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intoxication by alkalis

Bruna Barros Garbim, Larissa D Ávila, Sumara Zuanazi Pinto Rigatto, Kélcia Rosana da Silva Quadros, Vera Maria Santoro Belangero, Rodrigo Bueno de Oliveira
Hypercalcemia is a rare condition in childhood; the most common causes are primary hyperparathyroidism, malignancy, prolonged immobilisation, thyrotoxicosis, thiazide diuretic, supplements containing calcium, milk-alkali syndrome, vitamin D intoxication, infections and idiopathic. We present three cases of severe hypercalcemia of unusual causes in children. The first patient had high fever, poor general condition, weight loss and myalgia. Extensive preliminary investigation did not define the etiology, but a review of medical history revealed prolonged contact with pet bird and a positive serology for Chlamydia confirmed the diagnosis of psittacosis...
April 2017: Jornal Brasileiro de Nefrologia: ʹorgão Oficial de Sociedades Brasileira e Latino-Americana de Nefrologia
Petr Jost, Hana Svobodova, Rudolf Stetina
Sulfur mustard is a highly toxic chemical warfare agent with devastating impact on intoxicated tissues. DNA cross-links are probably the most toxic DNA lesions induced in the cell by sulfur mustard. The comet assay is a very sensitive method for measuring DNA damage. In the present study using the A-549 lung cell line, the comet assay protocol was optimized for indirect detection of DNA cross-links induced by sulfur mustard. The method is based on the additional treatment of the assayed cells containing cross-links with the chemical mutagen, styrene oxide...
July 25, 2015: Chemico-biological Interactions
David B Endres
Hypercalcemia is a relatively common clinical finding. Primary hyperparathyroidism, hypercalcemia associated with malignancy and chronic renal failure (with calcium and vitamin D metabolite treatment or tertiary hyperparathyroidism) are the most common causes. Less common causes of hypercalcemia include vitamin D-related (granulomatous diseases, lymphoma, vitamin D intoxication), other endocrine (thyrotoxicosis), medications (milk-alkali, thiazides, lithium) and other causes (immobilization, familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia)...
August 2012: Clinical Biochemistry
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
1945: Farmakologiia i Toksikologiia
Emmanuelle Bazin, Sylvie Huet, Gérard Jarry, Ludovic Le Hégarat, John S Munday, Andrew R Humpage, Valérie Fessard
Cylindrospermopsin (CYN), a cyanobacterial hepatotoxin mainly produced by Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii, has been involved in human intoxications and livestock deaths. The widespread occurrence of CYN in the water supplies lead us to investigate its genotoxicity to assess potential chronic effects. This study reports evaluation of CYN-induced in vivo DNA damage in mice using alkaline comet assay (ACA) and micronucleus assay (MNA) concomittantly. ACA measures DNA breakage from single and double strand breaks as well as alkali labile sites...
May 2012: Environmental Toxicology
R L Haden, T G Orr
A study of the non-protein nitrogen, urea nitrogen, uric acid, creatinine, amino-acid nitrogen, sugar, and chlorides of the blood and the CO(2)-combining power of the plasma in normal dogs, and in dogs after different types of intestinal obstruction, is reported. Following ligation of the duodenum, ligation of the duodenum with gastroenterostomy, and ligation of the upper half of the ileum, a fall in chlorides and a rise in the non-protein nitrogen and urea nitrogen of the blood and in the CO(2)-combining power of the plasma occur...
February 28, 1923: Journal of Experimental Medicine
W D Macnider
1. A 0.9 per cent solution of sodium chloride when given intravenously to anesthetized naturally nephropathic animals is not effective in preventing the development of an acid intoxication and the associated kidney injury. 2. A solution of sodium carbonate equimolecular with a 0.9 per cent solution of sodium chloride when given intravenously to anesthetized naturally nephropathic animals confers a variable degree of protection to the kidney. 3. The degree of protection conferred by the alkaline solution is associated with the ability of the solution to maintain a normal acid-base equilibrium of the blood of the anesthetized animal...
