
Arbuscular mycorrhizas (AM) are the most common symbiotic associations between plant's root compartment and fungi. They provide nutritional benefit (mostly inorganic phosphate, Pi) leading to improved growth, and non-nutritional benefits including defense responses to environmental cues throughout the host plant, which in return delivers carbohydrates to the symbiont. However, how transcriptional and metabolic changes occurring in leaves of AM plants differ from those induced by Pi fertilization is poorly understood...
July 11, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695334/arbuscular-mycorrhizas-are-present-on-spitsbergen
#10
K K Newsham, P B Eidesen, M L Davey, J Axelsen, E Courtecuisse, C Flintrop, A G Johansson, M Kiepert, S E Larsen, K E Lorberau, M Maurset, J McQuilkin, M Misiak, A Pop, S Thompson, D J Read
A previous study of 76 plant species on Spitsbergen in the High Arctic concluded that structures resembling arbuscular mycorrhizas were absent from roots. Here, we report a survey examining the roots of 13 grass and forb species collected from 12 sites on the island for arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) colonisation. Of the 102 individuals collected, we recorded AM endophytes in the roots of 41 plants of 11 species (Alopecurus ovatus, Deschampsia alpina, Festuca rubra ssp. richardsonii, putative viviparous hybrids of Poa arctica and Poa pratensis, Poa arctica ssp...
July 10, 2017: Mycorrhiza
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681951/natural-succession-on-abandoned-cropland-effectively-decreases-the-soil-erodibility-and-improves-the-fungal-diversity
#11
Chao Zhang, Guobin Liu, Zilin Song, Dong Qu, Linchuan Fang, Lei Deng
Changes in plants and soils during natural succession have been evaluated, but little is known about the effects of succession on the activities of soil microbes and their interactions with soil erodibility. We conducted a field study on the Chinese Loess Plateau, typical of this semiarid area, to determine the effect of secondary succession on the stability of soil structure against erosion and on the composition of soil fungal communities. Characteristics of plant, soil, and fungal communities were assessed across a 30-year chronosequence of grassland developed from abandoned cropland...
July 6, 2017: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680077/facilitation-of-phosphorus-uptake-in-maize-plants-by-mycorrhizosphere-bacteria
#12
Fabio Battini, Mette Grønlund, Monica Agnolucci, Manuela Giovannetti, Iver Jakobsen
A major challenge for agriculture is to provide sufficient plant nutrients such as phosphorus (P) to meet the global food demand. The sufficiency of P is a concern because of it's essential role in plant growth, the finite availability of P-rock for fertilizer production and the poor plant availability of soil P. This study investigated whether biofertilizers and bioenhancers, such as arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and their associated bacteria could enhance growth and P uptake in maize. Plants were grown with or without mycorrhizas in compartmented pots with radioactive P tracers and were inoculated with each of 10 selected bacteria isolated from AMF spores...
July 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28668753/precipitation-adsorption-and-rhizosphere-effect-the-mechanisms-for-phosphate-induced-pb-immobilization-in-soils-a-review
#13
REVIEW
Guangming Zeng, Jia Wan, Danlian Huang, Liang Hu, Chao Huang, Min Cheng, Wenjing Xue, Xiaomin Gong, Rongzhong Wang, Danni Jiang
Lead (Pb) is one of the most toxic heavy metals that pose a direct threat to organisms and it can not been degraded through microbial activities or chemical reaction. Bioavaibility and eco-toxicity of Pb which mostly depend on Pb chemical speciation play an important role in the remediation of Pb-contaminated soils. Phosphate (P) amendments which could transfer Pb from unstable fraction to stable fraction are commonly used to immobilize Pb in soils and have been extensively studied by researchers during decades...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28666217/toxicity-of-coal-fly-ash-cfa-and-toxicological-response-of-switchgrass-in-mycorrhiza-mediated-cfa-soil-admixtures
#14
Olushola M Awoyemi, E Kudjo Dzantor
Increasing support for the use of Coal fly ash (CFA) in agriculture has necessitated a better understanding of the effects of the CFA in various cropping schemes. Experiments were conducted to assess mutagenic response of a mutant strain of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (TA100) to varying concentrations of CFA-water extracts, determine oxidative stress in switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) at varying levels of CFA-soil admixtures, and evaluate mycorrhiza-mediated modulation of oxidative stress responses of CFA-grown switchgrass...
June 27, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647757/arbuscular-mycorrhiza-effects-on-plant-performance-under-osmotic-stress
#15
REVIEW
Christian Santander, Ricardo Aroca, Juan Manuel Ruiz-Lozano, Jorge Olave, Paula Cartes, Fernando Borie, Pablo Cornejo
At present, drought and soil salinity are among the most severe environmental stresses that affect the growth of plants through marked reduction of water uptake which lowers water potential, leading to osmotic stress. In general, osmotic stress causes a series of morphological, physiological, biochemical, and molecular changes that affect plant performance. Several studies have found that diverse types of soil microorganisms improve plant growth, especially when plants are under stressful conditions. Most important are the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) which form arbuscular mycorrhizas (AM) with approximately 80% of plant species and are present in almost all terrestrial ecosystems...
