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Benedikt Prand-Stritzko, Georg Steinhauser
The monitoring inspection of food after the Fukushima nuclear accident (2011) was essential for ensuring food safety in Japan and reducing the adverse health effects due to incorporation of inacceptable amounts of radionuclides, in particular radiocesium ((134)Cs and (137)Cs). In this study, the mushroom fraction of the governmental data set of the first 5 years after the accident has been analyzed for contamination levels in mushrooms, in particular time trends and radioecological characteristics as well as associated health risks...
November 9, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Lur Epelde, Anders Lanzén, Iker Mijangos, Estibaliz Sarrionandia, Mikel Anza, Carlos Garbisu
Mountain grasslands in the Iberian Peninsula are the result of extensive grazing. However, a progressive abandonment of grazing activity is currently observed in the study region. The objective of this work was to evaluate the short-term (2 years) effects of non-grazing on the diversity and composition of plants, soil microorganisms (prokaryotes, fungi, arbuscular mycorrhiza), mesofauna, macrofauna and aboveground-belowground links, through the study of 16 grazed vs. non-grazed areas in Atlantic grasslands located in the Basque Country (Spain)...
November 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
Jie Chen, Haoqiang Zhang, Xinlu Zhang, Ming Tang
Soil salinization and the associated land degradation are major and growing ecological problems. Excess salt in soil impedes plant photosynthetic processes and root uptake of water and nutrients such as K(+). Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi can mitigate salt stress in host plants. Although, numerous studies demonstrate that photosynthesis and water status are improved by mycorrhizae, the molecular mechanisms involved have received little research attention. In the present study, we analyzed the effects of AM symbiosis and salt stress on photosynthesis, water status, concentrations of Na(+) and K(+), and the expression of several genes associated with photosynthesis (RppsbA, RppsbD, RprbcL, and RprbcS) and genes coding for aquaporins or membrane transport proteins involved in K(+) and/or Na(+) uptake, translocation, or compartmentalization homeostasis (RpSOS1, RpHKT1, RpNHX1, and RpSKOR) in black locust...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
Uwe T Nickel, Fabian Weikl, René Kerner, Cynthia Schäfer, Christian Kallenbach, Jean C Munch, Karin Pritsch
Forest ecosystems in central Europe are predicted to face an increasing frequency and severity of summer droughts because of global climate change. European beech and Norway spruce often coexist in these forests with mostly positive effects on their growth. However, their different below-ground responses to drought may lead to differences in ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungal community composition and functions which we examined at the individual root and ecosystem levels. We installed retractable roofs over plots in Kranzberg Forest (11°39'42″E, 48°25'12″N; 490 m a...
October 24, 2017: Global Change Biology
Dimitri Neb, Arpita Das, Annette Hintelmann, Uwe Nehls
Composite poplars were used for ectomycorrhiza formation. Structurally normal mycorrhizas of transgenic roots revealed better fungal sugar support. Targeting fluorescent proteins to peroxisomes allowed easy in planta visualization of successful transformation. A bottle neck in ectomycorrhizal research is the time demand for generation of transgenic plants. An alternative strategy for such root-centered research might be the formation of the so-called composite plants, where transgenic roots are formed by non-transgenic shoots...
December 2017: Plant Cell Reports
Thomas de Bang, Peter Knut Lundquist, Xinbin Dai, Clarissa Boschiero, Zhaohong Zhuang, Pooja Pant, Ivone Torres-Jerez, Sonali Roy, Joaquina Nogales, Vijaykumar Veerappan, Rebecca Dickstein, Michael K Udvardi, Patrick Xuechun Zhao, Wolf Scheible
Growing evidence indicates that small, secreted peptides (SSPs) play critical roles in legume growth and development, yet annotation of SSP-coding genes is far from complete. Systematic re-annotation of the Medicago truncatula genome identified 1,970 homologs of established SSP gene families and an additional 2,455 potential SSP genes. Expression patterns of known and putative SSP genes based on 144 RNA-seq datasets covering various stages of macronutrient deficiencies and symbiotic interactions with rhizobium and mycorrhiza were investigated...
