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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531954/arbuscular-mycorrhiza-fungi-facilitate-rapid-adaptation-of-elsholtzia-splendens-to-copper
#1
Junmin Li, Huijuan Liang, Ming Yan, Luxi Chen, Huating Zhang, Jie Liu, Suizi Wang, Zexin Jin
Closely associated microbes have been shown to drive local adaptation of plants. However, few studies provide direct evidence, disclosing the role of arbuscular mycorrhiza fungi (AMF) in their rapid adaptation of plants toward heavy metal tolerance. Elsholtzia splendens is a Cu-tolerant plant that was used as a model plant to study seed morphological traits as well as traits related to seed germination and seedling growth. This was achieved after acclimation for two generations with 1000mg/kg CuSO4 in either absence or presence of AMF...
May 17, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529515/changes-in-leaf-anatomical-traits-enhanced-photosynthetic-activity-of-soybean-grown-in-hydroponics-with-plant-growth-promoting-microorganisms
#2
Roberta Paradiso, Carmen Arena, Veronica De Micco, Maria Giordano, Giovanna Aronne, Stefania De Pascale
The use of hydroponic systems for cultivation in controlled climatic conditions and the selection of suitable genotypes for the specific environment help improving crop growth and yield. We hypothesized that plant performance in hydroponics could be further maximized by exploiting the action of plant growth-promoting organisms (PGPMs). However, the effects of PGPMs on plant physiology have been scarcely investigated in hydroponics. Within a series of experiments aimed to identify the best protocol for hydroponic cultivation of soybean [Glycine max (L...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28517039/genetics-of-mycorrhizal-symbiosis-in-winter-wheat-triticum-aestivum
#3
Heike Lehnert, Albrecht Serfling, Matthias Enders, Wolfgang Friedt, Frank Ordon
Bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) is a major staple food and therefore of prime importance for feeding the Earth's growing population. Mycorrhiza is known to improve plant growth, but although extensive knowledge concerning the interaction between mycorrhizal fungi and plants is available, genotypic differences concerning the ability of wheat to form mycorrhizal symbiosis and quantitative trait loci (QTLs) involved in mycorrhization are largely unknown. Therefore, a diverse set of 94 bread wheat genotypes was evaluated with regard to root colonization by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi...
May 18, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508206/rapid-use-of-resources-as-a-basis-of-the-heracleum-sosnowskyi-invasive-syndrome
#4
D V Veselkin, L A Ivanova, L A Ivanov, M A Mikryukova, V N Bolshakov, A A Betekhtina
The functional properties of the invasive Heracleum sosnowskyi were compared with those of the native Heracleum sibiricum. The leaf and root traits, as well as those of a whole plant and of the mycorrhiza formation, were studied. H. sosnowskyi can fulfill the high-productivity potential only under the optimum availability of resources (especially water), while it is poorly adapted to maintain a high physiological activity under the unfavorable soil conditions. An important component of the H. sosnowskyi invasiveness is an ability to utilize rapidly resources in both the above- and underground areas at the optimum conditions...
March 2017: Doklady Biological Sciences: Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Biological Sciences Sections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488060/arbuscular-mycorrhizal-fungi-and-pseudomonas-in-reduce-drought-stress-damage-in-flax-linum-usitatissimum-l-a-field-study
#5
Saeedeh Rahimzadeh, Alireza Pirzad
Drought stress, which is one of the most serious world environmental threats to crop production, might be compensated by some free living and symbiotic soil microorganisms. The physiological response of flax plants to inoculation with two species of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi (Funneliformis mosseae or Rhizophagus intraradices) and a phosphate solubilizing bacterium (Pseudomonas putida P13; PSB) was evaluated under different irrigation regimes (irrigation after 60, 120, and 180 mm of evaporation from Class A pan as well-watered, mild, and severe stress, respectively)...
May 10, 2017: Mycorrhiza
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474559/new-prospective-for-enhancement-in-bioenergy-resources-through-fungal-engineering
#6
Rafia Saeed, Sumeira Moin, Ailyan Saleem, Neelofer Hamid, Anum Khursheed, Waseem Ahmed
BACKGROUND: Lignin and cellulose, organic constituents of plant or plant based material not commonly used for feeding purpose are referred as Biomass. This can be used as best resource of renewable energy. Vesicular arbuscular mycorrhizae (VAM) fungi can play an effective role in biomass manufacturing through activated metabolism of plant under dual symbiosis. During C acclimatization, mycorrhizal inoculated plants existent greater number of leaves with height of plants as compared to non-mycorrhizal plants...
