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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342004/modulatory-effects-of-terminalia-arjuna-against-domoic-acid-induced-toxicity-in-caco-2-cell-line
#1
E M Ramya, G Phani Kumar, T Anand, K R Anilakumar
Domoic acid is a potent marine algal toxin produced by diatomic genus of Pseudo-nitzschia causing amnesic shell fish poisoning. Domoic acid toxicosis mainly involves excitotoxic effects coupled with oxidative stress. The present study was aimed to evaluate the protective effects of hydro-alcoholic extract of Terminalia arjuna (TA) against domoic acid induced toxic effects in Caco-2 cell line. It was observed that the toxicity induced by domoic acid in Caco-2 cells was mediated by oxidative insult leading to morphological changes, DNA damage and apoptosis...
March 24, 2017: Cytotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331544/vapor-fed-bio-hybrid-fuel-cell
#2
Marcus S Benyamin, Justin P Jahnke, David M Mackie
BACKGROUND: Concentration and purification of ethanol and other biofuels from fermentations are energy-intensive processes, with amplified costs at smaller scales. To circumvent the need for these processes, and to potentially reduce transportation costs as well, we have previously investigated bio-hybrid fuel cells (FCs), in which a fermentation and FC are closely coupled. However, long-term operation requires strictly preventing the fermentation and FC from harming each other. We introduce here the concept of the vapor-fed bio-hybrid FC as a means of continuously extracting power from ongoing fermentations at ambient conditions...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323217/effects-of-algal-toxin-okadaic-acid-on-the-non-specific-immune-and-antioxidant-response-of-bay-scallop-argopecten-irradians
#3
Cheng Chi, Sib Sankar Giri, Jin Woo Jun, Hyoun Joong Kim, Sang Wha Kim, Saekil Yun, Se Chang Park
Okadaic acid (OA) is produced by dinoflagellates during harmful algal blooms and is a diarrhetic shellfish-poisoning (DSP) toxin. This toxin is particularly problematic for bivalves that are cultured for human consumption. This study aimed to reveal the effects of exposure to OA on the non-specific immune responses of bay scallop, Argopecten irradians. Various immunological parameters (superoxide dismutase (SOD), acid phosphatase (ACP), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), lysozyme activities, and total protein level) were assessed in the hemolymph of bay scallops at 3, 6, 12, 24, and 48 h post-exposure (hpe) to different concentrations (50, 100, and 500 nM) of OA...
March 17, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319530/oral-chemical-burns-reported-to-the-poisons-information-centre-in-erfurt-germany-from-1997-to-2014
#4
Juliane Nehrlich, Hans-Peter Klöcking, Helmut Hentschel, Amelie Lupp
Devastating oral burns often followed by lifelong complications can result from ingestion of caustic substances. However, although being one of the most challenging situations in clinical practice, literature data on the epidemiology of oral burns are still scarce. Retrospective analysis of all cases of oral burns after ingestion of corrosive substances reported to the Poisons Information Centre in Erfurt, Germany, from 1997 to 2014 was performed. In total, 482 calls because of oral burns were registered, with no change in the numbers of cases during the years...
March 13, 2017: Journal of Burn Care & Research: Official Publication of the American Burn Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314230/toxicity-of-diatom-polyunsaturated-aldehydes-to-marine-bacterial-isolates-reveals-their-mode-of-action
#5
Milva Pepi, Hermann J Heipieper, Cecilia Balestra, Marco Borra, Elio Biffali, Raffaella Casotti
Diatoms produce and release polyunsaturated aldehydes (PUAs) during senescence in culture and at the end of blooms in nature and these compounds play different ecological roles, as infochemicals, allelochemicals and pheromones In order to elucidate the toxic effects of PUAs, we isolated six bacterial strains from the Mediterranean Sea during a diatom bloom and tested their tolerance to PUA in terms of growth and cell membrane properties. Based upon 16S rRNA sequencing, these bacteria were assigned to the genera Pseudomonas, Sufflavibacter, Halomonas, Vibrio, Idiomarina, and Labrenzia...
