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poisoning by acids

Pramod Kushwah, Abhishek Yadav, S J S Flora
Chelation therapy is the mainstream treatment for heavy metal poisoning. Apart from this, therapy using antioxidant/herbal extracts are the other strategies now commonly being tried for the treatment. We have previously reported individual beneficial efficacy of nanoparticle mediated administration of an antioxidant like 'curcumin' and an arsenic chelator 'monoisoamyl 2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (MiADMSA)' for the treatment of arsenic toxicity compared to bulk drugs. The present paper investigates our hypothesis that a combination drug delivery therapy employing two nanosystems, a chelator and a strong antioxidant, may produce more pronounced therapeutic effects compared to individual effects in the treatment of arsenic toxicity...
March 13, 2018: Chemico-biological Interactions
Mouokeu Raymond Simplice, Womeni Hilaire Macaire, Njike Ngamga Fabrice Hervé, Tonfack Djikeng Fabrice, Djopnang DJimbie Justin, Tchoumbougnang François, Kuiate Jules-Roger
BACKGROUNDS: Oils of fish origin are a very rich source of Omega - 3 and Omega - 6 fatty acids. They have been suggested to provide numerous health benefits for humans involving antimicrobial properties. Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus and Hepsetus odoe are two fishes well known in Cameroon. The chemical composition and the antibacterial activity of these fishes derived oils are unknown. The study was designed to valorise C. nigrodigitatus and H.s odoe oils activity against food poisoning bacteria...
March 12, 2018: Lipids in Health and Disease
Yulei Wang, Zhidao Huang, Xuebing Leng, Huping Zhu, Guixia Liu, Zheng Huang
The first general catalytic approach to effecting transfer hydrogenation (TH) of unactivated alkenes using ethanol as the hydrogen source is described. A new NCP-type pincer iridium complex (BQ- NCO P)IrHCl containing a rigid benzoquinoline backbone has been developed for efficient, mild TH of unactivated C-C multiple bonds with ethanol, forming ethyl acetate as the sole byproduct. A wide variety of alkenes, including multisubstituted alkyl alkenes, aryl alkenes, and heteroatom-substituted alkenes, as well as O- or N-containing heteroarenes and internal alkynes, are suitable substrates...
March 8, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Anil K Tyor, Kanika Pahwa
River Yamuna is under constant menace due to pollution levels beyond limit, ensuing chronic poisoning of aquatic biota. Induction of oxidative stress and cellular deformities is a common effect in fish. The present study aimed in assessing impact of environmental pollutants on gonad (testis) of Clarias gariepinus from Wazirabad barrage (entry site) and Okhla barrage (exit site) of river Yamuna in Delhi segment. Antioxidant enzymes assays viz. Super oxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP); thiobarbituric acid reactive substance assay (TBARS) for determining level of lipid peroxidation and histology for analysis of degenerative changes were employed as biomarkers...
March 1, 2018: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Lynn M Grattan, Carol J Boushey, Yuanyuan Liang, Kathi A Lefebvre, Laura J Castellon, Kelsey A Roberts, Alexandra C Toben, J G Morris
Domoic Acid (DA) is a marine-based neurotoxin. Dietary exposure to high levels of DA via shellfish consumption has been associated with Amnesic Shellfish Poisoning, with milder memory decrements found in Native Americans (NAs) with repetitive, lower level exposures. Despite its importance for protective action, the clinical relevance of these milder memory problems remains unknown. The purpose of this study was to determine whether repeated, lower-level exposures to DA impact everyday memory (EM), i.e., the frequency of memory failures in everyday life...
February 28, 2018: Toxins
Maria Schirone, Miriam Berti, Pierina Visciano, Francesco Chiumiento, Giacomo Migliorati, Rosanna Tofalo, Giovanna Suzzi, Federica Di Giacinto, Nicola Ferri
Lipophilic marine biotoxins include okadaic acid, pectenotoxin, yessotoxin and azaspiracid groups. The consumption of contaminated molluscs can lead to acute food poisoning syndromes depending on the exposure level. Regulatory limits have been set by Regulation (European Community, 2004a) No 853/2004 and LC-MS/MS is used as the official analytical method according to Regulation (European Community, 2011) No 15/2011. In this study specimens of mussels ( Mytilus galloprovincialis ) were collected along the coasts of the central Adriatic Sea during the years 2015-2017 and analyzed by the European harmonized Standard Operating Procedure...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Andrew Ratcliffe, Andrew Baker, Daniel Smith
Acetic acid is an organic acid available in concentrations from 2 to 80%. Whilst lower concentrations of 2-6% are more commonly used as the table top condiment, vinegar, much stronger solutions are regularly used in Eastern Europe as food preservatives and cleaning solutions. Oral ingestion of greater than 12% has been reported to cause haemolysis, renal failure, shock and death. Most reported cases of deliberate or accidental poisoning are from Russia and Eastern Europe in the 1980s, with very little currently in western publications...
