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Hector Urbina, Martin F Breed, Weizhou Zhao, Kanaka Lakshmi Gurrala, Siv G E Andersson, Jon Ågren, Sandra Baldauf, Anna Rosling
Biotic and abiotic conditions in soil pose major constraints on growth and reproductive success of plants. Fungi are important agents in plant soil interactions but the belowground mycobiota associated with plants remains poorly understood. We grew one genotype each from Sweden and Italy of the widely-studied plant model Arabidopsis thaliana. Plants were grown under controlled conditions in organic topsoil local to the Swedish genotype, and harvested after ten weeks. Total DNA was extracted from three belowground compartments: endosphere (sonicated roots), rhizosphere and bulk soil, and fungal communities were characterized from each by amplification and sequencing of the fungal barcode region ITS2...
April 2018: Fungal Biology
Michael Bitterlich, Martin Sandmann, Jan Graefe
Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) proliferate in soil pores, on the surface of soil particles and affect soil structure. Although modifications in substrate moisture retention depend on structure and could influence plant water extraction, mycorrhizal impacts on water retention and hydraulic conductivity were rarely quantified. Hence, we asked whether inoculation with AMF affects substrate water retention, water transport properties and at which drought intensity those factors become limiting for plant transpiration...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Antonietta Mello, Raffaella Balestrini
The roots of most terrestrial plants are colonized by mycorrhizal fungi. They play a key role in terrestrial environments influencing soil structure and ecosystem functionality. Around them a peculiar region, the mycorrhizosphere, develops. This is a very dynamic environment where plants, soil and microorganisms interact. Interest in this fascinating environment has increased over the years. For a long period the knowledge of the microbial populations in the rhizosphere has been limited, because they have always been studied by traditional culture-based techniques...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Maíra de Freitas Pereira, Claire Veneault-Fourrey, Patrice Vion, Fréderic Guinet, Emmanuelle Morin, Kerrie W Barry, Anna Lipzen, Vasanth Singan, Stephanie Pfister, Hyunsoo Na, Megan Kennedy, Simon Egli, Igor Grigoriev, Francis Martin, Annegret Kohler, Martina Peter
Cenococcum geophilum is an ectomycorrhizal fungus with global distribution in numerous habitats and associates with a large range of host species including gymnosperm and angiosperm trees. Moreover, C. geophilum is the unique ectomycorrhizal species within the clade Dothideomycetes, the largest class of Ascomycetes containing predominantly saprotrophic and many devastating phytopathogenic fungi. Recent studies highlight that mycorrhizal fungi, as pathogenic ones, use effectors in form of Small Secreted Proteins (SSPs) as molecular keys to promote symbiosis...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Akhilesh Kumar, Jay Prakash Verma
The biotic and abiotic stresses are major constraints for crop yield, food quality and global food security. A number of parameters such as physiological, biochemical, molecular of plants are affected under stress condition. Since the use of inorganic fertilizers and pesticides in agriculture practices cause degradation of soil fertility and environmental pollutions. Hence it is necessary to develop safer and sustainable means for agriculture production. The application of plant growth promoting microbes (PGPM) and mycorrhizal fungi enhance plant growth, under such conditions...
March 2018: Microbiological Research
Ignacio E Maldonado-Mendoza, Maria J Harrison
Plants associated with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) increase their tolerance to arsenic-polluted soils. This study aims to investigate the genes involved in the AMF molecular response to arsenic pollution. Genes encoding proteins involved in arsenic metabolism were identified and their expression assessed by PCR or RT-qPCR. The As-inducible gene GiArsA (R. irregularis ABC ATPase component of the ArsAB arsenite efflux pump) and two new genes, an arsenate/arsenite permease component of ArsAB (RiArsB) and a methyltransferase type 11 (RiMT-11) were induced when arsenate was added to two-compartment in vitro monoxenic cultures of R...
February 2018: Fungal Biology
Wei Xie, Zhipeng Hao, Xiaofu Zhou, Xuelian Jiang, Lijiao Xu, Songlin Wu, Aihua Zhao, Xin Zhang, Baodong Chen
Liquorice (Glycyrrhiza uralensis) is an important medicinal plant for which there is a huge market demand. It has been reported that arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis and drought stress can stimulate the accumulation of the active ingredients, glycyrrhizin and liquiritin, in liquorice plants, but the potential interactions of AM symbiosis and drought stress remain largely unknown. In the present work, we investigated mycorrhizal effects on plant growth and accumulation of glycyrrhizin and liquiritin in liquorice plants under different water regimes...
