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poisoning by acids

Jin-Rong Huo, Xiao-Xu Wang, Lu Li, Hai-Xia Cheng, Yan-Jing Su, Ping Qian
This paper reports a study of the electronic properties, structural stability and catalytic activity of the W13@Pt42 core-shell structure using the First-principles calculations. The degree of corrosion of W13@Pt42 core-shell structure is simulated in acid solutions and through molecular absorption. The absorption energy of OH for this structure is lower than that for Pt55, which inhibits the poison effect of O containing intermediate. Furthermore we present the optimal path of oxygen reduction reaction catalyzed by W13@Pt42...
October 19, 2016: Scientific Reports
Maria Schirone, Pierina Visciano, Rosanna Tofalo, Giovanna Suzzi
The consumption of food containing high amounts of histamine and other biogenic amines can cause food poisoning with different symptoms linked to the individual sensitivity and the detoxification activity. Histamine is the only biogenic amine with regulatory limits set by the European Commission in fish and fishery products, because it can lead to a fatal outcome. However, also fermented foods can be involved in outbreaks and sporadic cases of intoxication. The factors affecting the presence of histamine in food are variable and product specific including the availability of the precursor amino acid, the presence of microorganisms producing decarboxylases, and the conditions allowing their growth and enzyme production...
October 18, 2016: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
Sara Mostafalou, Mohammad Abdollahi
Pesticides are a family of compounds which have brought many benefits to mankind in the agricultural, industrial, and health areas, but their toxicities in both humans and animals have always been a concern. Regardless of acute poisonings which are common for some classes of pesticides like organophosphoruses, the association of chronic and sub-lethal exposure to pesticides with a prevalence of some persistent diseases is going to be a phenomenon to which global attention has been attracted. In this review, incidence of various malignant, neurodegenerative, respiratory, reproductive, developmental, and metabolic diseases in relation to different routes of human exposure to pesticides such as occupational, environmental, residential, parental, maternal, and paternal has been systematically criticized in different categories of pesticide toxicities like carcinogenicity, neurotoxicity, pulmonotoxicity, reproductive toxicity, developmental toxicity, and metabolic toxicity...
October 8, 2016: Archives of Toxicology
Jae-Hwan Lee, Hyun-Sook Kim, Jae-Hyeong Park, Min Su Kim, Byung Joo Sun, Seung Ryu, Song Soo Kim, Seon Ah Jin, Jun Hyung Kim, Si Wan Choi, Jin-Ok Jeong, In-Sun Kwon, In-Whan Seong
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning can cause tissue hypoxia and left ventricular systolic dysfunction (LVSD) requiring intensive medical management. Our objectives were to find incidence and clinical course of LVSD CO intoxicated patients and make a clinical scoring to predict LVSD. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: We included all consecutive patients with CO exposure in the emergency room. LVSD was defined by LVEF <50% assessed by echocardiography...
September 2016: Korean Circulation Journal
Sujan Majumder, Najam A Shakil, Jitendra Kumar, Tirthankar Banerjee, Parimal Sinha, Braj B Singh, Parul Garg
Controlled release (CR) nano-formulations of Mancozeb (manganese-zinc double salt of N,N-bisdithiocarbamic acid), a protective fungicide, have been prepared using laboratory-synthesized poly(ethylene glycols) (PEGs)-based functionalized amphiphilic copolymers without using any surfactants or external additives. The release kinetics of the developed Mancozeb CR formulations were studied and compared with that of commercially available 42% suspension concentrate and 75% wettable powder. Maximum amount of Mancozeb was released on 42nd day for PEG-600 and octyl chain, PEG-1000 and octyl chain, and PEG-600 and hexadecyl chain, on 35th day for PEG-1000 and hexadecyl chain, on 28th day for PEG-1500 and octyl chain, PEG-2000 and octyl chain, PEG-1500 and hexadecyl chain, and PEG-2000 and hexadecyl chain in comparison to both commercial formulations (15th day)...
August 12, 2016: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part. B, Pesticides, Food Contaminants, and Agricultural Wastes
Pablo S Fernández, Polina Tereshchuk, Camilo A Angelucci, Janaina F Gomes, Amanda C Garcia, Cauê A Martins, Giuseppe A Camara, María E Martins, Juarez L F Da Silva, Germano Tremiliosi-Filho
The glycerol electrooxidation reaction (GEOR) has attracted huge interest in the last decade due to the very low price and availability of this polyol. In this work, we studied the GEOR on Pt(111) electrodes by introducing different densities of random defects. Our results showed that the generation of defects on Pt(111) slightly modified the GEOR onset potential, however it generates changes in the voltammetric oxidation charges and also in the relative production of CO2 to carbonyl containing compounds, C[double bond, length as m-dash]O...