October 13, 2017: Plant Physiology
Christoph Stephan Schmidt, Libor Mrnka, Tomaš Frantík, Václav Motyka, Petre I Dobrev, Miroslav Vosátka
Aim of this study was to investigate main effects and interactions between symbiotic fungi and the cytokinin-like growth regulator thidiazuron (TDZ) in Miscanthus × giganteus. The arbuscular mycorrhiza fungus Rhizophagus intraradices (AMF) and the endophyte Piriformospora indica (PI) were chosen as model symbionts. The fungal inoculants and TDZ had no significant effect on plant growth but modulated phytohormone levels in the leaves. TDZ induced accumulation of salicylic acid in controls, but not in plants inoculated with fungi...
September 23, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Navina Drechsler, Pierre-Emmanuel Courty, Daphnée Brulé, Reinhard Kunze
Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) colonize up to 90% of all land plants and facilitate the acquisition of mineral nutrients by their hosts. Inorganic orthophosphate (Pi) and nitrogen (N) are the major nutrients transferred from the fungi to plants. While plant Pi transporters involved in nutrient transfer at the plant-fungal interface have been well studied, the plant N transporters participating in this process are largely unknown except for some ammonium transporters (AMT) specifically assigned to arbuscule-colonized cortical cells...
October 9, 2017: Mycorrhiza
Joanna Weremijewicz, Leonel da Silveira Lobo O'Reilly Sternberg, David P Janos
Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi form extensive common mycorrhizal networks (CMNs) that may interconnect neighboring root systems of the same or different plant species, thereby potentially influencing the distribution of limiting mineral nutrients among plants. We examined how CMNs affected intra- and interspecific interactions within and between populations of Andropogon gerardii, a highly mycorrhiza dependent, dominant prairie grass and Elymus canadensis, a moderately dependent, subordinate prairie species. We grew A...
October 7, 2017: Mycorrhiza
Juliana Almario, Ganga Jeena, Jörg Wunder, Gregor Langen, Alga Zuccaro, George Coupland, Marcel Bucher
Most land plants live in association with arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi and rely on this symbiosis to scavenge phosphorus (P) from soil. The ability to establish this partnership has been lost in some plant lineages like the Brassicaceae, which raises the question of what alternative nutrition strategies such plants have to grow in P-impoverished soils. To understand the contribution of plant-microbiota interactions, we studied the root-associated fungal microbiome of Arabis alpina (Brassicaceae) with the hypothesis that some of its components can promote plant P acquisition...
October 31, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Julien Verzeaux, Bertrand Hirel, Frédéric Dubois, Peter J Lea, Thierry Tétu
Nitrogen cycling in agroecosystems is heavily dependent upon arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) present in the soil microbiome. These fungi develop obligate symbioses with various host plant species, thus increasing their ability to acquire nutrients. However, AMF are particularly sensitive to physical, chemical and biological disturbances caused by human actions that limit their establishment. For a more sustainable agriculture, it will be necessary to further investigate which agricultural practices could be favorable to maximize the benefits of AMF to improve crop nitrogen use efficiency (NUE), thus reducing nitrogen (N) fertilizer usage...
November 2017: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
Mozidi Bouzadi, Tine Grebenc, Ossi Turunen, Hojka Kraigher, Hassan Taib, Abdulhafied Alafai, Imed Sbissi, Mamdouh El Haj Assad, Dattatray Bedade, Salem Shamekh
Desert truffles have traditionally been used as food in Libya. Desert truffle grows and gives fruit sporadically when adequate and properly distributed rainfall occurs with existence of suitable soil and mycorrhizal host plant. The present study aimed to identify and characterize two kinds of wild desert truffles from ecological and nutritional points that were collected from the studied area. The truffle samples were identified as Terfezia (known as red or black truffle) and Tirmania (known as white truffle)...
October 2017: 3 Biotech
Mohanna Mollavali, Henrike Perner, Sascha Rohn, Peer Riehle, Franziska S Hanschen, Dietmar Schwarz
Mycorrhizal symbiosis is known to be the most prevalent form of fungal symbiosis with plants. Although some studies focus on the importance of mycorrhizal symbiosis for enhanced flavonoids in the host plants, a comprehensive understanding of the relationship still is lacking. Therefore, we studied the effects of mycorrhizal inoculation of onions (Allium cepa L.) regarding flavonol concentration and the genes involved in flavonol biosynthesis when different forms of nitrogen were supplied. We hypothesized that mycorrhizal inoculation can act as a biotic stress and might lead to an increase in flavonols and expression of related genes...
