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poisoning by acids

Magali Chartier, Isabelle Malissin, Salma Tannous, Laurence Labat, Patricia Risède, Bruno Mégarbane, Lucie Chevillard
Baclofen, a γ-amino-butyric acid type-B receptor agonist with exponentially increased use at high-dose to facilitate abstinence in chronic alcoholics, is responsible for increasing poisonings. Baclofen overdose may induce severe encephalopathy and electroencephalographic (EEG) abnormalities. Whether prior prolonged baclofen treatment may influence the severity of baclofen-induced encephalopathy in overdose has not been established. We designed a rat study to characterize baclofen-induced encephalopathy, correlate its severity with plasma concentrations and investigate the contribution of tolerance...
May 18, 2018: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
Harald John, Markus Siegert, Florian Eyer, Franz Worek, Horst Thiermann, Andreas Kranawetvogl
We herein report on the forensic analysis of plasma samples to prove human poisoning with oxydemeton-S-methyl (ODM), S-(2-(ethylsulfinyl)ethyl)-O,O-dimethyl phosphorothioate. This organophosphorus pesticide is the active ingredient of Metasystox® , that was swallowed by a 77-year-old woman to commit suicide. ODM belongs to the class of dimethyl phosphoryl (DMP) pesticides, contains a 2-(ethylsulfinyl)ethanethiol (ESOET) leaving group and undergoes adduct formation with endogenous molecules as elaborated herein with human serum exposed to pesticides in vitro...
May 16, 2018: Toxicology Letters
Tzeng-Jih Lin, Yeou-Lih Huang, Jung-San Chang, Kuan-Ting Liu, Meng-Chi Yen, Fen-Wei Chen, Yueh-Lun Shih, Jo-Chi Jao, Po-Chi Huang, I-Jeng Yeh
Chromium poisoning can cause renal failure and death. Chromium intoxication may be managed using L-ascorbic acid (vitamin C) therapy. However, the evidence supporting the effectiveness of this treatment is insufficient, and the mechanism of action has not been clarified in renal cells. In this study, our results showed that the optimal regimen of L-ascorbic acid therapy in human epithelial renal proximal tubule cells, HK-2 cells, was 30 μg/mL. Supplementation of L-ascorbic acid with 30 μg/mL and within 8 h of chromium intoxication (K2 Cr2 O7, Cr6+ ) was effective to inhibit renal tubular cell damage by blocking generation of free radicals, cell apoptosis, and autophagy...
July 2018: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
Tabea Vogel, Saskia Lüde, Rahel Baumgartner, Christine Rauber-Lüthy, Ana Paula Simões-Wüst
OBJECTIVE: Affected women and health professionals are still often unsure about how to react to exposures to potentially harmful agents during pregnancy. We wanted to find out which agents worry both pregnant women and professionals, under what circumstances the exposures take place, how they are currently dealt with and how serious they are. METHODS: Making use of the archives of Tox Info Suisse, the foundation that provides poisons information in Switzerland both for members of the general public and for healthcare professionals, we set up an analysis of exposures to possibly harmful agents during pregnancy...
May 16, 2018: Swiss Medical Weekly
Evangelos Zoidis, Isidoros Seremelis, Nikolaos Kontopoulos, Georgios P Danezis
Unlike other essential trace elements that interact with proteins in the form of cofactors, selenium (Se) becomes co-translationally incorporated into the polypeptide chain as part of 21st naturally occurring amino acid, selenocysteine (Sec), encoded by the UGA codon. Any protein that includes Sec in its polypeptide chain is defined as selenoprotein. Members of the selenoproteins family exert various functions and their synthesis depends on specific cofactors and on dietary Se. The Se intake in productive animals such as chickens affect nutrient utilization, production performances, antioxidative status and responses of the immune system...
May 14, 2018: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
Janka Vašková, Klára Krempaská, Daniel Žatko, Pavol Mudroň, Gabriela Glinská, Ladislav Vaško
Chronic exposure to lead causes disruption to energy production mechanisms and tissue damage, in particular through its binding to thiol groups and competition for zinc binding sites. We investigated the possibility of preventing the consequences of chronic lead poisoning by administration of three different doses of humic acids (HAs) into feed with the aim of establishing an effective HA dose. During the 10-week experiment, a sub-lethal dose of lead acetate was given to rats during the first 5 weeks, with continuous administration of HA over 10 weeks...
