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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646468/an-investigation-into-the-association-between-demographic-and-morbidity-factors-and-sleep-disturbance
#1
N Mullane, C Bradley
BACKGROUND: The recognition of sleep disorders is important because in the long term, they are associated with numerous deleterious health outcomes. Despite the high prevalence of sleep disorders, they are widely under-diagnosed at general practice level. AIM: This study aims to investigate the association between demographic and morbidity factors, and self-reported sleep disturbance symptoms. METHODS: A quantitative cross-sectional study design was used...
June 23, 2017: Irish Journal of Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646248/-psychiatric-care-of-refugees-in-africa-and-the-middle-east-challenges-and-solutions
#2
REVIEW
K Adorjan, S Mulugeta, M Odenwald, D M Ndetei, A H Osman, M Hautzinger, S Wolf, M Othman, J I Kizilhan, O Pogarell, T G Schulze
Violence, flight, famine, and natural disasters as well as the absence of a psychosocial healthcare system are major psychological burdens for refugees. The level of provision of mental healthcare is particularly low in developing countries. Internally displaced people and refugees place high demands on the healthcare system because they often suffer from psychiatric disorders, such as depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, and substance use disorders. We present first initiatives to improve psychiatric care in refugee camps in Ethiopia, Kenya, and Sudan...
June 23, 2017: Der Nervenarzt
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645967/the-bipolar-illness-onset-study-research-protocol-for-the-bio-cohort-study
#3
Lars Vedel Kessing, Klaus Munkholm, Maria Faurholt-Jepsen, Kamilla Woznica Miskowiak, Lars Bo Nielsen, Ruth Frikke-Schmidt, Claus Ekstrøm, Ole Winther, Bente Klarlund Pedersen, Henrik Enghusen Poulsen, Roger S McIntyre, Flavio Kapczinski, Wagner F Gattaz, Jakob Bardram, Mads Frost, Oscar Mayora, Gitte Moos Knudsen, Mary Phillips, Maj Vinberg
INTRODUCTION: Bipolar disorder is an often disabling mental illness with a lifetime prevalence of 1%-2%, a high risk of recurrence of manic and depressive episodes, a lifelong elevated risk of suicide and a substantial heritability. The course of illness is frequently characterised by progressive shortening of interepisode intervals with each recurrence and increasing cognitive dysfunction in a subset of individuals with this condition. Clinically, diagnostic boundaries between bipolar disorder and other psychiatric disorders such as unipolar depression are unclear although pharmacological and psychological treatment strategies differ substantially...
June 23, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645966/effectiveness-of-metacognitive-interventions-for-mental-disorders-in-adults-a-systematic-review-protocol-metacog
#4
Franziska Kühne, Ramona Meister, Alessa Jansen, Martin Härter, Steffen Moritz, Levente Kriston
INTRODUCTION: Whereas the efficacy of cognitive-behavioural therapy has been demonstrated for a variety of mental disorders, there is still need for improvement, especially regarding less prevalent or more severe disorders. Recently, metacognitive interventions have been developed and are now available for a variety of diagnoses. Still, a systematic review investigating the effectiveness of different metacognitive interventions for various mental disorders is missing. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: Randomised controlled trials (RCTs), cross-over and cluster RCTs and non-randomised controlled trials on metacognitive interventions (ie, metacognitive therapy, metacognitive training, others) in adults with any mental disorder will be included...
June 22, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645076/does-reflective-functioning-mediate-the-relationship-between-attachment-and-personality
#5
Maria Paola Nazzaro, Tommaso Boldrini, Annalisa Tanzilli, Laura Muzi, Guido Giovanardi, Vittorio Lingiardi
Mentalization, operationalized as reflective functioning (RF), can play a crucial role in the psychological mechanisms underlying personality functioning. This study aimed to: (a) study the association between RF, personality disorders (cluster level) and functioning; (b) investigate whether RF and personality functioning are influenced by (secure vs. insecure) attachment; and (c) explore the potential mediating effect of RF on the relationship between attachment and personality functioning. The Shedler-Westen Assessment Procedure (SWAP-200) was used to assess personality disorders and levels of psychological functioning in a clinical sample (N = 88)...
