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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339724/three-cis-regulatory-motifs-auxre-mycrs1-and-mycrs2-are-required-for-modulating-the-auxin-and-mycorrhiza-responsive-expression-of-a-tomato-gh3-gene
#1
Xiao Chen, Dehua Liao, Xiaofeng Yang, Minjie Ji, Shuangshuang Wang, Mian Gu, Aiqun Chen, Guohua Xu
Auxin is well known to be a key regulator that acts in almost all physiological processes during plant growth, and in interactions between plants and microbes. However, to date, the regulatory mechanisms underlying auxin-mediated plant-arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi symbiosis have not been well deciphered. Previously we identified a GH3 gene, SlGH3.4, strongly responsive to both auxin induction and mycorrhizal symbiosis. Here, we reported a refined dissection of the SlGH3.4 promoter activity using the β-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter...
February 21, 2017: Plant & Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322090/the-chemical-inducer-bth-benzothiadiazole-and-root-colonization-by-mycorrhizal-fungi-glomus-spp-trigger-resistance-against-white-rot-sclerotinia-sclerotiorum-in-sunflower
#2
Rita Bán, Gellért Baglyas, Ferenc Virányi, Balázs Barna, Katalin Posta, József Kiss, Katalin Körösi
White rot caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (SS) is one of the most devastating plant diseases of sunflower. Controlling this pathogen by available tools hardly result in acceptable control. The aim of this study was to elucidate the effects of plant resistance inducers, BTH (benzothiadiazole in Bion 50 WG) and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) on disease development of white rot in three sunflower genotypes. Defence responses were characterized by measuring the disease severity and identifying cellular/histological reactions (e...
March 2017: Acta Biologica Hungarica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317065/interactions-of-arbuscular-mycorrhizal-and-endophytic-fungi-improve-seedling-survival-and-growth-in-post-mining-waste
#3
Katarzyna Wężowicz, Piotr Rozpądek, Katarzyna Turnau
The impact of fungal endophytes and the modulating role of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) on the vitality of Verbascum lychnitis, grown in the laboratory in a substratum from a post-mining waste dump was investigated. We report that inoculation with a single endophyte negatively affected the survival rate and biomass production of most of the plant-endophyte consortia examined. The introduction of arbuscular mycorrhiza fungi into this setup (dual inoculation) had a beneficial effect on both biomass yield and survivability...
March 20, 2017: Mycorrhiza
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303188/facilitation-between-woody-and-herbaceous-plants-that-associate-with-arbuscular-mycorrhizal-fungi-in-temperate-european-forests
#4
Stavros D Veresoglou, Monika Wulf, Matthias C Rillig
In late-successional environments, low in available nutrient such as the forest understory, herbaceous plant individuals depend strongly on their mycorrhizal associates for survival. We tested whether in temperate European forests arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) woody plants might facilitate the establishment of AM herbaceous plants in agreement with the mycorrhizal mediation hypothesis. We used a dataset spanning over 400 vegetation plots in the Weser-Elbe region (northwest Germany). Mycorrhizal status information was obtained from published resources, and Ellenberg indicator values were used to infer environmental data...
February 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283681/gene-expression-analyses-in-tomato-near-isogenic-lines-provide-evidence-for-ethylene-and-abscisic-acid-biosynthesis-fine-tuning-during-arbuscular-mycorrhiza-development
#5
Giselle Gomes Monteiro Fracetto, Lázaro Eustáquio Pereira Peres, Marcio Rodrigues Lambais
Plant responses to the environment and microorganisms, including arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, involve complex hormonal interactions. It is known that abscisic acid (ABA) and ethylene may be involved in the regulation of arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) and that part of the detrimental effects of ABA deficiency in plants is due to ethylene overproduction. In this study, we aimed to determine whether the low susceptibility to mycorrhizal colonization in ABA-deficient mutants is due to high levels of ethylene and whether AM development is associated with changes in the steady-state levels of transcripts of genes involved in the biosynthesis of ethylene and ABA...