March 9, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306345/a-retrospective-study-on-non-drug-related-poisoning-in-the-community-among-children-from-south-india
#6
Debasis Das Adhikari, Saibal Das, Blessed Winston A, Kaysina Vazhudhi, Aniket Kumar, Margaret Shanthi Fx, Indira Agarwal
OBJECTIVES: This retrospective study was performed to determine the incidence, demographic distribution, types and outcomes across various non-drug related poisonings among children attending a tertiary care center in south India. METHODS: All children from 0-16 years who presented to the Paediatric Emergency Department, Christian Medical College, Vellore with non-drug related poisoning from October 2004 to September 2013 were included. RESULTS: Out of the total 997 cases of poisoning, 629 (63...
March 17, 2017: Hospital Practice (Minneapolis)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283119/the-global-burden-of-lead-toxicity-attributable-to-informal-used-lead-acid-battery-sites
#7
Bret Ericson, Phillip Landrigan, Mark Patrick Taylor, Joseph Frostad, Jack Caravanos, John Keith, Richard Fuller
BACKGROUND: Prior calculations of the burden of disease from environmental lead exposure in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) have not included estimates of the burden from lead-contaminated sites because of a lack of exposure data, resulting in an underestimation of a serious public health problem. OBJECTIVE: We used publicly available statistics and detailed site assessment data to model the number of informal used lead-acid battery (ULAB) recyclers and the resulting exposures in 90 LMICs...
September 2016: Annals of Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28243772/diagnosis-of-aluminum-phosphide-poisoning-using-a-new-analytical-approach-forensic-application-to-a-lethal-intoxication
#8
Hui Yan, Ping Xiang, Sujing Zhang, Baohua Shen, Min Shen
Aluminum phosphide (AlP) is an effective and cheap pesticide that is commonly used worldwide, but it is also a common cause of human poisoning and carries a high mortality rate. AlP reacts with moisture in air, water, and hydrochloric acid in the stomach to produce phosphine (PH3) gas. Two routes of exposure are ingestion of AlP and inhalation of phosphine generated by the action of moisture on AlP. Absorbed phosphine is rapidly metabolized into phosphite and hypophosphite. A method is described for the analysis of the phosphine metabolites in various biological matrices...
February 27, 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241688/-determination-of-trace-bismuth-by-atomic-fluorescence-spectrometry-in-blood
#9
L Z Zhou, S Fu, S Q Gao
Objective: To establish a method for determination trace bismuth in blood by atomic fluorescence spectrometry (AFS) . Methods: 4.0 ml nitric acid and 1.0 ml perchloric acid was added into 1.0 ml blood sample then through automation graphite digestion instrument digested, after that 1.0 ml thiocarbamide-vitamin (10%) was injected, 8% HCl constant volume to 10.0 ml, the bismuth was detected by atomic fluorescence spectrometry with 5.0 ml digestive sample. Results: The method showed a linear relationship within the range of 0...
December 20, 2016: Chinese Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Occupational Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220909/effects-of-meso-2-3-dimercaptosuccinic-acid-potassium-iodide-and-chlorophyll-on-lead-accumulation-in-male-mice
#10
Ying Xie, Guifeng Zhou
OBJECTIVES: Lead (Pb) pollution is a serious public health problem all over the world, it especially plays severe damage role in children's health. Apart from reducing lead-induced damages, the decrease of lead accumulation is also critical. This study has been the first attempt to investigate effects of meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA), potassium iodide (KI) and chlorophyll (Chl) on lead accumulation in male mice. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Eighty healthy Kunming male mice were selected and divided randomly into 8 groups...