February 17, 2018: Mycorrhiza
Issa Diédhiou, Diaga Diouf
Root endosymbioses are mutualistic interactions between plants and the soil microorganisms (Fungus, Frankia or Rhizobium) that lead to the formation of nitrogen-fixing root nodules and/or arbuscular mycorrhiza. These interactions enable many species to survive in different marginal lands to overcome the nitrogen-and/or phosphorus deficient environment and can potentially reduce the chemical fertilizers used in agriculture which gives them an economic, social and environmental importance. The formation and the development of these structures require the mediation of specific gene products among which the transcription factors play a key role...
February 15, 2018: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
Moritz Kaling, Anna Schmidt, Franco Moritz, Maaria Rosenkranz, Michael Witting, Karl Kasper, Dennis Janz, Phillipe Schmitt-Kopplin, Joerg-Peter Schnitzler, Andrea Polle
Symbioses between plants and mycorrhizal fungi are ubiquitous in ecosystems and strengthen the plants' defense against aboveground herbivores. Here, we studied the underlying regulatory networks and biochemical mechanisms in leaves induced by ectomycorrhizae that modify herbivore interactions. Feeding damage and oviposition by the widespread poplar leaf beetle Chrysomela populi were reduced on ectomycorrhizal hybrid poplar Populus x canescens. Integration of transcriptomics, metabolomics and volatile emission patterns via mass difference networks demonstrated changes in nitrogen allocation in leaves of mycorrhizal poplars, down-regulation of phenolic pathways and up-regulation of defensive systems, including protease inhibitors, chitinases and aldoxime biosynthesis...
February 8, 2018: Plant Physiology
Ylva Lekberg, Thorunn Helgason
We know a lot about the potential functions of mycorrhizas, but whether or not these are realized in the field where plants simultaneously experience a range of biotic interactions and fluctuating abiotic conditions is more or less unknown. In this viewpoint, we present findings from a literature survey of papers on mycorrhizal function published in New Phytologist during the past 30 years. This survey showed that most functional studies are still conducted under controlled conditions, target mostly arbuscular and ectomycorrhizas, and focus on nutrient and carbon dynamics of the symbiosis...
February 13, 2018: New Phytologist
Priya Pimprikar, Caroline Gutjahr
Arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) is an ancient symbiosis between land plants and fungi of the glomeromycotina that is wide-spread in the plant kingdom. AM improves plant nutrition, stress resistance and general plant performance, and thus represents a promising addition to sustainable agricultural practices. In return for delivering mineral nutrients, the obligate biotrophic AM fungi receive up to 20% of the photosynthetically fixed carbon from the plant. AM fungi colonize the inside of roots and form highly branched tree-shaped structures, called arbuscules, in cortex cells...
February 7, 2018: Plant & Cell Physiology
Jan V Colpaert, David P Janos
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 5, 2018: Mycorrhiza
Chun-Yan Liu, Fei Zhang, De-Jian Zhang, A K Srivastava, Qiang-Sheng Wu, Ying-Ning Zou
Root-hair growth and development regulated by soil microbes is associated with auxin. In this background, we hypothesized that mycorrhizal fungal inoculation induces greater root-hair growth through stimulated auxin synthesis and transport under water stress conditions. Trifoliate orange (Poncirus trifoliata) was inoculated with an arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus (Funneliformis mosseae) under well-watered (WW) and drought stress (DS) for 9 weeks. Compared with non-AM seedlings, AM seedlings displayed significantly higher density, length, and diameter of root hairs and root indoleacetic acid (IAA) level, whereas lower total root IAA efflux, regardless of soil moisture status...
January 31, 2018: Scientific Reports
Marian Uhe, Claudia Hogekamp, Rico M Hartmann, Natalija Hohnjec, Helge Küster
Different symbiotic and pathogenic plant-microbe interactions involve the production of cysteine-rich antimicrobial defensins. In Medicago truncatula, the expression of four MtDefMd genes, encoding arbuscular mycorrhiza-dependent defensins containing an N-terminal signal peptide and exhibiting some differences to non-symbiotic defensins, raised over the time of fungal colonization. Whereas the MtDefMd1 and MtDefMd2 promoters were inactive in cells containing young arbuscules, cells with fully developed arbuscules displayed different levels of promoter activities, indicating an up-regulation towards later stages of arbuscule formation...