September 14, 2016: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Wei Li, Mengzhou Zhou, Ning Xu, Yong Hu, Chao Wang, Deyuan Li, Liegang Liu, Dongsheng Li
The aim of this study was to compare the protective effects of curcumin, curcumin-β-cyclodextrin nanoparticle curcumin (BCD-CUR) and nanoliposomal curcumin (NLC) on unsymmetrical dimethylhydrazine (UDMH) induced poison in mice. Curcumin, BCD-CUR, and NLC were prepared and their properties of zeta potential, particle size, encapsulation efficiency, and loading capacity were characterized. Eighty-eight male ICR mice on normal chow diet were randomly divided into 11 groups, and intraperitoneally injected with UDMH alone, or together with different doses of curcumin, BCD-CUR or NLC daily for up to 10 d...
September 2, 2016: Bioengineered
Jan C H van Eijkeren, J Daniël N Olie, Sally M Bradberry, J Allister Vale, Irma de Vries, Jan Meulenbelt, Claudine C Hunault
CONTEXT: No kinetic models presently exist which simulate the effect of chelation therapy on lead blood concentrations in lead poisoning. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to develop a kinetic model that describes the kinetics of dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA; succimer), a commonly used chelating agent, that could be used in developing a lead chelating model. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This was a kinetic modelling study. We used a two-compartment model, with a non-systemic gastrointestinal compartment (gut lumen) and the whole body as one systemic compartment...
November 2016: Clinical Toxicology
Li Zheng, Meijuan Zhou, Zhiwei Huang, Yaxin Chen, Jiayi Gao, Zhen Ma, Jianmin Chen, Xingfu Tang
A good catalyst for efficiently controlling NOx emissions often demands strong resistance against alkali poisoning. Although the traditional ion-exchange model, based on acid-base reactions of alkalis with Brønsted acid sites, has been established over the past two decades, it is difficult to be used as a guideline to develop such an alkali-resistant catalyst. Here we establish a self-protection mechanism of deNOx catalysts against alkali poisoning by systematically studying the intrinsic nature of alkali resistance of V2O5/HWO (HWO = hexagonal WO3) that shows excellent resistance to alkali poisoning in selective catalytic reduction of NOx with NH3 (SCR)...
October 12, 2016: Environmental Science & Technology
Dong-Mei Liu, Shu Zhou, Jie-Min Chen, Shu-Ya Peng, Wen-Tao Xia
UNLABELLED: Objective. To explore the potential effects of methanol and its metabolite, formic acid, on rat retina function. Methods. Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 3- and 7-day groups and a control. Experimental groups were given methanol and the control group were provided saline by gavage. Retinal function of each group was assessed by electroretinogram. Concentrations of methanol and formic acid were detected by GC/HS and HPLC, respectively. Results. The a and b amplitudes of methanol treated groups decreased and latent periods delayed in scotopic and photopic ERG recordings...
2016: Journal of Ophthalmology
Thomas Chun-Hung Lee, Fiona Long-Yan Fong, Kin-Chung Ho, Fred Wang-Fat Lee
Diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP) is a gastrointestinal disorder caused by the consumption of seafood contaminated with okadaic acid (OA) and dinophysistoxins (DTXs). OA and DTXs are potent inhibitors of protein phosphatases 2A, 1B, and 2B, which may promote cancer in the human digestive system. Their expression in dinoflagellates is strongly affected by nutritional and environmental factors. Studies have indicated that the level of these biotoxins is inversely associated with the growth of dinoflagellates at low concentrations of nitrogen or phosphorus, or at extreme temperature...
2016: Toxins
Yuichi Yamaguchi, Takahito Shimodo, Noriyasu Chikamori, Sho Usuki, Yoshihiro Kanai, Takeshi Endo, Ken-Ichi Katsumata, Chiaki Terashima, Masahiko Ikekita, Akira Fujishima, Tomonori Suzuki, Hideki Sakai, Kazuya Nakata
Bacteria that cause serious food poisoning are known to sporulate under conditions of nutrient and water shortage. The resulting spores have much greater resistance to common sterilization methods, such as heating at 100 °C and exposure to various chemical agents. Because such bacteria cannot be inactivated with typical alcohol disinfectants, peroxyacetic acid (PAA) often is used, but PAA is a harmful agent that can seriously damage human health. Furthermore, concentrated hydrogen peroxide, which is also dangerous, must be used to prepare PAA...
September 26, 2016: Scientific Reports
Hajer Ben Saad, Manel Gargouri, Fatma Kallel, Rim Chaabene, Tahia Boudawara, Kamel Jamoussi, Christian Magné, Khaled Mounir Zeghal, Ahmed Hakim, Ibtissem Ben Amara
Potassium bromate (KBrO3 ), an environmental pollutant, is a well-known human carcinogen and a potent nephrotoxic agent. Currently, natural products have built a well-recognized role in the management of many diseases induced by pollutants. As potent natural sources of bioactive compounds, marine algae have been demonstrated to be rich in novel secondary metabolites with a broad range of biological functions. In this study, adults male mice were orally treated for 15 days with KBrO3 (0.5 g/L) associated or not with extract of Alsidium corallinum, a red Mediterranean alga...
