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Varsha Pathare, Sudhakar Srivastava, Balasaheb V Sonawane, Penna Suprasanna
The intimate association between the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and host plants helps the latter in phosphate acquisition in exchange of carbohydrates and in enhanced stress tolerance. Similarly, the ubiquitous 14-3-3 protein family is known to be a major regulator of plant metabolism and stress responses. However, the involvement of mycorrhiza and plant 14-3-3 proteins interaction in plant response to environmental stimuli, such as arsenic (As) stress, is yet unknown. In this study, we analysed the impact of the As stress on the expression profile of 14-3-3 genes in the shoot of mycorrhiza colonized rice (Oryza sativa) plants...
October 2016: Physiology and Molecular Biology of Plants: An International Journal of Functional Plant Biology
Tanja Mrak, Katja Kühdorf, Tine Grebenc, Ines Štraus, Babette Münzenberger, Hojka Kraigher
Despite its broad host range and distribution and its potential applications in commercial plantation forests, comprehensive descriptions of Scleroderma ectomycorrhizae are available only for Scleroderma citrinum, Scleroderma bovista and Scleroderma sinnamariense. This study provides a morphological and anatomical description of tree nursery derived ectomycorrhizae of Scleroderma areolatum on Fagus sylvatica, grown for several years in a climatized room. Ectomycorrhizae of S. areolatum were silvery white with abundant rhizomorphs; all mantle layers were plectenchymatous, rhizomorphs of type E, with prominent emanating hyphae with thick cell wall...
December 2, 2016: Mycorrhiza
Faten Dhawi, Rupali Datta, Wusirika Ramakrishna
Sorghum is an economically important crop, a model system for gene discovery and a biofuel source. Sorghum seedlings were subjected to three microbial treatments, plant growth promoting bacteria (B), arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi mix with two Glomus species (G. aggregatum and G. etunicatum), Funelliformis mosseae and Rhizophagus irregularis (My), and B and My combined (My+B). Proteomic analysis was conducted followed by integration with metabolite, plant biomass and nutrient data. Out of 366 differentially expressed proteins in sorghum roots, 44 upregulated proteins overlapping among three treatment groups showed positive correlation with sorghum biomass or element uptake or both...
November 29, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Valeria Fochi, Walter Chitarra, Annegret Kohler, Samuele Voyron, Vasanth R Singan, Erika A Lindquist, Kerrie W Barry, Mariangela Girlanda, Igor V Grigoriev, Francis Martin, Raffaella Balestrini, Silvia Perotto
Orchids are highly dependent on their mycorrhizal fungal partners for nutrient supply, especially during early developmental stages. In addition to organic carbon, nitrogen (N) is probably a major nutrient transferred to the plant because orchid tissues are highly N-enriched. We know almost nothing about the N form preferentially transferred to the plant or about the key molecular determinants required for N uptake and transfer. We identified, in the genome of the orchid mycorrhizal fungus Tulasnella calospora, two functional ammonium transporters and several amino acid transporters but found no evidence of a nitrate assimilation system, in agreement with the N preference of the free-living mycelium grown on different N sources...
November 11, 2016: New Phytologist
Lei Cheng, Weile Chen, Thomas S Adams, Xing Wei, Le Li, Michael Luke McCormack, Jared L DeForest, Roger T Koide, David M Eissenstat
The roots of the majority of tree species are associated with either arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) or ectomycorrhizal (EM) fungi. The absorptive roots of tree species also vary widely in their diameter. The linkages between root thickness, mycorrhiza type and nutrient foraging are poorly understood. We conducted a large root ingrowth experiment in the field to investigate how absorptive roots of varying thickness and their associated fungi (AM vs. EM) exploit different nutrient patches (inorganic and organic) in a common garden...
October 2016: Ecology
Matthias C Rillig, Moisés A Sosa-Hernández, Julien Roy, Carlos A Aguilar-Trigueros, Kriszta Vályi, Anika Lehmann
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Iver Jakobsen, Sally E Smith, F Andrew Smith, Stephanie J Watts-Williams, Signe S Clausen, Mette Grønlund
Capturing the full growth potential in crops under future elevated CO2 (eCO2) concentrations would be facilitated by improved understanding of eCO2 effects on uptake and use of mineral nutrients. This study investigates interactions of eCO2, soil phosphorus (P), and arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis in Medicago truncatula and Brachypodium distachyon grown under the same conditions. The focus was on eCO2 effects on vegetative growth, efficiency in acquisition and use of P, and expression of phosphate transporter (PT) genes...