May 10, 2018: Biological Trace Element Research
T P Alves, M A Schramm, L A O Proença, T O Pinto, L L Mafra
This study evaluated an 8-year dataset (2007 to 2015, except 2008) in the attempt to identify the most susceptible periods for the occurrence of diarrheic shellfish poisoning (DSP) episodes associated with the presence of toxigenic dinoflagellates, Dinophysis spp., in the mussel farming area of Babitonga Bay (southern Brazil). Dinophysis acuminata complex was the most frequent (present in 66% of the samples) and abundant (max. 4100 cells L-1 ) taxon, followed by D. caudata (14%; max. 640 cells L-1 ) and D...
May 5, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
A Naga Babu, D Srinivasa Reddy, G Suresh Kumar, K Ravindhranath, G V Krishna Mohan
Water pollution by industrial and anthropogenic actives has become a serious threat to the environment. World Health Organization (WHO) has identified that lead and fluoride amid the environmental pollutants are most poisonous water contaminants with devastating impact on the human race. The present work proposes a study on economical bio-adsorbent based technique using exhausted coffee grounds in the removal of lead and fluoride contaminants from water. The exhausted coffee grounds gathered from industrial wastes have been acid-activated and examined for their adsorption capacity...
April 28, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Zoe M Matthews, Patrick J B Edwards, Ariane Kahnt, Mark G Collett, Jonathan C Marshall, Ashton C Partridge, Scott J Harrison, Karl Fraser, Mingshu Cao, Peter J Derrick
Introduction: Photosensitization is a common clinical sign in cows suffering from liver damage caused by the mycotoxin sporidesmin. This disease, called facial eczema (FE), is of major importance in New Zealand. Current techniques for diagnosing animals with subclinical sporidesmin-induced liver damage (i.e. without photosensitization) are nonspecific. In addition, little is known of the mechanisms involved in sporidesmin resistance, nor the early effects seen following low-dose sporidesmin intoxication...
2018: Metabolomics: Official Journal of the Metabolomic Society
Jens von der Wellen, Peter Winterhalter, Markus Siegert, Florian Eyer, Horst Thiermann, Harald John
Exposure to toxic organophosphorus pesticides (OPP) represents a serious problem in the public healthcare sector and might be forced in terroristic attacks. Therefore, reliable verification procedures for OPP-intoxications are required for forensic, toxicological and clinical reasons. We developed and optimized a toolbox of methods to detect adducts of human serum albumin (HSA) with OPP considered as long-term biomarkers. Human serum was incubated with diethyl-oxono and diethyl-thiono pesticides for adduct formation used as reference...
April 24, 2018: Toxicology Letters
T Das, I Alabi, M Colley, F Yan, W Griffith, S Bach, S T Weintraub, R Renthal
Proteins in the venom of the fire ant Solenopsis invicta have been suggested to function in pheromone binding. Venom from queens and workers contains different isoforms of these proteins, consistent with the differing pheromones they secrete, but questions remain about the venom protein composition and glandular source. We found that the queen venom contains a previously uncharacterized pheromone-binding protein paralogue known as Sol i 2X1. Using imaging mass spectrometry, we located the main venom proteins in the poison sac, implying that pheromones might have to compete with venom alkaloids for binding...
April 15, 2018: Insect Molecular Biology
Benjamin Ciszek, Ivana Fleischer
Herein we report the first homogeneous palladium-based transfer hydrogenolysis of benzylic alcohols using an in situ formed palladium-phosphine complex and formic acid as reducing agent. The reaction requires a catalyst loading as low as only 1 mol% of palladium and just a slight excess of reductant to obtain the deoxygenated alkylarenes in good to excellent yields. Besides demonstrating the broad applicability for primary, secondary and tertiary benzylic alcohols, a reaction intermediate could be identified...
April 12, 2018: Chemistry: a European Journal
Amelia Geraldine Peregrina-Chávez, María Del Rayo Ramírez-Galindo, Rolando Chávez-Martínez, Cesar Anuar Delahanty-Delgado, Fernando Vazquez-Alaniz
Background: The biological behaviour and clinical significance of mercury toxicity vary according to its chemical structure. Mercury differs in its degree of toxicity and in its effects on the nervous, digestive and immune systems as well as on organs such as the lungs, kidneys, skin, eyes and heart. Human exposure occurs mainly through inhalation of elemental mercury vapours during industrial and artisanal processes such as artisanal and small-scale gold mining. Case presentation: A 52-years-old female, housewife, with a body mass index of 25...
April 2, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Leila Basti, Toshiyuki Suzuki, Hajime Uchida, Takashi Kamiyama, Satoshi Nagai
Species of the harmful algal bloom (HAB) genera Dinophysis are causative of one of the most widespread and expanding HAB events associated with the human intoxication, diarrheic shellfish poisoning (DSP). The effects of warming temperature on the physiology and toxinology of these mixotrophic species remain intractable due to their low biomass in nature and difficulties in establishing and maintaining them in culture. Hence, the present study investigated the influence of warming temperature, encompassing present and predicted climate scenarios, on growth and toxin production in a strain of the most cosmopolitan DSP-causative species, Dinophysis acuminata...