October 1, 1918: Journal of Experimental Medicine
W D Macnider
A study of the experiments comprising the first group of animals permits the deduction that these animals succumb to the acute poisoning as a result of the shock which the poison induces through its corrosive action in the stomach and intestine. The animals die before the mercury, acting as such during its elimination by the kidney, can induce an acute nephropathy and before the mercury, by inducing an acid intoxication, can lead to an acute kidney injury. The remaining animals of the series, Groups II, III, and IV, have withstood the corrosive action of the poison...
April 1, 1918: Journal of Experimental Medicine
W D Macnider
The outline which has been given of the relative toxicity of Gréhant's anesthetic in normal animals, in animals that were nephropathic from uranium and protected against the anesthetic by an alkaline solution, and in those animals which were unprotected by such a solution, furnishes the basis for the following summary. The kidney of the normal dog is relatively non-susceptible to the toxic action of Gréhant's anesthetic. The kidneys have failed to show any change in their histological structure during the period of anesthesia...
July 1, 1917: Journal of Experimental Medicine
C A Herter
IT SEEMS DESIRABLE TO EMPHASIZE THE FOLLOWING CONCLUSIONS: 1. A careful balancing of the normal acids and bases of the urine makes it possible not merely to detect the presence of organic acids in the urine, but also to determine approximately the amount of such acids. The method recently described by Herter and Wakeman can be recommended as securing a greater degree of accuracy, for the amount of labor involved, than any other procedure. 2. The determination of the N of NH(3) is a useful procedure for clinical purposes, since it is probably true that a considerable excretion of organic acid (say 15 gm...
October 1, 1901: Journal of Experimental Medicine
Shawn A Hamidinia, Bo Tan, Warren L Erdahl, Clifford J Chapman, Richard W Taylor, Douglas R Pfeiffer
The K(+) ionophore nigericin is shown to be highly effective as an ionophore for Pb(2+) but not other divalent cations, including Cu(2+), Zn(2+), Cd(2+), Mn(2+), Co(2+), Ca(2+), Ni(2+), and Sr(2+). Among this group a minor activity for Cu(2+) transport is seen, while for the others activity is near or below the limit of detection. The selectivity of nigericin for Pb(2+) exceeds that of ionomycin or monensin and arises, at least in part, from a high stability of nigericin-Pb(2+) complexes. Plots of log rate vs log Pb(2+) or log ionophore concentration, together with the pH dependency, indicate that nigericin transports Pb(2+) via the species NigPbOH and by a mechanism that is predominately electroneutral...
December 21, 2004: Biochemistry
Mark Purdey
High level contamination by natural and industrial sources of the alkali earth metal, barium (Ba) has been identified in the ecosystems/workplaces that are associated with high incidence clustering of multiple sclerosis (MS) and other neurodegenerative diseases such as the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Analyses of ecosystems supporting the most renowned MS clusters in Saskatchewan, Sardinia, Massachusetts, Colorado, Guam, NE Scotland demonstrated consistently elevated levels of Ba in soils (mean: 1428 ppm) and vegetation (mean: 74 ppm) in relation to mean levels of 345 and 19 ppm recorded in MS-free regions adjoining...
2004: Medical Hypotheses
Toshiya Hirayama
Helicobacter pylori is the leading bacterial cause of food-borne illness worldwide and plays a major role in the development of chronic gastritis, peptic ulcer, and gastric cancer. Strains isolated from patients contain the cagA gene (cytotoxin-associated gene A) and produce the vacuolating cytotoxin VacA. VacA binding to specific high-affinity cell surface receptors was shown by using indirect immunofluorescence and flow cytometry; high-affinity toxin binding was necessary for cell intoxication. A 250-kDa receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase (RPTP) beta served as a receptor for VacA on AZ-521 cells...