May 3, 2017: Recent Patents on Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469630/abscisic-acid-as-pathogen-effector-and-immune-regulator
#7
REVIEW
Laurens Lievens, Jacob Pollier, Alain Goossens, Rudi Beyaert, Jens Staal
Abscisic acid (ABA) is a sesquiterpene signaling molecule produced in all kingdoms of life. To date, the best known functions of ABA are derived from its role as a major phytohormone in plant abiotic stress resistance. Different organisms have developed different biosynthesis and signal transduction pathways related to ABA. Despite this, there are also intriguing common themes where ABA often suppresses host immune responses and is utilized by pathogens as an effector molecule. ABA also seems to play an important role in compatible mutualistic interactions such as mycorrhiza and rhizosphere bacteria with plants, and possibly also the animal gut microbiome...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28459003/influence-of-arbuscular-mycorrhiza-fungi-amf-on-drought-tolerance-and-charcoal-rot-disease-of-cowpea
#8
B O Oyewole, O J Olawuyi, A C Odebode, M A Abiala
The influence of Arbuscular mycorrhiza fungi (AMF) (Glomus deserticola and Gigaspora gigantea) were evaluated on drought tolerance and charcoal rot disease of cowpea genotypes: IT90K-277-2, IT84S-2246-4 and IT06K123-1. IT90K-277-2 and IT84S-2246-4 were sown in 3 kg of sterilized soil for drought experiment with five treatments. Treatment was established thirty days after germination with inoculation of G. deserticola, the mycorrhizal treated cowpea withstand the water stress and produced high yield. Biocontrol experiment had 2 kg sterilized soil potted into bags with cultivars IT90K-277-2 and IT06K123-1, fourteen treatments were established with soil drenched before planting and simultaneous inoculation...
March 2017: Biotechnology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28452982/corrigendum-arbuscular-mycorrhiza-enhance-the-rate-of-litter-decomposition-while-inhibiting-soil-microbial-community-development
#9
Heng Gui, Kevin Hyde, Jianchu Xu, Peter Mortimer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 28, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424712/a-functional-approach-towards-understanding-the-role-of-the-mitochondrial-respiratory-chain-in-an-endomycorrhizal-symbiosis
#10
Louis Mercy, Eva Lucic-Mercy, Amaia Nogales, Areg Poghosyan, Carolin Schneider, Birgit Arnholdt-Schmitt
Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are crucial components of fertile soils, able to provide several ecosystem services for crop production. Current economic, social and legislative contexts should drive the so-called "second green revolution" by better exploiting these beneficial microorganisms. Many challenges still need to be overcome to better understand the mycorrhizal symbiosis, among which (i) the biotrophic nature of AMF, constraining their production, while (ii) phosphate acts as a limiting factor for the optimal mycorrhizal inoculum application and effectiveness...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421312/an-annotated-translation-of-no%C3%A3-l-bernard-s-1899-article-on-the-germination-of-neottia-nidus-avis
#11
Marc-André Selosse, Julita Minasiewicz, Bernard Boullard
We translate Noël Bernard's discovery of orchid symbiotic germination discovered on Neottia nidus-avis, as published in the May 1899 issue of the Comptes rendus hebdomadaires des séances de l'Académie des sciences. In his note, Bernard (1874-1911) establishes the need for a fungus, which is also forming mycorrhizae in adults, for seeds germination. We provide illustrations reproduced from his later works, and summaries of the French text he cited. In our annotations, we show how early this discovery was done in Bernard's career, and insist on the scientific framework at the end of the nineteenth century, where orchid germination was mysterious and the need for vicinity of parents was not fully understood...
April 18, 2017: Mycorrhiza
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421311/long-term-soil-alteration-in-historical-charcoal-hearths-affects-tuber-melanosporum-mycorrhizal-development-and-environmental-conditions-for-fruiting
#12
Sergi Garcia-Barreda, Sara Molina-Grau, Ricardo Forcadell, Sergio Sánchez, Santiago Reyna
Abandoned charcoal hearths constitute a very particular habitat for spontaneous fruiting of Tuber melanosporum, leading some harvesters to hypothesise that the fungus could benefit from the alterations that these soils underwent. However, ecological mechanisms involved in this relation are not fully elucidated yet. As a first step to understand it, the influence of long-term soil alteration on the symbiotic stage of T. melanosporum and on selected soil properties considered key to fruiting was assessed by conducting a greenhouse bioassay and a field observational study...
April 18, 2017: Mycorrhiza
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411495/arbuscular-mycorrhiza-formation-and-its-function-under-elevated-atmospheric-o3-a-meta-analysis
#13
REVIEW
Shuguang Wang, Robert M Augé, Heather D Toler
We quantitatively evaluated the effects of elevated O3 on arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) formation and on AM role in promoting plant growth in regard to several moderating variables (O3 levels, O3 exposure duration, plant types, AM fungi family, and additional stress) by means of meta-analysis of published data. The analysis consisted of 117 trials representing 20 peer-reviewed articles and 16 unpublished trials. Relative to non-mycorrhizal controls, AM inoculation did not significantly alter plant growth (shoot biomass, root biomass, total biomass and plant height) when O3 concentration was less than 80 ppb, but at concentrations above 80 ppb symbiosis was associated with increases of 68% in shoot biomass and 131% in root biomass...
April 12, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406246/unravelling-mycorrhiza-induced-wheat-susceptibility-to-the-english-grain-aphid-sitobion-avenae
#14
Amma L Simon, Peter A D Wellham, Gudbjorg I Aradottir, Alan C Gange
Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi are root symbionts that can increase or decrease aphid growth rates and reproduction, but the reason by which this happens is unknown. To investigate the underlying mechanisms of this interaction, we examined the effect of AM fungi on the English Grain aphid (Sitobion avenae) development, reproduction, attraction, settlement and feeding behaviour on two naturally susceptible varieties Triticum aestivum (L.) variety Solstice and T. monococcum MDR037, and two naturally resistant lines, T...