March 11, 2017: Archives of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273572/assessing-the-dynamic-changes-of-rhizosphere-functionality-of-zea-mays-plants-grown-in-organochlorine-contaminated-soils
#6
Claire Blondel, Loïc Briset, Nicolas Legay, Cindy Arnoldi, Franck Poly, Jean-Christophe Clément, Muriel Raveton
The persistent organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in soils are suspected to disturb soil biogeochemical cycles. This study addressed the dynamic changes in soil functionality under lindane and chlordecone exposures with or without maize plant. Decreases in soil ammonium concentration, potential nitrogen mineralization and microbial biomass were only OCP-influenced in bulk soils. OCPs appeared to inhibit the ammonification step. With plants, soil functionality under OCP stress was similar to controls demonstrating the plant influence to ensure the efficiency of C- and N-turnover in soils...
February 28, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28268116/key-metabolic-traits-of-pisum-sativum-maintain-cell-vitality-during-didymella-pinodes-infection-cultivar-resistance-and-the-microsymbionts-influence
#7
Reinhard Turetschek, Getinet Desalegn, Tamara Epple, Hans-Peter Kaul, Stefanie Wienkoop
Ascochyta blight causes severe losses in field pea production and the search for resistance traits towards the causal agent Didymella pinodes is of particular importance for farmers. Various microsymbionts were reported to shape the plants' immune response. However, regardless their contribution to resistance, they are hardly included in experimental designs. Here, we first delineate the bi-directional effect of the symbionts' (rhizobia, mycorrhiza) and the leaf proteome/metabolome of two field pea cultivars with varying resistance levels towards D...
March 4, 2017: Journal of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231393/effects-of-tissue-culture-and-mycorrhiza-applications-in-organic-farming-on-concentrations-of-phytochemicals-and-antioxidant-capacities-in-ginger-zingiber-officinale-roscoe-rhizomes-and-leaves
#8
Byungrok R Min, Lurline E Marsh, Keegan Brathwaite, Adebola O Daramola
Tissue culture and mycorrhiza applications can provide disease-free seedlings and enhanced nutrient absorption, respectively, for organic farming. Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) is rich in phytochemicals and has various health-protective potentials. This study was aimed at determining effects of tissue culture and mycorrhiza applications alone or in combinations in organic farming on phytochemical contents (total phenolics and flavonoids [TP and TF, respectively], gingerol and shogaol homologues, phenolic acids, and carotenoids) and antioxidant capacities (DPPH [2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl] radical scavenging, oxygen radical absorbance (ORAC), and iron-chelating capacities [ICC]) in solvent-extractable (Free) and cell-wall-matrix-bound (Bound) fractions of ginger rhizome and Free fraction of the leaves in comparison with non-organics...
February 23, 2017: Journal of Food Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230202/ecosystem-composition-controls-the-fate-of-rare-earth-elements-during-incipient-soil-genesis
#9
Dragos G Zaharescu, Carmen I Burghelea, Katerina Dontsova, Jennifer K Presler, Raina M Maier, Travis Huxman, Kenneth J Domanik, Edward A Hunt, Mary K Amistadi, Emily E Gaddis, Maria A Palacios-Menendez, Maria O Vaquera-Ibarra, Jon Chorover
The rare earth elements (REE) are increasingly important in a variety of science and economic fields, including (bio)geosciences, paleoecology, astrobiology, and mining. However, REE distribution in early rock-microbe-plant systems has remained elusive. We tested the hypothesis that REE mass-partitioning during incipient weathering of basalt, rhyolite, granite and schist depends on the activity of microbes, vascular plants (Buffalo grass), and arbuscular mycorrhiza. Pore-water element abundances revealed a rapid transition from abiotic to biotic signatures of weathering, the latter associated with smaller aqueous loss and larger plant uptake...
