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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723904/impact-of-mass-drug-administration-for-elimination-of-lymphatic-filariasis-in-nepal
#1
Chet Raj Ojha, Basant Joshi, Khagendra Prakash Kc, Shyam Prakash Dumre, Keshav Kumar Yogi, Bandana Bhatta, Tulasi Adhikari, Kathryn Crowley, Babu Ram Marasaini
BACKGROUND: Lymphatic filariasis (LF) is a neglected tropical disease transmitted by mosquitoes. Nepal has implemented a national effort to eliminate LF by 2020 through mass drug administration (MDA) using diethylcarbamazine (DEC) and albendazole (ALB). We assessed the impact of MDAs on LF in selected districts of Nepal after the recommended six MDA rounds had been completed. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Baseline surveys were conducted in seven districts and mapping data were used as baseline in the other three districts before starting MDA in 2009...
July 19, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723333/enhanced-prophylaxis-plus-antiretroviral-therapy-for-advanced-hiv-infection-in-africa
#2
James Hakim, Victor Musiime, Alex J Szubert, Jane Mallewa, Abraham Siika, Clara Agutu, Simon Walker, Sarah L Pett, Mutsa Bwakura-Dangarembizi, Abbas Lugemwa, Symon Kaunda, Mercy Karoney, Godfrey Musoro, Sheila Kabahenda, Kusum Nathoo, Kathryn Maitland, Anna Griffiths, Margaret J Thomason, Cissy Kityo, Peter Mugyenyi, Andrew J Prendergast, A Sarah Walker, Diana M Gibb
Background In sub-Saharan Africa, among patients with advanced human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, the rate of death from infection (including tuberculosis and cryptococcus) shortly after the initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) is approximately 10%. Methods In this factorial open-label trial conducted in Uganda, Zimbabwe, Malawi, and Kenya, we enrolled HIV-infected adults and children 5 years of age or older who had not received previous ART and were starting ART with a CD4+ count of fewer than 100 cells per cubic millimeter...
July 20, 2017: New England Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711534/primary-intradural-extramedullary-cervical-spinal-cysticercosis
#3
Vetrivel Muralidharan, Bijesh Ravindran Nair, Bimal Patel, Vedantam Rajshekhar
BACKGROUND: Spinal cysticercosis has been reported only in 0.7 to 3.0% of patients with neurocysticercosis. Most of the patients with spinal cysticercosis have a coexisting intracranial disease. Most often these present as intradural extramedullary lesions, involving thoracic and lumbar regions or intramedullary lesions. Intradural extramedullary primary spinal cysticercosis presenting as cervical myelopathy is extremely rare and not reported till date. CASE DESCRIPTION: The authors describe a 56 year old man from the northeastern part of India with progressive spastic quadriparesis...
July 12, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701221/helminth-infections-and-practice-of-prevention-and-control-measures-among-pregnant-women-attending-antenatal-care-at-anbesame-health-center-northwest-ethiopia
#4
Melashu Balew Shiferaw, Amtatachew Moges Zegeye, Agmas Dessalegn Mengistu
BACKGROUND: Helminth infections have a terrible impact on child growth and development, and harm pregnant women. Regular treatment and long term preventive interventions are important measures to break the transmission routes. Hence, identifying the status of helminth infection and practices of prevention and control measures among pregnant women is important in different geographical areas of Ethiopia including our setting. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 180 pregnant women from March to June, 2015...
July 12, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700426/coexisting-primary-ovarian-and-omental-hydatid-disease-mimicking-an-ovarian-neoplasm-a-case-report
#5
Emre E Tas, Gulin F Yegin Akcay, Fatma Yildirim, Filiz Yavuz
Hydatid disease is a parasitic infection that most commonly affects the liver and lungs, although the disease can arise in any part of the body. Cysts may mimic many benign and malignant conditions. The diagnosis cannot be confirmed preoperatively in all cases. A 44-yr-old menopausal woman was admitted to the department of gynecology with complaints of abdominal distention. A fixed abdominopelvic mass was identified. Radiology revealed a 20-cm mass with branched septations and solid components. CA-125 level was 55 kU/L, and Risk of Malignancy Index-2 score was 880...