2018: PloS One
H T T Ngo, T R Cavagnaro
We aimed to investigate the combined impacts of compost addition and pre-planting soil moisture conditions, on plant-available nutrients, and subsequent impacts on the biomass, nutrition and formation of AM by two important crop species. A glasshouse study was undertaken in which wheat and tomato plants were grown in compost amended or un-amended soil that was subjected to different moisture regimes prior to planting. The availability of P was strongly influenced by compost addition, but not pre-planting moisture conditions...
January 24, 2018: Scientific Reports
Eric C H Chen, Emmanuelle Morin, Denis Beaudet, Jessica Noel, Gokalp Yildirir, Steve Ndikumana, Philippe Charron, Camille St-Onge, John Giorgi, Manuela Krüger, Timea Marton, Jeanne Ropars, Igor V Grigoriev, Matthieu Hainaut, Bernard Henrissat, Christophe Roux, Francis Martin, Nicolas Corradi
Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are known to improve plant fitness through the establishment of mycorrhizal symbioses. Genetic and phenotypic variations among closely related AMF isolates can significantly affect plant growth, but the genomic changes underlying this variability are unclear. To address this issue, we improved the genome assembly and gene annotation of the model strain Rhizophagus irregularis DAOM197198, and compared its gene content with five isolates of R. irregularis sampled in the same field...
January 22, 2018: New Phytologist
Mark C Brundrett, Leho Tedersoo
Contents I. II. III. IV. References SUMMARY: The majority of vascular plants are mycorrhizal: 72% are arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM), 2.0% are ectomycorrhizal (EcM), 1.5% are ericoid mycorrhizal and 10% are orchid mycorrhizal. Just 8% are completely nonmycorrhizal (NM), whereas 7% have inconsistent NM-AM associations. Most NM and NM-AM plants are nutritional specialists (e.g. carnivores and parasites) or habitat specialists (e.g. hydrophytes and epiphytes). Mycorrhizal associations are consistent in most families, but there are exceptions with complex roots (e...
January 22, 2018: New Phytologist
Qiang Zhang, Xinpeng Gao, Yanyun Ren, Xinhua Ding, Jiajia Qiu, Ning Li, Fanchang Zeng, Zhaohui Chu
Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) play an important role in nutrient cycling processes and plant stress resistance. To evaluate the effect of Rhizophagus irregularis CD1 on plant growth promotion (PGP) and Verticillium wilt disease, the symbiotic efficiency of AMF (SEA) was first investigated over a range of 3% to 94% in 17 cotton varieties. The high-SEA subgroup had significant PGP effects in a greenhouse. From these results, the highest-SEA variety of Lumian 1 was selected for a two-year field assay. Consistent with the performance from the greenhouse, the AMF-mediated PGP of Lumian 1 also produced significant results, including an increased plant height, stem diameter, number of petioles, and phosphorus content...
January 13, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Colin M Orians, Sara Gomez, Timothy Korpita
Both mycorrhizae and herbivore damage cause rapid changes in source-sink dynamics within a plant. Mycorrhizae create long-term sinks for carbon within the roots while damage by leaf-chewing herbivores causes temporary whole-plant shifts in carbon and nitrogen allocation. Thus, induced responses to herbivory might depend on the presence or absence of mycorrhizae. We examined the effects of mycorrhizal presence on induced resource partitioning in tomato (Solanum lycopersicon) in response to cues from a specialist herbivore Manduca sexta...
February 2018: AoB Plants
Yoshihiro Kobae, Hiromu Kameoka, Yusaku Sugimura, Katsuharu Saito, Ryo Ohtomo, Toru Fujiwara, Junko Kyozuka
Arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) is a mutualistic association between most plant species and the ancient fungal phylum Glomeromycota in roots, and it plays a key role in a plant's nutrient uptake from the soil. Roots synthesize strigolactones (SLs), derivatives of carotenoids, and exude them to induce energy metabolism and hyphal branching of AM fungi. Despite the well-documented roles of SLs in the presymbiotic phase, little is known about the role of SLs in the process of root colonization. Here we show that the expansion of root colonization is suppressed in the mutants of rice (Oryza sativa) SL biosynthesis genes, carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase D10 and more severely in D17...
January 9, 2018: Plant & Cell Physiology
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