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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425396/development-and-single-laboratory-validation-of-a-liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry-method-for-quantitation-of-tetrodotoxin-in-mussels-and-oysters
#1
Andrew D Turner, Michael J Boundy, Monika Dhanji Rapkova
In recent years, evidence has grown for the presence of tetrodotoxin (TTX) in bivalve mollusks, leading to the potential for consumers of contaminated products to be affected by Tetrodotoxin Shellfish Poisoning (TSP). A single-laboratory validation was conducted for the hydrophilic interaction LC (HILIC) tandem MS (MS/MS) analysis of TTX in common mussels and Pacific oysters-the bivalve species that have been found to contain TTXs in the United Kingdom in recent years. The method consists of a single-step dispersive extraction in 1% acetic acid, followed by a carbon SPE cleanup step before dilution and instrumental analysis...
April 20, 2017: Journal of AOAC International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425351/metabolic-changes-in-methomyl-poisoned-rats-treated-by-vitamin-e
#2
J Weng, B Cai, J Chen, B Chen, H Wu, C Wen, F Sun, L Hu, C Chen, X Wang, Z Wang
In this study, we developed a serum and urine metabolomic method based on gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) combination with biomedical results to evaluate the effect of vitamin E treatment on methomyl poisoning rats. The rats were divided into three groups: the control group, methomyl poisoning group, and vitamin E treatment group. Partial least squares discriminate analysis (PLS-DA) showed that methomyl poisoning induced metabolic perturbations. Compared to the control group, based on the urinary metabolomics data, the level of ribitol, l-proline, xylitol, hydrocinnamic acid, 11-cis-octadecenoic acid, octadecanoic acid, and hexadecanoic acid of methomyl poisoning group increased, while the level of 2,3,4-trihydroxybutyric acid, ethanimidic acid, pantothenic acid, and retinoic acid decreased...
January 1, 2017: Human & Experimental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414161/metabolism-of-okadaic-acid-by-nadph-dependent-enzymes-present-in-human-or-rat-liver-s9-fractions-results-in-different-toxic-effects
#3
Franziska Kolrep, Kathleen Rein, Alfonso Lampen, Stefanie Hessel
The lipophilic marine biotoxin okadaic acid (OA) represents a natural contaminant produced by algae accumulating in seafood. Acute intoxications result in diarrhetic shellfish poisoning causing symptoms like nausea, vomiting and abdominal cramps. OA was preincubated with liver enzymes present in S9 fractions from humans, rats and rats pretreated with enzyme inducers in the presence or absence of the cofactor NADPH to investigate hepatic metabolism. Cytotoxicity was examined in HepG2 cells and metabolites of OA were determined by LC-MS/MS...
April 14, 2017: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400004/effect-of-food-related-stress-conditions-and-loss-of-agr-and-sigb-on-seb-promoter-activity-in-s-%C3%A2-aureus
#4
Henna-Maria Sihto, Roger Stephan, Christoph Engl, John Chen, Sophia Johler
Staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB) causes staphylococcal food poisoning and is produced in up to ten times higher quantities than other major enterotoxins. While Staphylococcus aureus growth is often repressed by competing flora, the organism exhibits a decisive growth advantage under some stress conditions. So far, data on the influence of food-related stressors and regulatory mutations on seb expression is limited and largely based on laboratory strains, which were later reported to harbor mutations. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the influence of stress and regulatory mutations on seb promoter activity...
August 2017: Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399995/cereulide-production-by-bacillus-weihenstephanensis-strains-during-growth-at-different-ph-values-and-temperatures
#5
Alizée Guérin, Helene Thorsen Rønning, Claire Dargaignaratz, Thierry Clavel, Véronique Broussolle, Jacques Mahillon, Per Einar Granum, Christophe Nguyen-The
Besides Bacillus cereus, some strains of the psychrotolerant, potentially foodborne pathogen Bacillus weihenstephanensis can produce the emetic toxine (cereulide). This toxin is a heat- and acid-stable cyclic dodecadepsipeptide that causes food intoxication with vomiting. However, some severe clinical cases with lethal outcomes have been described. If cereulide can be produced during refrigerated storage, it will not be inactivated by reheating food, representing an important risk of food intoxication for consumers...