June 15, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644856/estimating-psychopathological-networks-be-careful-what-you-wish-for
#6
Sacha Epskamp, Joost Kruis, Maarten Marsman
Network models, in which psychopathological disorders are conceptualized as a complex interplay of psychological and biological components, have become increasingly popular in the recent psychopathological literature (Borsboom, et. al., 2011). These network models often contain significant numbers of unknown parameters, yet the sample sizes available in psychological research are limited. As such, general assumptions about the true network are introduced to reduce the number of free parameters. Incorporating these assumptions, however, means that the resulting network will lead to reflect the particular structure assumed by the estimation method-a crucial and often ignored aspect of psychopathological networks...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644427/mental-diseases-and-criminal-offences-committed-by-persons-placed-at-the-forensic-department-of-the-penitentiary-in-zenica-federation-of-bosnia-and-herzegovina
#7
Edin Bjelošević, Adisa Krehmić, Halima Hadžikapetanović, Sanel Čoralić, Sonja Bjelošević
Aim To investigate an impact of various biological, psychological and social factors on perpetration of criminal offences by persons with mental disorders and to examine legal requirements for placement of persons with mental disorders, who committed criminal offences. Methods This retrospective, descriptive study based on the analysis of data collected from records of the Zenica Penitentiary, Forensic Department (age, qualifications, employment status, marital status, mental disorders, information related to earlier treatments, type of committed criminal offense, duration of the security measure of mandatory psychiatric treatment and custody) included 154 examinees...
August 1, 2017: Medicinski Glasnik
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643845/on-the-advancement-of-therapeutic-penality-therapeutic-authority-personality-science-and-the-therapeutic-community
#8
Ruari-Santiago McBride
In this article I examine the advancement of therapeutic penality in the UK, a penal philosophy that reimagines prison policy, practices and environments utilising psychological knowledge. Adopting a historical approach, I show how modern therapeutic penality is linked to the emergence of personality science in the nineteenth century and the development of the democratic therapeutic community (DTC) model in the twentieth century. I outline how at the turn of the twenty-first century a catalytic event generated a moral panic that led the British government to mobilise psychological knowledge and technologies in an attempt to manage dangerous people with severe personality disorder...
June 23, 2017: Sociology of Health & Illness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643811/-from-mild-cognitive-impairment-to-dementia-what-is-the-role-of-public-health
#9
Nicola Vanacore, Alessandra Di Pucchio, Eleonora Lacorte, Ilaria Bacigalupo, Flavia Mayer, Giulia Grande, Matteo Cesari, Marco Canevelli
Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is a nosological entity proposed by Petersen in 1999 with the objective of identifying an early stage of dementia. The new diagnostic criteria for dementia, both those promoted by the International Working Group (IWG) and those defined by the National Institute of Aging (NIA), subsequently introduced a new model that starts with a preclinical phase, then proceeds with a prodromal phase, and ends with a phase of dementia. The condition known as subjective cognitive disorder (SCD) is included between the preclinic and the prodromal phases...
May 2017: Recenti Progressi in Medicina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642125/safety-and-efficacy-of-dual-lead-thalamic-deep-brain-stimulation-for-patients-with-treatment-refractory-multiple-sclerosis-tremor-a-single-centre-randomised-single-blind-pilot-trial
#10
Seth F Oliveria, Ramon L Rodriguez, Dawn Bowers, Daniel Kantor, Justin D Hilliard, Erin H Monari, Bonnie M Scott, Michael S Okun, Kelly D Foote
BACKGROUND: Efficacy in previous studies of surgical treatments of refractory multiple sclerosis tremor using lesioning or deep brain stimulation (DBS) has been variable. The aim of this study was to investigate the safety and efficacy of dual-lead thalamic DBS (one targeting the ventralis intermedius-ventralis oralis posterior nucleus border [the VIM lead] and one targeting the ventralis oralis anterior-ventralis oralis posterior border [the VO lead]) for the treatment of multiple sclerosis tremor...
June 19, 2017: Lancet Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641572/a-child-with-hypertension-and-ambiguous-genitalia-an-uncommon-variant-of-congenital-adrenal-hyperplasia-a-case-report
#11
Vivek Pant, Suman Baral, Bishal Shrestha, Arjun Tumbapo
BACKGROUND: Deficiency in 11β-hydroxylase as a cause of congenital adrenal hyperplasia is uncommon. It should be considered in the differential diagnosis of hypertension with virilization in any prepubescent child. CASE PRESENTATION: A 12-year-old Asian boy from eastern Nepal presented with pain in his abdomen and hypertension. He was raised as a male but had absent testicles since birth and had precocious puberty. Plasma testosterone, follicle-stimulating hormone, and luteinizing hormone were below baseline level...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639383/longitudinal-associations-between-low-morning-cortisol-in-infancy-and-anger-dysregulation-in-early-childhood-in-a-cps-referred-sample
#12
Allison Frost, Caitlin Jelinek, Kristin Bernard, Teresa Lind, Mary Dozier
Children who experience early adversity are at increased risk for developing psychopathology, and dysfunction of the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis is a possible mechanism conferring this risk. This study sought to characterize the association between morning cortisol during different developmental periods and deficits in children's emotion regulation, a core feature of many psychological disorders. Morning cortisol was collected at two time points (i.e., during infancy, M = 13.0 months old, and during early childhood, M = 36...