February 2018: Journal of the Intensive Care Society
Mao-Min Peng, Ya-Quan Han, Hong Xia, Xi-Zhou Hu, You-Xiang Zhou, Li-Jun Peng, Xi-Tian Peng
Phenoxy acid herbicides are widely used herbicides that play an important role in improving the yield and quality of crops. However, some research has shown that this kind of herbicide is poisonous to human and animals. In this study, a rapid and sensitive method was developed for the detection of seven phenoxy acid herbicides in water samples based on magnetic solid phase extraction followed by liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry. Magnetic amino-functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes were prepared by mixing bare magnetic Fe3 O4 nanoparticles with commercial amino-functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes in water...
February 12, 2018: Journal of Separation Science
Ghada Souid, Nouha Souayed, Zohra Haouas, Khira Maaroufi
Okadaic Acid (OA) is a marine toxin responsible for DSP (Diarrheic Shellfish Poisoning) in humans produced by dinoflagellate. The genotoxic and cytotoxic effects of OA have been well reported in mammalian experimental animals and in vitro cultured cells. However, there are no available investigations regarding the involvement of the oxidative stress pathways in OA toxicity, especially on aquatic animals such as fish. In this context, we aimed in the present work to demonstrate whether OA (7.5 μg/ml) induces oxidative stress and histopathological damages in the fish species Sparus aurata under short term exposure (2 h, 4 h and 24 h)...
February 7, 2018: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
B A F Previdello, P S Fernández, G Tremiliosi-Filho, H Varela
In the course of (electro)catalytic reactions, reversible and irreversible changes, namely the formation of adsorbed poisons, catalyst degradation, surface roughening, etc., take place at distinct time-scales. Reading the transformations on the catalyst surface from the measurement of the reaction rates is greatly desirable but generally not feasible. Herein, we study the effect of random surface defects on Pt(100) electrodes toward the electro-oxidation of methanol in acidic media. The surface defects are gently generated in situ and their relative magnitudes are reproducibly controlled...
February 9, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Gaoyang Wang, Yuan Yuan, Lanyue Gao, Xiaoqiong Tan, Guangqian Yang, Fenghong Zhao, Yaping Jin
The aim of this study was to explore changes in intracellular ATP generation and tight junction protein expression during the course of brain edema induced by subacute poisoning of 1,2-dichloroethane (1,2-DCE). Mice were exposed to 1.2 g/m3 1,2-DCE for 3.5 h per day for 1, 2, or 3 days, namely group A, B, and C. Na+-K+-ATPase and Ca2+-ATPase activity, ATP and lactic acid content, intracellular free Ca2+ concentration and ZO-1 and occludin expression in the brain were measured. Results of present study disclosed that Ca2+-ATPase activities in group B and C, and Na+/K+-ATPase activity in group C decreased, whereas intracellular free Ca2+ concentrations in group B and C increased significantly compared with control...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Xiaoxiao Yan, Xuejiao Hu, Gengtao Fu, Lin Xu, Jong-Min Lee, Yawen Tang
Exploring highly efficient electrocatalysts is greatly important for the widespread uptake of the fuel cells. However, many newly generated nanocrystals with attractive nanostructures often have extremely limited surface area or large particle-size, which leads them to display limited electrocatalytic performance. Herein, a novel anode catalyst of hollow and porous Pd3 Pt half-shells with rich "active sites" is synthesized by using urea as a guiding surfactant. It is identified that the formation of Pd3 Pt half-shells involves the combination of bubble guiding, in situ deposition of particles and bubble burst...
February 6, 2018: Small
Li Wu, Jiayu Zhao, Kexin Cao, Xiao Liu, Hao Cai, Jiaqi Wang, Weidong Li, Zhipeng Chen
BACKGROUND: Despite the implications for tumor growth and cancer drug resistance, the mechanisms underlying differences in energy metabolism among cells remain unclear. METHODS: To analyze differences between cell types, cell viability, ATP and α-ketoglutaric acid levels, the oxygen consumption rate and extracellular acidification rate, and the expression of key enzymes involved in α-KG metabolism and transfer were examined. Additionally, UPLC-MS/MS was used to determine the doxorubicin (DOX) content in SMMC-7721 and SMMC-7721/DOX cells...