August 2017: Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28370192/getting-to-the-root-of-fireworms-stinging-chaetae-chaetal-arrangement-and-ultrastructure-of-eurythoe-complanata-pallas-1766-amphinomida
#6
Ekin Tilic, Benedikt Pauli, Thomas Bartolomaeus
Amphinomid species are since long known to cause urtication upon contact with the human skin. Since it has been reported that amphinomid chaetae are hollow, it has repeatedly been suggested that poison is injected upon epidermal contact. To test predictions for the structural correlate of such a stinging device we studied the structure and formation of chaetae in the fireworm Eurythoe complanata (Amphinomida). Neither the structure of the chaetae nor their formation and their position within the parapodium provide evidence for their function as hollow needles to inject poison...
March 29, 2017: Journal of Morphology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369977/biogenic-amine-formation-and-microbiological-quality-of-anchovy-engraulis-encrasicolus-treated-with-lavender-and-lemon-balm-ethanol-extracts
#7
Fatih Özogul, Rana Öztekin, Piotr Kulawik
Biogenic amine formation and bacterial growth of vacuum-packed European anchovy treated with 1% lemon balm (LB) or lavender (LD) ethanol extracts was investigated. The treated samples were stored at 2 ± 1 °C for 11 d and analyzed for biogenic amines, total viable count, fecal coliform count, and lactic acid bacterial count. The analyses were done on 0, 4, 7, 9, and 11 d of storage. Both LB and LD extracts proved effective in reducing most biogenic amines, with histamine reduced by 3-fold compared to control...
April 3, 2017: Journal of Food Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28366404/sulfated-diesters-of-okadaic-acid-and-dtx-1-self-protective-precursors-of-diarrhetic-shellfish-poisoning-dsp-toxins
#8
Tingmo Hu, Patricia LeBlanc, Ian W Burton, John A Walter, Pearse McCarron, Jeremy E Melanson, Wendy K Strangman, Jeffrey L C Wright
Many toxic secondary metabolites used for defense are also toxic to the producing organism. One important way to circumvent toxicity is to store the toxin as an inactive precursor. Several sulfated diesters of the diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP) toxin okadaic acid have been reported from cultures of various dinoflagellate species belonging to the genus Prorocentrum. It has been proposed that these sulfated diesters are a means of toxin storage within the dinoflagellate cell, and that a putative enzyme mediated two-step hydrolysis of sulfated diesters such as DTX-4 and DTX-5 initially leads to the formation of diol esters and ultimately to the release of free okadaic acid...
March 2017: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28366399/species-occurrence-of-the-potentially-toxigenic-diatom-genus-pseudo-nitzschia-and-the-associated-neurotoxin-domoic-acid-in-the-argentine-sea
#9
Gastón O Almandoz, Elena Fabro, Martha Ferrario, Urban Tillmann, Allan Cembella, Bernd Krock
The marine diatom genus Pseudo-nitzschia, the major known producer of the neurotoxin domoic acid (DA) responsible for the amnesic shellfish poisoning (ASP) syndrome in humans and marine mammals, is globally distributed. The genus presents high species richness in the Argentine Sea and DA has been frequently detected in the last few years in plankton and shellfish samples, but the species identity of the producers remains unclear. In the present work, the distribution and abundance of Pseudo-nitzschia species and DA were determined from samples collected on two oceanographic cruises carried out through the Argentine Sea (∼39-47°S) during summer and spring 2013...
March 2017: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28361342/potential-use-of-lactic-acid-bacteria-leuconostoc-mesenteroides-as-a-probiotic-for-the-removal-of-pb-ii-toxicity
#10
Young-Joo Yi, Jeong-Muk Lim, Suna Gu, Wan-Kyu Lee, Eunyoung Oh, Sang-Myeong Lee, Byung-Taek Oh
It has been demonstrated that certain lactic acid bacteria (LAB) can sequester metal ions by binding them to their surfaces. In the present study, lead (Pb)-resistant LAB were isolated from kimchi, a Korean fermented food. A total of 96 different LAB strains were isolated, and 52 strains showed lead resistance. Among them, an LAB strain-96 (L-96) identified as Leuconostoc mesenteroides showed remarkable Pb resistance and removal capacity. The maximum adsorption capacity of this strain calculated using the Langmuir isotherm was 60...