March 2018: Harmful Algae
Brenda Marrero-Rosado, Franco Rossetti, Matthew W Rice, Mark C Moffett, Robyn Lee, Michael F Stone, Lucille A Lumley
Elderly individuals compose a large percentage of the world population; however, few studies have addressed the efficacy of current medical countermeasures (MCM) against the effects of chemical warfare nerve agent exposure in aged populations. We evaluated the efficacy of the anticonvulsant diazepam in an old adult rat model of soman (GD) poisoning and compared the toxic effects to those observed in young adult rats when anticonvulsant treatment is delayed. After determining their respective median lethal dose (LD50) of GD, we exposed young adult and old adult rats to an equitoxic 1...
March 27, 2018: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
Nastaran Rahimi, Amir Hossein Abdolghaffari, Alireza Partoazar, Nina Javadian, Tara Dehpour, Ali R Mani, Ahmad R Dehpour
BACKGROUND: Aluminum phosphide (AlP) is used as pesticide in some countries for protection of stored grains. Human poisoning with AlP due to suicide attempt or accidental environmental exposure is associated with very high mortality partially due to development of severe metabolic acidosis. Previous studies have shown that hemoglobin has high buffering capacity and erythrocytes can potentially be used for management of metabolic acidosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of fresh packed red blood cells (RBC) transfusion on survival and cardiovascular function in AlP-poisoned rats...
2018: PloS One
Aknur Amanbekovna Turgumbayeva, Gulbaram Omargazieva Ustenova, Balakyz Kymyzgalievna Yeskalieva, Bakyt Amanullovna Ramazanova, Kairolla Duysenbayevich Rahimov, Hajiakbar Aisa, Konrad T Juszkiewicz
INTRODUCTION: <i>Carthamus tinctorius L.</i> is commonly known as Safflower. <i>C. tinctorius</i> extracts and oil are important in drug development with numerous pharmacological activities in the world. This plant is cultivated mainly for its seed which is used as edible oil. For a long time, <i>C. tinctorius</i> has been used in traditional medicines as a purgative, analgesic, antipyretic and an antidote to poisoning. It is a useful plant in painful menstrual problems, post-partum haemorrhage and osteoporosis...
March 14, 2018: Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine: AAEM
Qian Wang, Yoon-Suk Kang, Abdullah Alowaifeer, Kaixiang Shi, Xia Fan, Lu Wang, Jonathan Jetter, Brian Bothner, Gejiao Wang, Timothy R McDermott
Environmental arsenic poisoning affects roughly 200 million people worldwide. The toxicity and mobility of arsenic in the environment is significantly influenced by microbial redox reactions, with arsenite (AsIII ) being more toxic than arsenate (AsV ). Microbial oxidation of AsIII to AsV is known to be regulated by the AioXSR signal transduction system and viewed to function for detoxification or energy generation. Here, we show that AsIII oxidation is ultimately regulated by the phosphate starvation response (PSR), requiring the sensor kinase PhoR for expression of the AsIII oxidase structural genes aioBA...
May 2018: Environmental Microbiology
Dao-Feng Zhang, Xin-Yi Yang, Jing Zhang, Xiaojie Qin, Xiaozhen Huang, Yan Cui, Min Zhou, Chunlei Shi, Nigel P French, Xianming Shi
Staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs), also known as superantigens, play a very important role in infections and food poisoning caused by Staphylococcus aureus. Recently, S. argenteus and S. schweitzeri were recognized as novel species closely related to S. aureus. In this study of these three species, it was found that two putative SE genes were located upstream of some vSaβ pathogenicity islands and the deduced amino acid sequences showed < 65.3% identity with those of known SEs. The related proteins, designated staphylococcal enterotoxin-like toxin 26 (SEl26) and 27 (SEl27), were identified and characterized among the three species...
March 6, 2018: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
Mingxue Sun, Yuyan Yang, Wenqi Meng, Qingqiang Xu, Fengwu Lin, Yongchun Chen, Jie Zhao, Kai Xiao
CONTEXT: Sulfur mustard (SM), a bifunctional alkylating agent, can react with a variety of biochemical molecules (DNA, RNA, proteins and other cell components) to cause a series of serious health issues or even death. Although a plethora of research has been done, the pathogenesis of SM poisoning has yet to be fully understood due to its high complexity. As a consequence, a specific antidote has not yet been developed and the treatment of SM poisoning remains a medical challenge. In recent years, various biological products and cell transplantation in the treatment of SM poisoning offered a significant clinical treatment progress...
March 20, 2018: Chemico-biological Interactions
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