April 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404790/forest-soil-bacteria-diversity-involvement-in-ecosystem-processes-and-response-to-global-change
#15
REVIEW
Salvador Lladó, Rubén López-Mondéjar, Petr Baldrian
The ecology of forest soils is an important field of research due to the role of forests as carbon sinks. Consequently, a significant amount of information has been accumulated concerning their ecology, especially for temperate and boreal forests. Although most studies have focused on fungi, forest soil bacteria also play important roles in this environment. In forest soils, bacteria inhabit multiple habitats with specific properties, including bulk soil, rhizosphere, litter, and deadwood habitats, where their communities are shaped by nutrient availability and biotic interactions...
June 2017: Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews: MMBR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398457/genetic-diversity-patterns-of-arbuscular-mycorrhizal-fungi-associated-with-the-mycoheterotroph-arachnitis-uniflora-phil-corsiaceae
#16
Mauricio Renny, M Cristina Acosta, Noelia Cofré, Laura S Domínguez, Martin I Bidartondo, Alicia N Sérsic
Background and Aims: Arachnitis uniflora is a mycoheterotrophic plant that exploits arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi of neighbouring plants. We tested A. uniflora 's specificity towards fungi across its large latitudinal range, as well as the role of historical events and current environmental, geographical and altitudinal variables on fungal genetic diversity. Methods: Arachnitis uniflora mycorrhizas were sampled at 25 sites. Fungal phylogenetic relationships were reconstructed, genetic diversity was calculated and the main divergent lineages were dated...
April 7, 2017: Annals of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396674/arbuscular-mycorrhiza-stimulates-biological-nitrogen-fixation-in-two-medicago-spp-through-improved-phosphorus-acquisition
#17
David Püschel, Martina Janoušková, Alena Voříšková, Hana Gryndlerová, Miroslav Vosátka, Jan Jansa
Legumes establish root symbioses with rhizobia that provide plants with nitrogen (N) through biological N fixation (BNF), as well as with arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi that mediate improved plant phosphorus (P) uptake. Such complex relationships complicate our understanding of nutrient acquisition by legumes and how they reward their symbiotic partners with carbon along gradients of environmental conditions. In order to disentangle the interplay between BNF and AM symbioses in two Medicago species (Medicago truncatula and M...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391483/expression-of-four-phosphate-transporter-genes-from-finger-millet-eleusine-coracana-l-in-response-to-mycorrhizal-colonization-and-pi-stress
#18
Ramesh Namdeo Pudake, Chandra Mohan Mehta, Tapan Kumar Mohanta, Suvigya Sharma, Ajit Varma, Anil Kumar Sharma
Phosphorus (P) is a vital nutrient for plant growth and development, and is absorbed in cells with the help of membrane-spanning inorganic phosphate transporter (Pht) protein. Symbiosis with arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) also helps in transporting P from the soil to plant and Pht proteins play an important role in it. To understand this phenomenon in Finger Mille plant, we have cloned four Pht genes from Finger millet, which shares the homology with Pht1 protein family of cereals. Expression pattern analysis during the AM infection indicated that EcPT4 gene was AM specific, and its expression was higher in roots where AM colonization percentage was high...
May 2017: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28380681/arbuscular-mycorrhiza-specific-enzymes-fatm-and-ram2-fine-tune-lipid-biosynthesis-to-promote-development-of-arbuscular-mycorrhiza
#19
Armando Bravo, Mathias Brands, Vera Wewer, Peter Dörmann, Maria J Harrison
During arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis (AMS), considerable amounts of lipids are generated, modified and moved within the cell to accommodate the fungus in the root, and it has also been suggested that lipids are delivered to the fungus. To determine the mechanisms by which root cells redirect lipid biosynthesis during AMS we analyzed the roles of two lipid biosynthetic enzymes (FatM and RAM2) and an ABC transporter (STR) that are required for symbiosis and conserved uniquely in plants that engage in AMS. Complementation analyses indicated that the biochemical function of FatM overlaps with that of other Fat thioesterases, in particular FatB...
June 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28366879/proteomic-insight-into-the-mitigation-of-wheat-root-drought-stress-by-arbuscular-mycorrhizae
#20
Letizia Bernardo, Caterina Morcia, Paolo Carletti, Roberta Ghizzoni, Franz W Badeck, Fulvia Rizza, Luigi Lucini, Valeria Terzi
Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are plant growth promoters that ameliorate plant-water relations and the nutrient uptake of wheat. In this work, two cultivars of Triticum spp., a bread and a durum wheat, grown under drought stress and inoculated or not by AMF, are evaluated through a shotgun proteomic approach. The AMF association had beneficial effects as compared to non-mycorrhizal roots, in both bread and durum wheat. The beneficial symbiosis was confirmed by measuring morphological and physiological traits...
March 30, 2017: Journal of Proteomics
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