December 2002: Keio Journal of Medicine
I Deković, M Curcić, M Molnar, J Dadasović
The authors analyzed attempted and committed suicides with corrosive substances registered at the Department of the General Hospital of the Health Center "Dr. Gere Istvan" in Senta in the period 1968-2000. Out of 42 registered, there were 33 attempted and 9 committed suicides with corrosive substances. In regard to the total number of suicides attempted and committed with poisoning, these poisonings take the last place, that is they come after suicides by drug intoxication, organophosphorus compounds and rodenticides...
March 2001: Medicinski Pregled
Mahara Valverde, Teresa I Fortoul, Fernando Díaz-Barriga, Jesús Mejía, Emilio Rojas del Castillo
Lead is perhaps the longest used and best recognized toxic environmental chemical and it is still being used recklessly. Lead (Pb) has been found to be capable of eliciting a positive response in an extraordinarily wide range of biological and biochemical tests; among them tests for enzyme inhibition, fidelity of DNA synthesis, mutation, chromosomal aberrations, cancer and birth defects. Since inhalation is one of the most important routes of environmental Pb exposure, in the present study a lead inhalation model in mice was implemented in order to detect the induction of genotoxic damage as single-strand breaks and alkali-labile sites in several mouse organs (nasal epithelial cells, lung, whole blood, liver, kidney, bone marrow, brain and testes), assessed by single cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE) or Comet assay...
January 2002: Mutagenesis
R Rahil-Khazen, H Henriksen, B J Bolann, R J Ulvik
The use of inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) for the simultaneous determination of Al, B, Ba, Be, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Li, Mn, Ni, Pb, Se, Sr and Zn in human serum in a clinical laboratory was validated. Samples were digested and then analysed using yttrium as an internal standard and a serum-matched calibration standard. The criteria used to assess the analytical performance of the ICP-AES were detection and quantification limits, linearity, sensitivity, recovery, interference from alkali and acid, trueness and precision...
December 2000: Scandinavian Journal of Clinical and Laboratory Investigation
T Murakami, T Inoue, H Kawakami, H Takahashi, T Yasunaga
We describe a 4 year old girl with acute Aeromonas hydrophila gastro-enteritis who presented with a combination of hypercalcemia, metabolic alkalosis, and renal impairment. Serum parathyroid hormone was not elevated. Both milk-alkali syndrome and intoxication of vitamins A and D were ruled out. The hypercalcemia, metabolic alkalosis, and renal impairment were improved by fluid infusion and intravenous administration of furosemide. Gastro-enteritis also improved with oral administration of the antibiotic norfloxacin...
April 1995: Acta Paediatrica Japonica; Overseas Edition
K Suenaga, S Kotoku
A gas chromatographic method for the detection of tetrodotoxin in autopsy material is described. The derivative (2-amino-6-hydroxymethyl-8-hydroxyquinazoline, C9-base), which was obtained from tetrodotoxin by alkali treatment, was finally detected by gas chromatography. The mass spectra of the trimethysilylated ( TMS) C9-base are presented together with the result of a gas chromatographic investigation of 8 cases of fatal intoxication.
April 1980: Archives of Toxicology
C Y Yung
The alkali metals from the Group IA of the periodic table (lithium, sodium, potassium, rubidium, cesium and francium) are reviewed. The neuropsychiatric aspects of alkali metal deficiencies and excesses (intoxications) are described. Emphasis was placed on lithium due to its clinical uses. The signs and symptoms of these conditions are characterized by features of an organic brain syndrome with delirium and encephalopathy prevailing. There are no clinically distinctive features that could be reliably used for diagnoses...
1984: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
P Eyer, W Hell, A Kawan, H Klehr
HI 6 has been shown to be efficacious in soman intoxication of laboratory animals by reactivation of acetylcholinesterase. To assess possible risks involved in the administration of HI 6 its degradation products were analyzed at pH 2.0, 4.0, 7.4, and 9.0. At pH 2.0, where HI 6 in aqueous solution has its maximal stability, attack on the aminal-acetal bond of the "ether bridge" predominates, with formation of formaldehyde, isonicotinamide, and pyridine-2-aldoxime. Besides, HI 6 decomposes at the oxime group yielding 2-cyanopyridine...
December 1986: Archives of Toxicology
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