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Qiang Zhang, Xinpeng Gao, Yanyun Ren, Xinhua Ding, Jiajia Qiu, Ning Li, Fanchang Zeng, Zhaohui Chu
Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) play an important role in nutrient cycling processes and plant stress resistance. To evaluate the effect of Rhizophagus irregularis CD1 on plant growth promotion (PGP) and Verticillium wilt disease, the symbiotic efficiency of AMF (SEA) was first investigated over a range of 3% to 94% in 17 cotton varieties. The high-SEA subgroup had significant PGP effects in a greenhouse. From these results, the highest-SEA variety of Lumian 1 was selected for a two-year field assay. Consistent with the performance from the greenhouse, the AMF-mediated PGP of Lumian 1 also produced significant results, including an increased plant height, stem diameter, number of petioles, and phosphorus content...
January 13, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Colin M Orians, Sara Gomez, Timothy Korpita
Both mycorrhizae and herbivore damage cause rapid changes in source-sink dynamics within a plant. Mycorrhizae create long-term sinks for carbon within the roots while damage by leaf-chewing herbivores causes temporary whole-plant shifts in carbon and nitrogen allocation. Thus, induced responses to herbivory might depend on the presence or absence of mycorrhizae. We examined the effects of mycorrhizal presence on induced resource partitioning in tomato (Solanum lycopersicon) in response to cues from a specialist herbivore Manduca sexta...
February 2018: AoB Plants
Yoshihiro Kobae, Hiromu Kameoka, Yusaku Sugimura, Katsuharu Saito, Ryo Ohtomo, Toru Fujiwara, Junko Kyozuka
Arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) is a mutualistic association between most plant species and the ancient fungal phylum Glomeromycota in roots, and it plays a key role in a plant's nutrient uptake from the soil. Roots synthesize strigolactones (SLs), derivatives of carotenoids, and exude them to induce energy metabolism and hyphal branching of AM fungi. Despite the well-documented roles of SLs in the presymbiotic phase, little is known about the role of SLs in the process of root colonization. Here we show that the expansion of root colonization is suppressed in the mutants of rice (Oryza sativa) SL biosynthesis genes, carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase D10 and more severely in D17...
January 9, 2018: Plant & Cell Physiology
Elena Martino, Emmanuelle Morin, Gwen-Aëlle Grelet, Alan Kuo, Annegret Kohler, Stefania Daghino, Kerrie W Barry, Nicolas Cichocki, Alicia Clum, Rhyan B Dockter, Matthieu Hainaut, Rita C Kuo, Kurt LaButti, Björn D Lindahl, Erika A Lindquist, Anna Lipzen, Hassine-Radhouane Khouja, Jon Magnuson, Claude Murat, Robin A Ohm, Steven W Singer, Joseph W Spatafora, Mei Wang, Claire Veneault-Fourrey, Bernard Henrissat, Igor V Grigoriev, Francis M Martin, Silvia Perotto
Some soil fungi in the Leotiomycetes form ericoid mycorrhizal (ERM) symbioses with Ericaceae. In the harsh habitats in which they occur, ERM plant survival relies on nutrient mobilization from soil organic matter (SOM) by their fungal partners. The characterization of the fungal genetic machinery underpinning both the symbiotic lifestyle and SOM degradation is needed to understand ERM symbiosis functioning and evolution, and its impact on soil carbon (C) turnover. We sequenced the genomes of the ERM fungi Meliniomyces bicolor, M...
January 7, 2018: New Phytologist
Danfeng Jin, Xianwen Meng, Yue Wang, Jingjing Wang, Yuhua Zhao, Ming Chen
Many small RNAs have been confirmed to play important roles in the development of root nodules and arbuscular mycorrhiza. In this study, we carried out the identification of certain small RNAs in leguminous plants (Medicago truncatula, soybean, peanut and common bean), such as miRNAs, tRFs and srRNAs, as well as the computational investigation of their regulations. Thirty miRNAs were predicted to be involved in establishing root nodules and mycorrhiza, and 12 of them were novel in common bean and peanut. The generation of tRFs in M...