November 2016: Journal of Experimental Botany
Nuria Ferrol, Elisabeth Tamayo, Paola Vargas
Arbuscular mycorrhizal symbioses that involve most plants and Glomeromycota fungi are integral and functional parts of plant roots. In these associations, the fungi not only colonize the root cortex but also maintain an extensive network of hyphae that extend out of the root into the surrounding environment. These external hyphae contribute to plant uptake of low mobility nutrients, such as P, Zn, and Cu. Besides improving plant mineral nutrition, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) can alleviate heavy metal (HM) toxicity to their host plants...
October 31, 2016: Journal of Experimental Botany
Paloma Sanchez-Bel, Pilar Troncho, Jordi Gamir, Maria J Pozo, Gemma Camañes, Miguel Cerezo, Víctor Flors
Mycorrhizal plants are generally quite efficient in coping with environmental challenges. It has been shown that the symbiosis with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) can confer resistance against root and foliar pathogens, although the molecular mechanisms underlying such mycorrhiza-induced resistance (MIR) are poorly understood. Tomato plants colonized with the AMF Rhizophagus irregularis display enhanced resistance against the necrotrophic foliar pathogen Botrytis cinerea. Leaves from arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) plants develop smaller necrotic lesions, mirrored also by a reduced levels of fungal biomass...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Viktoria V Tomczak, Rabea Schweiger, Caroline Müller
Arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) formed between plants and AM fungi (AMF) can alter host plant quality and thus influence plant-herbivore interactions. While AM is known to affect the development of generalist chewing-biting herbivores, AM-mediated impacts on insect behavior have been neglected until now. In this study, the effects of Rhizophagus irregularis, a generalist AMF, on phenotypic and leaf metabolic traits of Plantago major plants were investigated. Further, the influence of AM-mediated host plant modifications on the development and on seven behavioral traits of larvae of the generalist Mamestra brassicae were recorded...
October 27, 2016: Journal of Chemical Ecology
M Clara Bruzone, Judith Fehrer, Sonia B Fontenla, Martin Vohník
Ericoid mycorrhiza is arguably the least investigated mycorrhizal type, particularly when related to the number of potential hosts and the ecosystems they inhabit. Little is known about the global distribution of ericoid mycorrhizal (ErM) fungi, and this holds true even for the prominent ErM mycobiont Rhizoscyphus ericae. Earlier studies suggested R. ericae might be low in abundance or absent in the roots of Southern Hemisphere's Ericaceae, and our previous investigations in two Argentine Patagonian forests supported this view...
October 25, 2016: Mycorrhiza
Yusaku Sugimura, Katsuharu Saito
The development of arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) is strongly suppressed under high-phosphate (Pi) conditions. To investigate AM fungal responses during the suppression of AM by high Pi, we performed an RNA-seq analysis of Rhizophagus irregularis colonizing Lotus japonicus roots at different levels of Pi (20, 100, 300, and 500 μM). AM fungal colonization decreased markedly under high-Pi conditions. In total, 163 fungal genes were differentially expressed among the four Pi treatments. Among these genes, a cell cycle-regulatory gene, cyclin-dependent kinase CDK1, and several DNA replication- and mitosis-related genes were repressed under high-Pi conditions...
October 20, 2016: Mycorrhiza
Etienne Laliberté
I. II. III. IV. V. VI. VII. VIII. References SUMMARY: Trait-based approaches have led to significant advances in plant ecology, but are currently biased toward above-ground traits. It is becoming clear that a stronger emphasis on below-ground traits is needed to better predict future changes in plant biodiversity and their consequences for ecosystem functioning. Here I propose six 'below-ground frontiers' in trait-based plant ecology, with an emphasis on traits governing soil nutrient acquisition: redefining fine roots; quantifying root trait dimensionality; integrating mycorrhizas; broadening the suite of root traits; determining linkages between root traits and abiotic and biotic factors; and understanding ecosystem-level consequences of root traits...
October 13, 2016: New Phytologist
E Taschen, F Rousset, M Sauve, L Benoit, M-P Dubois, F Richard, M-A Selosse
The life cycles and dispersal of edible fungi are still poorly known, thus limiting our understanding of their evolution and domestication. The prized Tuber melanosporum produces fruitbodies (fleshy organs where meiospores mature) gathered in natural, spontaneously inoculated forests or harvested in plantations of nursery-inoculated trees. Yet, how fruitbodies are formed remains unclear, thus limiting yields, and how current domestication attempts affect population genetic structure is overlooked. Fruitbodies result from mating between two haploid individuals: the maternal parent forms the flesh and the meiospores, while the paternal parent only contributes to the meiospores...