February 5, 2018: Cell Communication and Signaling: CCS
J Tchougang Nono, V Mistretta, I Noirot, J L Canivet, P Damas
Acetaminophen is the most consumable analgesic in the world in the form of medical prescription or self-medication. It is one of the active ingredients most often involved in voluntary poisoning. Lethal dose of acetaminophen classically induces acute hepatic failure on hepatic necrosis. Chronic intake of sub-lethal doses (i.e. near recommended therapeutic doses) of acetaminophen in the presence of certain risk factors may be responsible for another much less recognized pathological manifestation: severe metabolic acidosis with an increased anion gap due to the accumulation of 5-oxoproline or pyroglutamic acid...
January 2018: Revue Médicale de Liège
Marta Pacheco, Beatriz Jurado Sánchez, Alberto Escarpa
Food poisoning caused by bacteria is a major cause of disease and death worldwide. Herein we describe the use of Janus micromotors as mobile sensors for the detection of toxins released by enterobacteria as indicators of food contamination. The micromotors are prepared by a pickering emulsion approach and rely on the simultaneous encapsulation of platinum nanoparticles -for enhanced bubble-propulsion- and receptor-functionalized quantum dots (QDs) for selective binding with the 3-deoxy-d-manno-oct-2-ulosonic acid target in the endotoxin molecule...
January 27, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
Keika Adachi, Kaori Ohtani, Michio Kawano, Ravindra Pal Singh, Basit Yousuf, Kenji Sonomoto, Tohru Shimizu, Jiro Nakayama
Clostridium perfringens produces various exotoxins and enzymes that cause food poisoning and gas gangrene. The genes involved in virulence are regulated by the agr-like quorum sensing (QS) system, which consists of a QS signal synthesis system and a VirSR two-component regulatory system (VirSR TCS) which is a global regulatory system composed of signal sensor kinase (VirS) and response regulator (VirR). We found that the perfringolysin O gene (pfoA) was transiently expressed during mid-log phase of bacterial growth; its expression was rapidly shut down thereafter, suggesting the existence of a self-quorum quenching (sQQ) system...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
Ying Zhu, Jingjing Liu, Omanjana Goswami, Ashaki A Rouff, Evert J Elzinga
We studied the effects of humic substances (HS) on the sorption of Fe(II) onto Al-oxide and clay sorbents at pH 7.5 with a combination of batch kinetic experiments and synchrotron Fe K-edge EXAFS analyses. Fe(II) sorption was monitored over the course of 4 months in anoxic clay and Al-oxide suspensions amended with variable HS types (humic acid, HA; or fulvic acid, FA) and levels (0, 1, and 4 wt%), and with differing Fe(II) and HS addition sequences (co-sorption and pre-coated experiments, where Fe(II) sorbate was added alongside and after HS addition, respectively)...
January 25, 2018: Geochemical Transactions
Harald John, Marcel J van der Schans, Marianne Koller, Helma E T Spruit, Franz Worek, Horst Thiermann, Daan Noort
During the United Nations fact-finding mission to investigate the alleged use of chemical warfare agents in the Syrian Arab Republic in 2013, numerous tissues from a deceased female victim, who had displayed symptoms of cholinergic crisis, were collected. The Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) authorized two specialized laboratories in the Netherlands and Germany for forensic analysis of these samples. Diverse modern mass spectrometry (MS)-based procedures in combination with either liquid chromatography (LC) or gas chromatography (GC) separation were applied...
2018: Forensic Toxicology
Peng Zhang, Yalei Dai, Jincheng Xiong, Shisheng Zhu, Minzhu Zhao, Shijia Ding, Jianbo Li
Delayed encephalopathy after acute carbon monoxide poisoning (DEACMP) is a difficult-to-manage neurological complication that can severely affect the life quality of patients. Although the central nervous system (CNS) injuries have been reported, the underlying molecular mechanisms are still unclear. Therefore, we established a rat model of DEACMP, applying isobaric tags for a relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ)-based proteomics approach to identify differentially expressed proteins in cerebral tissue...
January 17, 2018: Brain Research Bulletin
Dan Tian, Xiao-Jing Liu, Rui Feng, Jia-Li Xu, Jian Xu, Rong-Ying Chen, Ling Huang, Xian-He Bu
Food contamination by toxic mycotoxins not only causes a considerable loss in economy, but importantly poses a huge threat to human health through accidental ingestion. Hence, it is an ongoing and imperative need to develop a convenient, cost-effective method for the detection of the mycotoxin-infected agricultural commodities. To this end, we herein fabricated a novel metal-organic framework (MOF) derived composite material that displays a strong solid-state emission in the visible region, by attaching a frequently used fluorescent label, fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC), via guest adsorption...
January 19, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
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