February 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216795/mycorrhizas-and-soil-ecosystem-function-of-co-existing-woody-vegetation-islands-at-the-alpine-tree-line
#10
Lixia Wang, Burenjargal Otgonsuren, Douglas L Godbold
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Picea abies, Pinus mugo and Rhododendron ferrugineum co-exist at the alpine tree line, and can have different mycorrhizal communities. The activity and diversity of mycorrhizal fungi are considered to be important factors in regulation of soil function. METHODS: At a tree line site and a lower elevation site in the Austrian Alps, the community structure of ectomycorrhiza on Picea abies and Pinus mugo was determined. The activity of surface enzymes was determined on ectomycorrhizal and ericoid mycorrhizal roots...
2017: Plant and Soil
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210812/cost-efficient-production-of-in-vitro-rhizophagus-irregularis
#11
Pawel Rosikiewicz, Jérémy Bonvin, Ian R Sanders
One of the bottlenecks in mycorrhiza research is that arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) have to be cultivated with host plant roots. Some AMF species, such as Rhizophagus irregularis, can be grown in vitro on dual-compartment plates, where fungal material can be harvested from a fungus-only compartment. Plant roots often grow into this fungus compartment, and regular root trimming is required if the fungal material needs to be free of traces of plant material. Trimming also increases unwanted contamination by other microorganisms...
February 16, 2017: Mycorrhiza
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185001/arbuscular-mycorrhizas-influence-lycium-barbarum-tolerance-of-water-stress-in-a-hot-environment
#12
Wentao Hu, Haoqiang Zhang, Hui Chen, Ming Tang
Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi can assist their hosts to cope with water stress and other abiotic stresses in different ways. In order to test whether AM plants have a greater capacity than control plants to cope with water stress, we investigated the water status and photosynthetic capacity of Lycium barbarum colonized or not by the AM fungus Rhizophagus irregularis under three water conditions during a hot summer. Sugar levels and transcriptional responses of both plant and AM fungus aquaporin genes in roots were analyzed...
February 9, 2017: Mycorrhiza
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181575/mycorrhizas-alter-sucrose-and-proline-metabolism-in-trifoliate-orange-exposed-to-drought-stress
#13
Hui-Hui Wu, Ying-Ning Zou, Mohammed Mahabubur Rahman, Qiu-Dan Ni, Qiang-Sheng Wu
Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) can enhance drought tolerance in plants, whereas little is known regarding AMF contribution to sucrose and proline metabolisms under drought stress (DS). In this study, Funneliformis mosseae and Paraglomus occultum were inoculated into trifoliate orange (Poncirus trifoliata) under well watered and DS. Although the 71-days DS notably (P < 0.05) inhibited mycorrhizal colonization, AMF seedlings showed significantly (P < 0.05) higher plant growth performance and leaf relative water content, regardless of soil water status...
February 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176859/alleviation-of-drought-stress-by-mycorrhizas-is-related-to-increased-root-h2o2-efflux-in-trifoliate-orange
#14
Yong-Ming Huang, Ying-Ning Zou, Qiang-Sheng Wu
The Non-invasive Micro-test Technique (NMT) is used to measure dynamic changes of specific ions/molecules non-invasively, but information about hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) fluxes in different classes of roots by mycorrhiza is scarce in terms of NMT. Effects of Funneliformis mosseae on plant growth, H2O2, superoxide radical (O2(·-)), malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations, and H2O2 fluxes in the taproot (TR) and lateral roots (LRs) of trifoliate orange seedlings under well-watered (WW) and drought stress (DS) conditions were studied...