November 2016: Molecular Ecology
Sandra Varga, Rocío Vega-Frutis, Minna-Maarit Kytöviita
Plants usually interact with other plants, and the outcome of such interaction ranges from facilitation to competition depending on the identity of the plants, including their sexual expression. Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi have been shown to modify competitive interactions in plants. However, few studies have evaluated how AM fungi influence plant intraspecific and interspecific interactions in dioecious species. The competitive abilities of female and male plants of Antennaria dioica were examined in a greenhouse experiment...
October 1, 2016: Plant Biology
Petra Kubisch, Dietrich Hertel, Christoph Leuschner
Advancing our understanding of tree fine root dynamics is of high importance for tree physiology and forest biogeochemistry. In temperate broad-leaved forests, ectomycorrhizal (EM) and arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) tree species often are coexisting. It is not known whether EM and AM trees differ systematically in fine root dynamics and belowground resource foraging strategies. We measured fine root productivity (FRP) and fine root turnover (and its inverse, root longevity) of three EM and three AM broad-leaved tree species in a natural cool-temperate mixed forest using ingrowth cores and combined the productivity data with data on root biomass per root orders...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
José A Martín-Rodríguez, Raúl Huertas, Tania Ho-Plágaro, Juan A Ocampo, Veronika Turečková, Danuše Tarkowská, Jutta Ludwig-Müller, José M García-Garrido
Plant hormones have become appropriate candidates for driving functional plant mycorrhization programs, including the processes that regulate the formation of arbuscules in arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis. Here, we examine the role played by ABA/GA interactions regulating the formation of AM in tomato. We report differences in ABA and GA metabolism between control and mycorrhizal roots. Active synthesis and catabolism of ABA occur in AM roots. GAs level increases as a consequence of a symbiosis-induced mechanism that requires functional arbuscules which in turn is dependent on a functional ABA pathway...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Xiangying Wei, Jianjun Chen, Chunying Zhang, Dongming Pan
A new mycorrhizal fungal strain was isolated from hair roots of Rhododendron fortunei Lindl. grown in Huading Forest Park, Zhejiang Province, China. Morphological characterization and internal transcribed spacer rDNA analysis suggested that it belongs to Oidiodendron maius Barron, and we designated it as strain Om19. Methods for culturing Om19 were established, and the ability of Om19 to form mycorrhizae on R. fortunei was evaluated in a peat-based substrate. Microscopic observations showed hyaline hyphae on the surface of hair roots and crowded hyphal complexes (hyphal coils) inside root cortical cells of R...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Martina Peter, Annegret Kohler, Robin A Ohm, Alan Kuo, Jennifer Krützmann, Emmanuelle Morin, Matthias Arend, Kerrie W Barry, Manfred Binder, Cindy Choi, Alicia Clum, Alex Copeland, Nadine Grisel, Sajeet Haridas, Tabea Kipfer, Kurt LaButti, Erika Lindquist, Anna Lipzen, Renaud Maire, Barbara Meier, Sirma Mihaltcheva, Virginie Molinier, Claude Murat, Stefanie Pöggeler, C Alisha Quandt, Christoph Sperisen, Andrew Tritt, Emilie Tisserant, Pedro W Crous, Bernard Henrissat, Uwe Nehls, Simon Egli, Joseph W Spatafora, Igor V Grigoriev, Francis M Martin
The most frequently encountered symbiont on tree roots is the ascomycete Cenococcum geophilum, the only mycorrhizal species within the largest fungal class Dothideomycetes, a class known for devastating plant pathogens. Here we show that the symbiotic genomic idiosyncrasies of ectomycorrhizal basidiomycetes are also present in C. geophilum with symbiosis-induced, taxon-specific genes of unknown function and reduced numbers of plant cell wall-degrading enzymes. C. geophilum still holds a significant set of genes in categories known to be involved in pathogenesis and shows an increased genome size due to transposable elements proliferation...
2016: Nature Communications
Chinnathambi Sarathambal, Premraj Jagoji Khankhane, Yogita Gharde, Bhumesh Kumar, Mayank Varun, Sellappan Arun
In this study, plant growth promoting potential isolates from rhizosphere of 10 weed species grown in heavy metal contaminated areas were identified and their effect on growth, antioxidant enzymes and cadmium (Cd) uptake in Arundo donax was explored. Plant growth promoting traits of isolates were also analysed. These isolates were found to produce siderophores and enzymes like 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase which solubilizes minerals and modulate plant growth and development. Based on the presence of multiple plant growth promoting traits, isolates were selected for molecular characterization and inoculation studies...
September 3, 2016: International Journal of Phytoremediation
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