February 21, 2017: International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207867/thermal-stability-and-structural-changes-in-bacterial-toxins-responsible-for-food-poisoning
#11
Paulina Regenthal, Jesper S Hansen, Ingemar André, Karin Lindkvist-Petersson
The staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs) are secreted by the bacteria Staphylococcus aureus and are the most common causative agent in staphylococcal food poisoning. The staphylococcal enterotoxin A (SEA) has been associated with large staphylococcal food poisoning outbreaks, but newer identified SEs, like staphylococcal enterotoxin H (SEH) has recently been shown to be present at similar levels as SEA in food poisoning outbreaks. Thus, we set out to investigate the thermo-stability of the three-dimensional structures of SEA, SEH and staphylococcal enterotoxin E (SEE), since heat inactivation is a common method to inactivate toxins during food processing...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187395/population-pharmacokinetic-modelling-of-valproic-acid-and-its-selected-metabolites-in-acute-vpa-poisoning
#12
Wojciech Jawień, Jolanta Wilimowska, Małgorzata Kłys, Wojciech Piekoszewski
BACKGROUND: Valproic acid (VPA) is a first-line antiepileptic drug. It is used in the treatment of many different types of partial and generalized epileptic seizures. Though the clinical pharmacokinetics of VPA has been well defined, information about pharmacokinetics after overdoses is rare. The aim of this study was to try to build a population pharmacokinetic model that would describe the time course of VPA and its selected metabolites when the drug is ingested in an overdose situation...
April 2017: Pharmacological Reports: PR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177220/mechanistic-investigation-into-the-effect-of-sulfuration-on-the-few-catalysts-for-the-selective-catalytic-reduction-of-nox-with-nh3
#13
Hui Wang, Zhenping Qu, Shicheng Dong, Chen Tang
Iron tungsten (FeW) catalyst is a potential candidate for the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NOx with ammonia because of its excellent performance in a wide operating window. Sulfur poisoning effects in SCR catalysts have long been recognized as a challenge in development of efficient catalysts for applications. In this paper, the impact of sulfuration on catalyst structure, NH3-SCR reaction performance and mechanism was systematically investigated through spectroscopic and temperature-programmed approaches...
March 1, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168931/ergot-alkaloids-of-the-clavicipitaceae
#14
Simona Florea, Daniel G Panaccione, Christopher Lewis Schardl
Ergot alkaloids are highly diverse in structure, exhibit diverse effects on animals, and are produced by diverse fungi in phylum Ascomycota, including pathogens and mutualistic symbionts of plants. These mycotoxins are best known from the fungal family, Clavicipitaceae, and are named for the ergot fungi that, through millennia, have contaminated grains and caused mass poisonings, with effects ranging from dry gangrene to convulsions and death. However, they are also useful sources of pharmaceuticals for a variety of medical purposes...
February 7, 2017: Phytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28158885/breaking-bad-delirium-methamphetamine-and-boric-acid-toxicity-with-hallucinations-and-pseudosepsis
#15
Kayla Johnson, Joanna L Stollings, E Wesley Ely
OBJECTIVES: A 30-year-old patient presented with hallucinations and profound shock. He was initially misdiagnosed as having severe sepsis; once ingestions were considered, he was diagnosed as potentially having arsenic toxicity. SUMMARY: The clinical story reveals many instructional lessons that could aid in the evaluation and management of future patients. This man presented with large amounts of blue crystals around his nose and lips from inhaling and eating boric acid (an ant poison) so he could, as he put it, kill the ants "pouring into my mouth and nose and up into my brain...