April 2017: Journal of Microbiology / the Microbiological Society of Korea
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342004/modulatory-effects-of-terminalia-arjuna-against-domoic-acid-induced-toxicity-in-caco-2-cell-line
#11
E M Ramya, G Phani Kumar, T Anand, K R Anilakumar
Domoic acid is a potent marine algal toxin produced by diatomic genus of Pseudo-nitzschia causing amnesic shell fish poisoning. Domoic acid toxicosis mainly involves excitotoxic effects coupled with oxidative stress. The present study was aimed to evaluate the protective effects of hydro-alcoholic extract of Terminalia arjuna (TA) against domoic acid induced toxic effects in Caco-2 cell line. It was observed that the toxicity induced by domoic acid in Caco-2 cells was mediated by oxidative insult leading to morphological changes, DNA damage and apoptosis...
March 24, 2017: Cytotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331544/vapor-fed-bio-hybrid-fuel-cell
#12
Marcus S Benyamin, Justin P Jahnke, David M Mackie
BACKGROUND: Concentration and purification of ethanol and other biofuels from fermentations are energy-intensive processes, with amplified costs at smaller scales. To circumvent the need for these processes, and to potentially reduce transportation costs as well, we have previously investigated bio-hybrid fuel cells (FCs), in which a fermentation and FC are closely coupled. However, long-term operation requires strictly preventing the fermentation and FC from harming each other. We introduce here the concept of the vapor-fed bio-hybrid FC as a means of continuously extracting power from ongoing fermentations at ambient conditions...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323217/effects-of-algal-toxin-okadaic-acid-on-the-non-specific-immune-and-antioxidant-response-of-bay-scallop-argopecten-irradians
#13
Cheng Chi, Sib Sankar Giri, Jin Woo Jun, Hyoun Joong Kim, Sang Wha Kim, Saekil Yun, Se Chang Park
Okadaic acid (OA) is produced by dinoflagellates during harmful algal blooms and is a diarrhetic shellfish-poisoning (DSP) toxin. This toxin is particularly problematic for bivalves that are cultured for human consumption. This study aimed to reveal the effects of exposure to OA on the non-specific immune responses of bay scallop, Argopecten irradians. Various immunological parameters (superoxide dismutase (SOD), acid phosphatase (ACP), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), lysozyme activities, and total protein level) were assessed in the hemolymph of bay scallops at 3, 6, 12, 24, and 48 h post-exposure (hpe) to different concentrations (50, 100, and 500 nM) of OA...
March 18, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319530/oral-chemical-burns-reported-to-the-poisons-information-centre-in-erfurt-germany-from-1997-to-2014
#14
Juliane Nehrlich, Hans-Peter Klöcking, Helmut Hentschel, Amelie Lupp
Devastating oral burns often followed by lifelong complications can result from ingestion of caustic substances. However, although being one of the most challenging situations in clinical practice, literature data on the epidemiology of oral burns are still scarce. Retrospective analysis of all cases of oral burns after ingestion of corrosive substances reported to the Poisons Information Centre in Erfurt, Germany, from 1997 to 2014 was performed. In total, 482 calls because of oral burns were registered, with no change in the numbers of cases during the years...
March 13, 2017: Journal of Burn Care & Research: Official Publication of the American Burn Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314230/toxicity-of-diatom-polyunsaturated-aldehydes-to-marine-bacterial-isolates-reveals-their-mode-of-action
#15
Milva Pepi, Hermann J Heipieper, Cecilia Balestra, Marco Borra, Elio Biffali, Raffaella Casotti
Diatoms produce and release polyunsaturated aldehydes (PUAs) during senescence in culture and at the end of blooms in nature and these compounds play different ecological roles, as infochemicals, allelochemicals and pheromones In order to elucidate the toxic effects of PUAs, we isolated six bacterial strains from the Mediterranean Sea during a diatom bloom and tested their tolerance to PUA in terms of growth and cell membrane properties. Based upon 16S rRNA sequencing, these bacteria were assigned to the genera Pseudomonas, Sufflavibacter, Halomonas, Vibrio, Idiomarina, and Labrenzia...