July 11, 2017: International Journal of Gynecological Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697451/reduced-efficacy-of-albendazole-against-ascaris-lumbricoides-in-rwandan-schoolchildren
#6
Jürgen Krücken, Kira Fraundorfer, Jean Claude Mugisha, Sabrina Ramünke, Kevin C Sifft, Dominik Geus, Felix Habarugira, Jules Ndoli, Augustin Sendegeya, Caritas Mukampunga, Claude Bayingana, Toni Aebischer, Janina Demeler, Jean Bosco Gahutu, Frank P Mockenhaupt, Georg von Samson-Himmelstjerna
Control of human soil-transmitted helminths (STHs) relies on preventive chemotherapy of schoolchildren applying the benzimidazoles (BZ) albendazole or mebendazole. Anthelmintic resistance (AR) is a common problem in nematodes of veterinary importance but for human STHs, information on drug efficacy is limited and routine monitoring is rarely implemented. Herein, the efficacy of single dose albendazole (400 mg) was evaluated in 12 schools in the Huye district of Rwanda where Ascaris is the predominant STH. Ascaris eggs were detected by wet mount microscopy and the Mini-FLOTAC method to assess cure rate (CR) and faecal egg count reduction (FECR)...
June 23, 2017: International Journal for Parasitology, Drugs and Drug Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694639/primary-paraspinal-hydatidosis-causing-acute-paraplegia
#7
Srihari Sridharan, G S Jagan Narayana, Kalyanasundarabharathi Chidambaram, Anand Prasath Jayachandiran
The zoonotic infection hydatidosis is caused by the tapeworm cestode, Echinococcus granulosus. Though considered endemic in India where association of humans with sheep and dogs form part of the livelihood, primary skeletal muscle involvement of the disease is an extremely rare event. We report a case of primary paraspinal hydatidosis with extradural extension causing acute paraplegia. Excision of the cyst and decompression of the cord was done along with albendazole therapy. Paraspinal hydatid disease is a rare entity, and in regions where hydatid disease is endemic, it can be involved in the differential diagnosis of acute compressive myelopathy...
July 2017: Journal of Neurosciences in Rural Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673613/parkinsonism-and-other-movement-disorders-in-23-cases-of-neurocysticercosis
#8
Fernando Alarcón, Yuri Cedeño, Justo García de Yébenes
INTRODUCTION: Parkinsonism and other movement disorders have been occasionally described in neurocysticercosis (NCC) but their clinical features and pathogenesis are not well understood. METHODS: This is a descriptive study conducted over 20 years. We studied 590 consecutive patients from the NCC Registry at Eugenio Espejo Hospital, Quito, Ecuador, and found 23 subjects who developed movement disorders. We investigated the clinical features, localization of brain lesions, severity of infection and neurological deficit as well as the outcome of the patients...
June 20, 2017: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28662054/first-evidence-of-lymphatic-filariasis-transmission-interruption-in-cameroon-progress-towards-elimination
#9
Hugues C Nana-Djeunga, Magellan Tchouakui, Guy R Njitchouang, Jules B Tchatchueng-Mbougua, Philippe Nwane, André Domche, Jean Bopda, Stève Mbickmen-Tchana, Julie Akame, Ann Tarini, Emilienne Epée, Benjamin D Biholong, Yaobi Zhang, Jean J Tougoue, Achille Kabore, Flobert Njiokou, Joseph Kamgno
BACKGROUND: Lymphatic filariasis (LF) is among the 10 neglected tropical diseases targeted for control or elimination by 2020. For LF elimination, the World Health Organization (WHO) has proposed a comprehensive strategy including (i) interruption of LF transmission through large-scale annual treatment (or mass drug administration (MDA)) of all eligible individuals in endemic areas, and (ii) alleviation of LF-associated suffering through morbidity management and disability prevention...
June 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28658863/complicated-hydatid-cyst-of-ulna-a-rare-case-report
#10
I V Reddy, A H Ashwin Kumar, Bheemsingh Samorekar, B Amar Babu, Anil Kumar Mettu
Although hydatidosis is not uncommon in tropical countries, still bony involvement is comparatively rare. The aetiological agent is Echinococcus granulosus, a parasite belonging to cestode group with dog as definitive host and man as incidental host. We present a case of young male, who consulted us for painless, multiple swellings in his right forearm of three years duration, with restricted wrist movements. On examination multiple non tender, soft to firm swellings were noted with restricted terminal pronation...