January 3, 2018: Science China. Life Sciences
Anna Zdyb, Marco G Salgado, Kirill N Demchenko, Wolfram G Brenner, Małgorzata Płaszczyca, Michael Stumpe, Cornelia Herrfurth, Ivo Feussner, Katharina Pawlowski
Jasmonic acid (JA), its derivatives and its precursor cis-12-oxo phytodienoic acid (OPDA) form a group of phytohormones, the jasmonates, representing signal molecules involved in plant stress responses, in the defense against pathogens as well as in development. Elevated levels of JA have been shown to play a role in arbuscular mycorrhiza and in the induction of nitrogen-fixing root nodules. In this study, the gene families of two committed enzymes of the JA biosynthetic pathway, allene oxide synthase (AOS) and allene oxide cyclase (AOC), were characterized in the determinate nodule-forming model legume Lotus japonicus JA levels were to be analysed in the course of nodulation...
2018: PloS One
Jill Kowal, Silvia Pressel, Jeffrey G Duckett, Martin I Bidartondo, Katie J Field
Background and Aims: The rhizoids of leafy liverworts (Jungermanniales, Marchantiophyta) are commonly colonized by the ascomycete fungus Pezoloma ericae. These associations are hypothesized to be functionally analogous to the ericoid mycorrhizas (ErMs) formed by P. ericae with the roots of Ericaceae plants in terms of bi-directional phosphorus for carbon exchange; however, this remains unproven. Here, we test whether associations between the leafy liverwort Cephalozia bicuspidata and P...
January 2, 2018: Annals of Botany
Hui Huang, Xiao-Meng Zi, Hua Lin, Jiang-Yun Gao
All orchids maintain an obligate relationship with mycorrhizal symbionts during seed germination. In most cases, germination-enhancing fungi have been isolated from roots of mature plants for conservation and cultivation purposes. To understand the germination biology of Dendrobium devonianum, an over-collected medicinal orchid, the seeds of D. devonianum were inoculated with a fungal strain (FDd1) isolated from naturally occurring protocorms of D. devonianum and two other germination-enhancing fungal strains (FDaI7 and FCb4) from D...
January 2018: Journal of Microbiology / the Microbiological Society of Korea
Catherine A Gehring, Nancy C Johnson
This report reviews important advances in mycorrhizal research that occurred during the past 2 years. We highlight major advancements both within and across levels of biological organization and describe areas where greater integration has led to unique insights. Particularly active areas of research include exploration of the mechanisms underpinning the development of the mycorrhizal symbiosis, the mycorrhizal microbiome, comparisons among types of mycorrhizas from molecular to ecosystem scales, the extent and function of mycorrhizal networks and enhanced understanding of the role of mycorrhizas in carbon dynamics from local to global scales...
December 30, 2017: Mycorrhiza
Guillaume Bécard
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 22, 2017: Mycorrhiza
Ayoub Kasrati, Chaima Alaoui Jamali, Robert Spooner-Hart, Laurent Legendre, David Leach, Abdelaziz Abbad
Cultivation of mint timija (Mentha suaveolens subsp. timija (Briq.) Harley) constitutes a promising solution to the conservation and sustainable utilization of this Moroccan endemic and threatened species. Optimized agronomic practices require mineral and/or biological fertilizer applications. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of application of a complete (N, P, and K) mineral fertilizer and vesicular arbuscular mycorrhizae (VAM) inoculation on the composition, antioxidant, and insecticidal properties of mint timija essential oils (EOs)...
2017: Journal of Analytical Methods in Chemistry
Miroslav Kolařík, Martin Vohník
The nuclear ribosomal DNA (nuc-rDNA) is widely used for the identification and phylogenetic reconstruction of Agaricomycetes. However, nuc-rDNA-based phylogenies may sometimes be in conflict with phylogenetic relationships derived from protein coding genes. In this study, the taxonomic position of the basidiomycetous mycobiont that forms the recently discovered sheathed ericoid mycorrhiza was investigated, because its nuc-rDNA is highly dissimilar to any other available fungal sequences in terms of nucleotide composition and length, and its nuc-rDNA-based phylogeny is inconclusive and significantly disagrees with protein coding sequences and morphological data...
January 2018: Fungal Biology
Sarah L Zieger, Silke Ammerschubert, Andrea Polle, Stefan Scheu
Evidence is increasing that soil animal food webs are fueled by root-derived carbon (C) and also by root-derived nitrogen (N). Functioning as link between the above- and belowground system, trees and their species identity are important drivers structuring soil animal communities. A pulse labeling experiment using 15N and 13C was conducted by exposing beech (Fagus sylvatica) and ash (Fraxinus excelsior) seedlings to 13CO2 enriched atmosphere and tree leaves to 15N ammonium chloride solution in a plant growth chamber under controlled conditions for 72 h...