June 25, 2017: Mycorrhiza
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642762/arbuscular-mycorrhiza-augments-arsenic-tolerance-in-wheat-triticum-aestivum-l-by-strengthening-antioxidant-defense-system-and-thiol-metabolism
#16
Surbhi Sharma, Garima Anand, Neeraja Singh, Rupam Kapoor
Arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) can help plants to tolerate arsenic (As) toxicity. However, plant responses are found to vary with the host plant and the AM fungal species. The present study compares the efficacy of two AM fungi Rhizoglomus intraradices (M1) and Glomus etunicatum (M2) in amelioration of As stress in wheat (Triticum aestivum L. var. HD-2967). Mycorrhizal (M) and non-mycorrhizal (NM) wheat plants were subjected to four levels of As (0, 25, 50, and 100 mg As kg(-1) soil). Although As additions had variable effects on the percentage of root colonized by the two fungal inoculants, each mycobiont conferred benefits to the host plant...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622919/diet-of-arbuscular-mycorrhizal-fungi-bread-and-butter
#17
REVIEW
Mélanie K Rich, Eva Nouri, Pierre-Emmanuel Courty, Didier Reinhardt
Most plants entertain mutualistic interactions known as arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) with soil fungi (Glomeromycota) which provide them with mineral nutrients in exchange for reduced carbon from the plant. Mycorrhizal roots represent strong carbon sinks in which hexoses are transferred from the plant host to the fungus. However, most of the carbon in AM fungi is stored in the form of lipids. The absence of the type I fatty acid synthase (FAS-I) complex from the AM fungal model species Rhizophagus irregularis suggests that lipids may also have a role in nutrition of the fungal partner...
August 2017: Trends in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608039/antifungal-genes-expressed-in-transgenic-pea-pisum-sativum-l-do-not-affect-root-colonization-of-arbuscular-mycorrhizae-fungi
#18
Jagroop Gill Kahlon, Hans-Jörg Jacobsen, James F Cahill, Linda M Hall
Genetically modified crops have raised concerns about unintended consequences on non-target organisms including beneficial soil associates. Pea transformed with four antifungal genes 1-3 β glucanase, endochitinase, polygalacturonase-inhibiting proteins, and stilbene synthase is currently under field-testing for efficacy against fungal diseases in Canada. Transgenes had lower expression in the roots than leaves in greenhouse experiment. To determine the impact of disease-tolerant pea or gene products on colonization by non-target arbuscular mycorrhizae and nodulation by rhizobium, a field trial was established...
June 12, 2017: Mycorrhiza
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28586137/adaptive-root-foraging-strategies-along-a-boreal-temperate-forest-gradient
#19
Ivika Ostonen, Marika Truu, Heljä-Sisko Helmisaari, Martin Lukac, Werner Borken, Elena Vanguelova, Douglas L Godbold, Krista Lõhmus, Ulrich Zang, Leho Tedersoo, Jens-Konrad Preem, Katrin Rosenvald, Jürgen Aosaar, Kęstutis Armolaitis, Jane Frey, Naima Kabral, Mai Kukumägi, Jaana Leppälammi-Kujansuu, Antti-Jussi Lindroos, Päivi Merilä, Ülle Napa, Pekka Nöjd, Kaarin Parts, Veiko Uri, Mats Varik, Jaak Truu
The tree root-mycorhizosphere plays a key role in resource uptake, but also in the adaptation of forests to changing environments. The adaptive foraging mechanisms of ectomycorrhizal (EcM) and fine roots of Picea abies, Pinus sylvestris and Betula pendula were evaluated along a gradient from temperate to subarctic boreal forest (38 sites between latitudes 48°N and 69°N) in Europe. Variables describing tree resource uptake structures and processes (absorptive fine root biomass and morphology, nitrogen (N) concentration in absorptive roots, extramatrical mycelium (EMM) biomass, community structure of root-associated EcM fungi, soil and rhizosphere bacteria) were used to analyse relationships between root system functional traits and climate, soil and stand characteristics...
June 6, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28560606/biological-invasion-influences-the-outcome-of-plant-soil-feedback-in-the-invasive-plant-species-from-the-brazilian-semi-arid
#20
Tancredo Augusto Feitosa de Souza, Leonaldo Alves de Andrade, Helena Freitas, Aline da Silva Sandim
Plant-soil feedback is recognized as the mutual interaction between plants and soil microorganisms, but its role on the biological invasion of the Brazilian tropical seasonal dry forest by invasive plants still remains unclear. Here, we analyzed and compared the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) communities and soil characteristics from the root zone of invasive and native plants, and tested how these AMF communities affect the development of four invasive plant species (Cryptostegia madagascariensis, Parkinsonia aculeata, Prosopis juliflora, and Sesbania virgata)...
May 30, 2017: Microbial Ecology
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