May 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644256/cluster-like-headache-secondary-to-focal-cervical-myelitis
#11
Dong-Eun Kim, Ji-Yun Park, Hyeonuk Ha, Geum-Jin Yoon, Bang-Hoon Cho, Seung-Han Lee
BACKGROUND: Cluster headache (CH) is characterized by attacks of severe periorbital pain associated with autonomic symptoms. As with other forms of primary headache, structural lesions should be excluded, particularly if the headache presents with an atypical pattern. CASE: We report a 41-year-old woman who had no previous history of primary headache and showed a poor response to medication for CH. The patient was finally diagnosed as secondary headache with CH feature due to focal myelitis at the cervical level of the spinal cord...
July 2017: Neurologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632749/using-a-health-rating-system-to-evaluate-the-usefulness-of-caenorhabditis-elegans-as-a-model-for-anthelmintic-study
#12
Kathryn J Weaver, Cassandra J May, Brian L Ellis
Soil-transmitted helminths (STHs) are intestinal parasitic nematodes that infect humans, and are transmitted through contaminated soil. These nematodes include the large roundworm (Ascaris lumbricoides), whipworm (Trichuris trichiura), and hookworm (Ancylostoma ceylanicum, Ancylostoma duodenale, and Necator americanus). Nearly 1.5 billion people (~24% of the population) worldwide are infected with at least one species of these parasites, burdening the poor, in particular, children and pregnant women. To combat these diseases, the WHO only recognizes four anthelmintic drugs, including the preferred drug, albendazole, for mass drug administration (MDA)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630586/surveillance-efforts-after-mass-drug-administration-to-validate-elimination-of-lymphatic-filariasis-as-a-public-health-problem-in-vanuatu
#13
Fasihah Taleo, George Taleo, Patricia M Graves, Peter Wood, Sung Hye Kim, Masayo Ozaki, Hayley Joseph, Brian Chu, Alex Pavluck, Aya Yajima, Wayne Melrose, Kazuyo Ichimori, Corinne Capuano
BACKGROUND: Vanuatu was formerly highly endemic for lymphatic filariasis (LF), caused by Wuchereria bancrofti and transmitted by Anopheles mosquitoes. After a baseline survey showing 4.8% antigen prevalence in 1998, the country conducted nationwide (in one implementation unit) annual mass drug administration (MDA) with albendazole and diethylcarbamazine citrate from 2000 to 2004 and achieved prevalence of 0.2% by 2006 in a representative nationwide cluster survey among all age groups...
2017: Tropical Medicine and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618740/screening-of-immunocompromised-patients-at-risk-of-strongyloidiasis-in-western-turkey-using-elisa-and-real-time-pcr
#14
Esra Erdem Kivrak, Esra Atalay Şahar, Hüseyin Can, Mert Döşkaya, Mümtaz Yilmaz, Hüsnü Pullukçu, Ayşe Caner, Hüseyin Töz, Adnan Yüksel Gürüz, Meltem Işikgöz Taşbakan
BACKGROUND/AIM: Strongyloides stercoralis causes life-threatening hyperinfection or disseminated strongyloidiasis in immunocompromised patients such as HIV-positive, organ transplantation, and cancer patients. This study investigated the presence of strongyloidiasis in immunocompromised patients for the first time in Turkey. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Serum and stool samples were collected from 108 patients (25.9% of them were chronic renal failure and 74.1% were renal transplantation patients) who were admitted to Ege University Medical School in İzmir, located in western Turkey...
June 12, 2017: Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596826/field-evaluation-of-the-efficacy-of-common-anthelmintics-used-in-the-control-of-gastrointestinal-nematodes-of-sheep-in-dabat-district-northwest-ethiopia
#15
Zewdu Seyoum, Yitayew Demessie, Basazinew Bogale, Achenef Melaku
BACKGROUND: Gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) infections are the main impediments that restrict the welfare and productivity of small ruminant in the world. Effective management of GINs in grazing sheep relies heavily on the use of highly efficacious anthelmintic drugs. However, anthelmintic resistance is becoming a significant concern in the world, and this phenomenon severely threatens the potential utilisation of this control strategy. Therefore, this study was conducted 1) to evaluate the efficacy of commonly used anthelmintic on GINs in naturally infected sheep and 2) to assess the farmers' perception on anthelmintics utilisation practices in Dabat district, Northwest Ethiopia...