March 9, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306345/a-retrospective-study-on-non-drug-related-poisoning-in-the-community-among-children-from-south-india
#16
Debasis Das Adhikari, Saibal Das, Blessed Winston A, Kaysina Vazhudhi, Aniket Kumar, Margaret Shanthi Fx, Indira Agarwal
OBJECTIVES: This retrospective study was performed to determine the incidence, demographic distribution, types and outcomes across various non-drug related poisonings among children attending a tertiary care center in south India. METHODS: All children from 0-16 years who presented to the Paediatric Emergency Department, Christian Medical College, Vellore with non-drug related poisoning from October 2004 to September 2013 were included. RESULTS: Out of the total 997 cases of poisoning, 629 (63...
April 2017: Hospital Practice (Minneapolis)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283119/the-global-burden-of-lead-toxicity-attributable-to-informal-used-lead-acid-battery-sites
#17
Bret Ericson, Phillip Landrigan, Mark Patrick Taylor, Joseph Frostad, Jack Caravanos, John Keith, Richard Fuller
BACKGROUND: Prior calculations of the burden of disease from environmental lead exposure in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) have not included estimates of the burden from lead-contaminated sites because of a lack of exposure data, resulting in an underestimation of a serious public health problem. OBJECTIVE: We used publicly available statistics and detailed site assessment data to model the number of informal used lead-acid battery (ULAB) recyclers and the resulting exposures in 90 LMICs...
September 2016: Annals of Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28243772/diagnosis-of-aluminum-phosphide-poisoning-using-a-new-analytical-approach-forensic-application-to-a-lethal-intoxication
#18
Hui Yan, Ping Xiang, Sujing Zhang, Baohua Shen, Min Shen
Aluminum phosphide (AlP) is an effective and cheap pesticide that is commonly used worldwide, but it is also a common cause of human poisoning and carries a high mortality rate. AlP reacts with moisture in air, water, and hydrochloric acid in the stomach to produce phosphine (PH3) gas. Two routes of exposure are ingestion of AlP and inhalation of phosphine generated by the action of moisture on AlP. Absorbed phosphine is rapidly metabolized into phosphite and hypophosphite. A method is described for the analysis of the phosphine metabolites in various biological matrices...
February 27, 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241688/-determination-of-trace-bismuth-by-atomic-fluorescence-spectrometry-in-blood
#19
L Z Zhou, S Fu, S Q Gao
Objective: To establish a method for determination trace bismuth in blood by atomic fluorescence spectrometry (AFS) . Methods: 4.0 ml nitric acid and 1.0 ml perchloric acid was added into 1.0 ml blood sample then through automation graphite digestion instrument digested, after that 1.0 ml thiocarbamide-vitamin (10%) was injected, 8% HCl constant volume to 10.0 ml, the bismuth was detected by atomic fluorescence spectrometry with 5.0 ml digestive sample. Results: The method showed a linear relationship within the range of 0...
December 20, 2016: Chinese Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Occupational Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220909/effects-of-meso-2-3-dimercaptosuccinic-acid-potassium-iodide-and-chlorophyll-on-lead-accumulation-in-male-mice
#20
Ying Xie, Guifeng Zhou
OBJECTIVES: Lead (Pb) pollution is a serious public health problem all over the world, it especially plays severe damage role in children's health. Apart from reducing lead-induced damages, the decrease of lead accumulation is also critical. This study has been the first attempt to investigate effects of meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA), potassium iodide (KI) and chlorophyll (Chl) on lead accumulation in male mice. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Eighty healthy Kunming male mice were selected and divided randomly into 8 groups...
February 21, 2017: International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health
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