February 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176855/arbuscular-mycorrhiza-enhance-the-rate-of-litter-decomposition-while-inhibiting-soil-microbial-community-development
#15
Heng Gui, Kevin Hyde, Jianchu Xu, Peter Mortimer
Although there is a growing amount of evidence that arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) influence the decomposition process, the extent of their involvement remains unclear. Therefore, given this knowledge gap, our aim was to test how AMF influence the soil decomposer communities. Dual compartment microcosms, where AMF (Glomus mosseae) were either allowed access (AM+) to or excluded (AM-) from forest soil compartments containing litterbags (leaf litter from Calophyllum polyanthum) were used. The experiment ran for six months, with destructive harvests at 0, 90, 120, 150, and 180 days...
February 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28165756/enhanced-phytoremediation-of-soils-contaminated-with-pahs-by-arbuscular-mycorrhiza-and-rhizobium
#16
Cheng-Gang Ren, Cun-Cui Kong, Bian Bian, Wei Liu, Yan Li, Yong-Ming Luo, Xie Zhi-Hong
Greenhouse experiment was conducted to evaluate the potential effectiveness of a legume (Sesbania cannabina), arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) (Glomus mosseae) and rhizobia (Ensifer sp.) symbiosis for remediation of PAHs in spiked soil. AMF and rhizobia had a beneficial impact on each other in the triple symbiosis. AMF and/or rhizobia significantly increased plant biomass and PAHs accumulation in plants. The highest PAHs dissipation was observed in plant + AMF + rhizobia treated soil, in which >97 and 85-87% of phenanthrene and pyrene, respectively, had been degraded, whereas 81-85% and 72-75% had been degraded in plant-treated soil...
February 6, 2017: International Journal of Phytoremediation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159616/influence-of-arbuscular-mycorrhizal-stage-and-plant-age-on-the-performance-of-a-generalist-aphid
#17
Viktoria V Tomczak, Caroline Müller
Host plant quality for herbivores is modulated by different factors including symbiosis with soil organisms, such as arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM), as well as plant age. However, the role of the developmental stage of the AM in such plant-microbe-herbivore interactions has been neglected. To investigate the effects of AM stage and plant age on aphid performance, individuals of the generalist Myzus persicae were reared on leaves of non-mycorrhized (NM) or mycorrhized (AM) Plantago lanceolata plants at two time points, on young plants (with a minor established AM) and on older plants (with a well-established AM), respectively...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28128071/the-geomycology-of-elemental-cycling-and-transformations-in-the-environment
#18
Geoffrey Michael Gadd
Geomicrobiology addresses the roles of microorganisms in geological and geochemical processes, and geomycology is a part of this topic focusing on the fungi. Geoactive roles of fungi include organic and inorganic transformations important in nutrient and element cycling, rock and mineral bioweathering, mycogenic biomineral formation, and metal-fungal interactions. Lichens and mycorrhizas are significant geoactive agents. Organic matter decomposition is important for cycling of major biomass-associated elements, e...
January 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28126782/response-to-comment-on-mycorrhizal-association-as-a-primary-control-of-the-co2-fertilization-effect
#19
César Terrer, Sara Vicca, Bruce A Hungate, Richard P Phillips, Peter B Reich, Oskar Franklin, Benjamin D Stocker, Joshua B Fisher, I Colin Prentice
Norby et al center their critique on the design of the data set and the response variable used. We address these criticisms and reinforce the conclusion that plants that associate with ectomycorrhizal fungi exhibit larger biomass and growth responses to elevated CO2 compared with plants that associate with arbuscular mycorrhizae.
January 27, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28126781/comment-on-mycorrhizal-association-as-a-primary-control-of-the-co2-fertilization-effect
#20
R J Norby, M G De Kauwe, A P Walker, C Werner, S Zaehle, D R Zak
Terrer et al (Reports, 1 July 2016, p. 72) used meta-analysis of carbon dioxide (CO2) enrichment experiments as evidence of an interaction between mycorrhizal symbiosis and soil nitrogen availability. We challenge their database and biomass as the response metric and, hence, their recommendation that incorporation of mycorrhizae in models will improve predictions of terrestrial ecosystem responses to increasing atmospheric CO2.
January 27, 2017: Science
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