September 23, 2016: Environmental Toxicology
M Kasim Diril, Xavier Bisteau, Mayumi Kitagawa, Matias J Caldez, Sheena Wee, Jayantha Gunaratne, Sang Hyun Lee, Philipp Kaldis
The Greatwall kinase/Mastl is an essential gene that indirectly inhibits the phosphatase activity toward mitotic Cdk1 substrates. Here we show that although Mastl knockout (MastlNULL) MEFs enter mitosis, they progress through mitosis without completing cytokinesis despite the presence of misaligned chromosomes, which causes chromosome segregation defects. Furthermore, we uncover the requirement of Mastl for robust spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) maintenance since the duration of mitotic arrest caused by microtubule poisons in MastlNULL MEFs is shortened, which correlates with premature disappearance of the essential SAC protein Mad1 at the kinetochores...
September 2016: PLoS Genetics
Christian Schneider, Anne Bierwisch, Marianne Koller, Franz Worek, Stefan Kubik
Sulfonatocalix[4]arenes with an appended hydroxamic acid residue can detoxify VX and related V-type neurotoxic organophosphonates with half-lives down to 3 min in aqueous buffer at 37 °C and pH 7.4. The detoxification activity is attributed to the millimolar affinity of the calixarene moiety for the positively charged organophosphonates in combination with the correct arrangement of the hydroxamic acid group. The reaction involves phosphonylation of the hydroxamic acid followed by a Lossen rearrangement, thus rendering the mode of action stoichiometric rather than catalytic...
October 4, 2016: Angewandte Chemie
Carol J Boushey, Edward J Delp, Ziad Ahmad, Yu Wang, Sparkle M Roberts, Lynn M Grattan
Three Tribal Nations in the Pacific Northwest United States comprise the members of the CoASTAL cohort. These populations may be at risk for neurobehavioral impairment, i.e., amnesic shellfish poisoning, from shellfish consumption as a result of repeated, low-level domoic acid (DA) exposure present in local clams. Previous work with this cohort confirmed a high proportion of clam consumers with varying levels of potential exposure over time. Since clams are an episodically consumed food, traditional dietary records do not fully capture exposure...
July 2016: Harmful Algae
Nicolaus G Adams, Alison Robertson, Lynn M Grattan, Steve Pendleton, Sparkle Roberts, J Kathleen Tracy, Vera L Trainer
The Makah Tribe of Neah Bay, Washington, has historically relied on the subsistence harvest of coastal seafood, including shellfish, which remains an important cultural and ceremonial resource. Tribal legend describes visitors from other tribes that died from eating shellfish collected on Makah lands. These deaths were believed to be caused by paralytic shellfish poisoning, a human illness caused by ingestion of shellfish contaminated with saxitoxins, which are produced by toxin-producing marine dinoflagellates on which the shellfish feed...
July 2016: Harmful Algae
John J Millichap, Kristen L Park, Tammy Tsuchida, Bruria Ben-Zeev, Lionel Carmant, Robert Flamini, Nishtha Joshi, Paul M Levisohn, Eric Marsh, Srishti Nangia, Vinodh Narayanan, Xilma R Ortiz-Gonzalez, Marc C Patterson, Phillip L Pearl, Brenda Porter, Keri Ramsey, Emily L McGinnis, Maurizio Taglialatela, Molly Tracy, Baouyen Tran, Charu Venkatesan, Sarah Weckhuysen, Edward C Cooper
OBJECTIVE: To advance the understanding of KCNQ2 encephalopathy genotype-phenotype relationships and to begin to assess the potential of selective KCNQ channel openers as targeted treatments. METHODS: We retrospectively studied 23 patients with KCNQ2 encephalopathy, including 11 treated with ezogabine (EZO). We analyzed the genotype-phenotype relationships in these and 70 previously described patients. RESULTS: The mean seizure onset age was 1...
October 2016: Neurology. Genetics
Hui Yan, Zheng Qiao, Baohua Shen, Ping Xiang, Min Shen
Brodifacoum is one of the most widely used rodenticides for rodent control and eradication; however, human and animal poisoning due to primary and secondary exposure has been reported since its development. Although numerous studies have described brodifacoum induced toxicity, the precise mechanism still needs to be explored. Gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) coupled with an ultra performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) was applied to characterize the metabolic profile of brodifacoum induced toxicity and discover potential biomarkers in rat plasma...
October 2016: Forensic Science International
Cheng Chi, Sib Sankar Giri, Jin Woo Jun, Hyoun Joong Kim, Saekil Yun, Sang Guen Kim, Se Chang Park
Okadaic acid (OA) is produced by dinoflagellates during harmful algal blooms and is a diarrhetic shellfish poisoning toxin. This toxin is particularly problematic for bivalves that are cultured for human consumption. This study aimed to reveal the effects of exposure to OA on the immune responses of bay scallop, Argopecten irradians. Various immunological parameters were assessed (total hemocyte counts (THC), reactive oxygen species (ROS), malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione (GSH), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and nitric oxide (NO) in the hemolymph of scallops at 3, 6, 12, 24, and 48 h post-exposure (hpe) to different concentrations of OA (50, 100, and 500 nM)...
2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
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