2017: Irish Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595066/synthesis-antiprotozoal-activity-and-chemoinformatic-analysis-of-2-methylthio-1h-benzimidazole-5-carboxamide-derivatives-identification-of-new-selective-giardicidal-and-trichomonicidal-compounds
#16
Paulina Flores-Carrillo, José Miguel Velázquez-López, Rodrigo Aguayo-Ortiz, Alicia Hernández-Campos, Pedro Josué Trejo-Soto, Lilián Yépez-Mulia, Rafael Castillo
A series of twelve new 2-(methylthio)-1H-benzimidazole-5-carboxamide derivatives (1-12) were synthesized and their antiparasitic activity was tested in vitro against Giardia intestinalis, Trichomonas vaginalis and Entamoeba histolytica. Experimental evaluations showed IC50 values within the nanomolar range for all tested compounds, some showing higher activity than metronidazole and albendazole. A chemoinformatic study was used to compare the structure-activity relationship of the synthesized carboxamides with those of 91 previously studied benzimidazoles, and with some Nitazoxanide-N-methylbenzimidazole hybrids recently synthetized by our group...
September 8, 2017: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588763/proof-of-concept-of-faecal-egg-nematode-counting-as-a-practical-means-of-veterinary-engagement-with-planned-livestock-health-management-in-a-lower-income-country
#17
Eithne Leahy, Barend Bronsvoort, Luke Gamble, Andrew Gibson, Henderson Kaponda, Dagmar Mayer, Stella Mazeri, Kate Shervell, Neil Sargison
BACKGROUND: The wellbeing and livelihood of farmers in impoverished regions of the world is intrinsically linked to the health and welfare of their livestock; hence improved animal health is a pragmatic component of poverty alleviation. Prerequisite knowledge and understanding of the animal health challenges facing cattle keepers in Malawi is constrained by the lack of veterinary infrastructure, which inevitably accompanies under-resourced rural development in a poor country. METHODS: We collaborated with public and private paraveterinary services to locate 62 village Zebu calves and 60 dairy co-operative calves dispersed over a wide geographical area...
2017: Irish Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575043/radiological-evolution-of-porcine-neurocysticercosis-after-combined-antiparasitic-treatment-with-praziquantel-and-albendazole
#18
Carla Cangalaya, Javier A Bustos, Juan Calcina, Ana Vargas-Calla, Javier Mamani, Diego Suarez, Gianfranco Arroyo, Armando E Gonzalez, Juan Chacaltana, Cristina Guerra-Giraldez, Siddhartha Mahanty, Theodore E Nash, Héctor H García
BACKGROUND: The onset of anthelmintic treatment of neurocysticercosis (NCC) provokes an acute immune response of the host, which in human cases is associated with exacerbation of neurological symptoms. This inflammation can occur at the first days of therapy. So, changes in the brain cysts appearance may be detected by medical imaging. We evaluated radiological changes in the appearance of brain cysts (enhancement and size) on days two and five after the onset of antiparasitic treatment using naturally infected pigs as a model for human NCC...
June 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28558679/demonstration-of-biological-activities-of-extracts-from-isodon-rugosus-wall-ex-benth-separation-and-identification-of-bioactive-phytoconstituents-by-gc-ms-analysis-in-the-ethyl-acetate-extract
#19
Anwar Zeb, Farhat Ullah, Muhammad Ayaz, Sajjad Ahmad, Abdul Sadiq
BACKGROUND: Since long, natural sources have been explored for possible managements of various diseases. In this context, the study is designed to evaluate Isodon rugosus Wall. ex Benth for biological potentials including antibacterial, anthelmintic, insecticidal, anti-termites and anti-Pharaoh activities followed by GC-MS analysis of active fraction to identify various bioactive compounds. METHODS: I. rugosus was investigated against eight bacterial strains using well diffusion method and microdilution method with ceftriaxone as positive control...
May 30, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28553397/solitary-intramedullary-cervical-cysticercosis-without-neurological-deficit-a-rare-case-report
#20
Rahul Ranjan, Tulika, Suresh Chand, Akhil Agnihotri
Neurocysticercosis is commonly seen intracranially and its incidence in the spinal cord is very low. Among spine dorsal region is more common due to more blood flow in this region and it is usually associated with lesion at other sites. The intramedullary location is rarer than extramedullary. Hence, solitary intramedullary cervical spine cysticercosis (ICC) is extremely rare entity. Only a handful numbers of cases are reported in the literature. All reported cases are presented with the neurological deficit as spinal canal diameter is very low and any space occupying lesion is not tolerated...
January 2017: Journal of Pediatric Neurosciences
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