February 2017: Southern Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28155932/the-deactivation-mechanism-of-pb-on-the-ce-tio2-catalyst-for-the-selective-catalytic-reduction-of-nox-with-nh3-tpd-and-drift-studies
#16
Shu-Xian Wang, Rui-Tang Guo, Wei-Guo Pan, Ming-Yuan Li, Peng Sun, Shu-Ming Liu, Shuai-Wei Liu, Xiao Sun, Jian Liu
It was well recognized that Pb had a poisoning effect on a SCR catalyst. In this study, the deactivation mechanism of Pb on the Ce/TiO2 catalyst was investigated based on the characterization results of TPD and in situ DRIFT studies. It was found that the addition of Pb on the Ce/TiO2 catalyst not only inhibited the adsorption and activation of NH3 species, but also led to the decrease of the activity of adsorbed NH3 species in the SCR reaction. The adsorption of NOx species and the oxidation of NO by O2 over the Ce/TiO2 catalyst were also suppressed by the addition of Pb, while the reactivity of adsorbed NO2 species did not decrease...
February 3, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152637/l-arginine-in-the-treatment-of-valproate-overdose-five-clinical-cases
#17
Verena Schrettl, Norbert Felgenhauer, Christian Rabe, Malkanthi Fernando, Florian Eyer
BACKGROUND: Valproic acid and its metabolites - particularly valproyl-CoA - are inhibitors of the enzyme N-acetylglutamate synthetase. The amino acid l-arginine can stimulate N-acetylglutamate synthetase activity and could be potentially used therapeutically to correct hyperammonemia caused by valproate therapy or overdose. Severely valproic-acid-poisoned patients are usually treated with l-carnitine or hemodialysis in order to decrease hyperammonemia. We herein report of five cases, in which l-arginine was administered...
April 2017: Clinical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152486/highly-stable-aluminum-based-metal-organic-frameworks-as-biosensing-platforms-for-assessment-of-food-safety
#18
Chun-Sen Liu, Chun-Xiao Sun, Jia-Yue Tian, Zhuo-Wei Wang, Hong-Fei Ji, Ying-Pan Song, Shuai Zhang, Zhi-Hong Zhang, Ling-Hao He, Miao Du
Two unique immunosensors made of aluminum-based metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), namely, 515- and 516-MOFs, with 4,4',4''-nitrilotribenzoic acid (H3NTB) were successfully obtained to efficiently assess food safety. The as-prepared 515- and 516-MOFs exhibited superior thermal and physicochemical stability, high electrochemical activity, and good biocompatibility. Among these immunosensors, 516-MOF showed a preferable biosensing ability toward analytes determined by electrochemical techniques. The developed 516-MOF-based electrochemical biosensor not only demonstrated high sensitivity with low detection limits of 0...
May 15, 2017: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28143625/potential-benefits-of-phytochemicals-against-alzheimer-s-disease
#19
Emma L Wightman
Our current therapeutic drugs for Alzheimer's disease are predominantly derived from the alkaloid class of plant phytochemicals. These drugs, such as galantamine and rivastigmine, attenuate the decline in the cholinergic system but, as the alkaloids occupy the most dangerous end of the phytochemical spectrum (indeed they function as feeding deterrents and poisons to other organisms within the plant itself), they are often associated with unpleasant side effects. In addition, these cholinesterase inhibiting alkaloids target only one system in a disorder, which is typified by multifactorial deficits...
February 1, 2017: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109640/acute-and-chronic-dietary-exposure-to-domoic-acid-in-recreational-harvesters-a-survey-of-shellfish-consumption-behavior
#20
Bridget E Ferriss, David J Marcinek, Daniel Ayres, Jerry Borchert, Kathi A Lefebvre
Domoic acid (DA) is a neurotoxin that is naturally produced by phytoplankton and accumulates in seafood during harmful algal blooms. As the prevalence of DA increases in the marine environment, there is a critical need to identify seafood consumers at risk of DA poisoning. DA exposure was estimated in recreational razor clam (Siliqua patula) harvesters to determine if exposures above current regulatory guidelines occur and/or if harvesters are chronically exposed to low levels of DA. Human consumption rates of razor clams were determined by distributing 1523 surveys to recreational razor clam harvesters in spring 2015 and winter 2016, in Washington, USA...
April 2017: Environment International
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