September 26, 2017: Mycorrhiza
Y Daguerre, E Levati, J Ruytinx, E Tisserant, E Morin, A Kohler, B Montanini, S Ottonello, A Brun, C Veneault-Fourrey, F Martin
BACKGROUND: Ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi develop a mutualistic symbiotic interaction with the roots of their host plants. During this process, they undergo a series of developmental transitions from the running hyphae in the rhizosphere to the coenocytic hyphae forming finger-like structures within the root apoplastic space. These transitions, which involve profound, symbiosis-associated metabolic changes, also entail a substantial transcriptome reprogramming with coordinated waves of differentially expressed genes...
September 18, 2017: BMC Genomics
Hans Jacquemyn, Michael Waud, Rein Brys, Félix Lallemand, Pierre-Emmanuel Courty, Alicja Robionek, Marc-André Selosse
Two distinct nutritional syndromes have been described in temperate green orchids. Most orchids form mycorrhizas with rhizoctonia fungi and are considered autotrophic. Some orchids, however, associate with fungi that simultaneously form ectomycorrhizas with surrounding trees and derive their carbon from these fungi. This evolutionarily derived condition has been called mixotrophy or partial mycoheterotrophy and is characterized by (13)C enrichment and high N content. Although it has been suggested that the two major nutritional syndromes are clearly distinct and tightly linked to the composition of mycorrhizal communities, recent studies have challenged this assumption...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
Xue Zhou, Lei Tian, Jianfeng Zhang, Lina Ma, Xiujun Li, Chunjie Tian
Sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) is a pioneer plant used for land reclamation and an appropriate material for studying the interactions of symbiotic microorganisms because of its nitrogen-fixing root nodules and mycorrhiza. We used high-throughput sequencing to reveal the diversities and community structures of rhizospheric fungi and their link with nitrogen-fixing Frankia harbored in sea buckthorn collected along an altitude gradient from the Qinghai Tibet Plateau to interior areas. We found that the fungal diversities and compositions varied between different sites...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Basic Microbiology
Luis Abdala-Roberts, Riley Pratt, Jessica D Pratt, Kailen A Mooney
A plant's performance and interactions with other trophic levels are recorgnized to be contingent upon plant diversity and underlying associational dynamics, but far less is known about the plant traits driving such phenomena. We manipulated diversity in plant traits using pairs of plant and a substitutive design to elucidate the mechanisms underlying diversity effects operating at a fine spatial scale. Specifically, we measured the effects of diversity in sex (sexual monocultures vs. male and female genotypes together) and growth rate (growth rate monocultures vs...
2017: PloS One
Timothy M Bowles, Louise E Jackson, Timothy R Cavagnaro
Climate change will alter both the amount and pattern of precipitation and soil water availability, which will directly affect plant growth and nutrient acquisition, and potentially, ecosystem functions like nutrient cycling and losses as well. Given their role in facilitating plant nutrient acquisition and water stress resistance, arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi may modulate the effects of changing water availability on plants and ecosystem functions. The well-characterized mycorrhizal tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L...
September 1, 2017: Global Change Biology
Kurt O Reinhart, Ylva Lekberg, John Klironomos, Hafiz Maherali
Differences in the direction and degree to which invasive alien and native plants are influenced by mycorrhizal associations could indicate a general mechanism of plant invasion, but whether or not such differences exist is unclear. Here, we tested whether mycorrhizal responsiveness varies by plant invasive status while controlling for phylogenetic relatedness among plants with two large grassland datasets. Mycorrhizal responsiveness was measured for 68 taxa from the Northern Plains, and data for 95 taxa from the Central Plains were included...
August 2017: Ecology and Evolution
László G Nagy, Renáta Tóth, Enikő Kiss, Jason Slot, Attila Gácser, Gábor M Kovács
The fungal lineage is one of the three large eukaryotic lineages that dominate terrestrial ecosystems. They share a common ancestor with animals in the eukaryotic supergroup Opisthokonta and have a deeper common ancestry with plants, yet several phenotypes, such as morphological, physiological, or nutritional traits, make them unique among all living organisms. This article provides an overview of some of the most important fungal traits, how they evolve, and what major genes and gene families contribute to their development...
July 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
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