2017: PloS One
Martin I Bidartondo, Mohamed Hijri
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 1, 2017: Mycorrhiza
Thomas Rey, Maxime Bonhomme, Abhishek Chatterjee, Aleksandr Gavrin, Justine Toulotte, Weibing Yang, Olivier André, Christophe Jacquet, Sebastian Schornack
The roots of most land plants are colonized by symbiotic arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) fungi. To facilitate this symbiosis, plant genomes encode a set of genes required for microbial perception and accommodation. However, the extent to which infection by filamentous root pathogens also relies on some of these genes remains an open question. Here, we used genome-wide association mapping to identify genes contributing to colonization of Medicago truncatula roots by the pathogenic oomycete Phytophthora palmivora...
November 25, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
Alejandro Pérez-de-Luque, Stefanie Tille, Irene Johnson, David Pascual-Pardo, Jurriaan Ton, Duncan D Cameron
Belowground interactions between plant roots, mycorrhizal fungi and plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) can improve plant health via enhanced nutrient acquisition and priming of the plant immune system. Two wheat cultivars differing in their ability to form mycorrhiza were (co)inoculated with the mycorrhizal fungus Rhizophagus irregularis and the rhizobacterial strain Pseudomonas putida KT2440. The cultivar with high mycorrhizal compatibility supported higher levels of rhizobacterial colonization than the low compatibility cultivar...
November 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
Marzena Sujkowska-Rybkowska, Weronika Czarnocka, Izabela Sańko-Sawczenko, Damian Witoń
Aluminum (Al) toxicity can induce oxidative and nitrosative stress, which limits growth and yield of crop plants. Nevertheless, plant tolerance to stress may be improved by symbiotic associations including arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM). Nitric oxide (NO) is a signaling molecule involved in physiological processes and plant responses to abiotic and biotic stresses. However, almost no information about the NO metabolism has been gathered about AM. In the present work, Medicago truncatula seedlings were inoculated with Rhizophagus irregularis, and 7-week-old plants were treated with 50μM AlCl3 for 3h...
November 23, 2017: Journal of Plant Physiology
Katja Boldt-Burisch, M Anne Naeth, Uwe Schneider, Beate Schneider, Reinhard F Hüttl
Soil pollutants such as hydrocarbons can induce toxic effects in plants and associated arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). This study was conducted to evaluate if the legume Lotus corniculatus and the grass Elymus trachycaulus and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi could grow in two oil sands processing by-products after bitumen extraction from the oil sands in northern Alberta, Canada. Substrate treatments were coarse tailings sand (CTS), a mix of dry mature fine tailings (MFT) with CTS (1:1) and Pleistocene sandy soil (hydrocarbon free); microbial treatments were without AMF, with AMF and AMF plus soil bacteria isolated from oil sands reclamation sites...
November 22, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Winnie Fuechtbauer, Temur Yunusov, Zoltán Bozsóki, Aleksandr Gavrin, Euan K James, Jens Stougaard, Sebastian Schornack, Simona Radutoiu
Phytophthora palmivora is a devastating oomycete plant pathogen. We found that P. palmivora induces disease in Lotus japonicus and used this interaction to identify cellular and molecular events in response to this broad host range oomycete. Transcript quantification revealed that Lys12 was highly and rapidly induced during P. palmivora infection. Mutants of Lys12 displayed an accelerated disease progression, earlier plant death, and lower level of defense gene expression, while the defense program after chitin, laminarin, oligogalacturonide or flg22 treatment, or the root symbioses with nitrogen-fixing rhizobia and arbuscular mycorrhiza were similar to wild-type...
November 24, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
Thomas D Bruns, Nicolas Corradi, Dirk Redecker, John W Taylor, Maarja Öpik
A workshop at the recent International Conference on Mycorrhiza was focused on species recognition in Glomeromycotina and parts of their basic biology that define species. The workshop was motivated by the paradigm-shifting evidence derived from genomic data for sex and for the lack of heterokaryosis, and by published exchanges in Science that were based on different species concepts and have led to differing views of dispersal and endemism in these fungi. Although a lively discussion ensued, there was general agreement that species recognition in the group is in need of more attention, and that many basic assumptions about the biology of these important fungi including sexual or clonal reproduction, similarity or dissimilarity of nuclei within an individual, and species boundaries need to be re-examined and scrutinized with current techniques...
November 22, 2017: New Phytologist
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