June 21, 2017: Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639313/change-in-attachment-states-of-mind-of-women-with-binge-eating-disorder
#13
Hilary Maxwell, Giorgio A Tasca, Renee Grenon, Kerri Ritchie, Hany Bissada, Louise Balfour
Insecure and unresolved/disorganized attachment states of mind may impact affect regulation and interpersonal functioning that contribute to binge eating in women with binge-eating disorder (BED). Group psychological treatment may facilitate changes from insecure to secure and from unresolved-disorganized to non-unresolved/disorganized attachment states of mind. This study used attachment theory to understand better the psychopathology of BED and co-morbid overweight status and to understand better the treatment response of patients with BED who receive group psychotherapy...
June 21, 2017: Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638959/-psychotraumatology-differentiation-extension-and-public-discourse
#14
REVIEW
A Maercker, M Augsburger
The first description of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in the 1980s marked the origin of psychotraumatology. Based on the variety of developments in the meantime and being relevant for basic research and clinical application, a differentiation of diagnoses according to the new International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11) are presented including PTSD, complex PTSD, prolonged grief disorder and adjustment disorder. In addition, extension towards traumatic and adverse childhood experiences and their significance for lifetime mental and somatic morbidity are described...
June 21, 2017: Der Nervenarzt
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638703/childhood-trauma-and-negative-memory-bias-as-shared-risk-factors-for-psychopathology-and-comorbidity-in-a-naturalistic-psychiatric-patient-sample
#15
Janna N Vrijsen, Camiel T van Amen, Bauke Koekkoek, Iris van Oostrom, Aart H Schene, Indira Tendolkar
BACKGROUND: Both childhood trauma and negative memory bias are associated with the onset and severity level of several psychiatric disorders, such as depression and anxiety disorders. Studies on these risk factors, however, generally use homogeneous noncomorbid samples. Hence, studies in naturalistic psychiatric samples are lacking. Moreover, we know little about the quantitative relationship between the frequency of traumatic childhood events, strength of memory bias and number of comorbid psychiatric disorders; the latter being an index of severity...
June 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638686/rheumatoid-arthritis-are-psychological-factors-effective-in-disease-flare
#16
Volkan Yılmaz, Ebru Umay, İbrahim Gündoğdu, Zeliha Özgür Karaahmet, Arif Erhan Öztürk
OBJECTIVE: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is clinically an undulant disease, and reasons for flare or remission vary. We aimed to identify factors potentially associated with disease flare and remission. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Two hundred and seventy-four patients with RA who were admitted to our center between January 2010 and January 2016 were included. Disease activity was evaluated using disease activity score 28 (DAS 28); functional status was evaluated using the modified Health Assessment Questionnaire (m-HAQ), a questionnaire that comprises flare or remission domains such as psychological stress and mood status, physical trauma, nutrition regimen, infection, antibiotic use, and seasonal weather changes...
June 2017: European Journal of Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638212/choking-phobia-an-uncommon-phobic-disorder-treated-with-behavior-therapy-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#17
Swapnajeet Sahoo, Nandita Hazari, Susanta Kumar Padhy
Choking phobia is a relatively uncommon phobic disorder which is often encountered by otorhinolaryngologists and referred to psychiatrists as a cause of psychogenic dysphagia. If not diagnosed early and treated appropriately, it can have severe detrimental effects on the physical and psychological health of an individual. We present a case of a 20 year old female who presented with choking phobia and was treated with behavior therapy. Additionally, we discuss the differential diagnosis and treatment strategies of this rare anxiety disorder...
December 25, 2016: Shanghai Archives of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638024/-diagnosis-and-treatment-of-cognitive-impairment-in-adults-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#18
L S Chutko, S Yu Surushkina, E A Yakovenko, Yu D Kropotov, A V Sergeev
AIM: To qualify cognitive impairment in adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and evaluate the efficacy of memoplant in the treatment of this pathology. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The authors present the results of the clinical, psychological and electroencephalographic examination of 40 patients with ADHD, aged from 18 to 45 years. All patients received memoplant in dose of 240 mg a day for 8 weeks. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Adult patients with ADHD were characterized by both subjective and objective disorders of memory and attention...
2017: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637817/the-neural-mechanisms-able-to-predict-future-emotion-regulation-decisions
#19
Robert Colin Alan Bendall
Emotion regulation is crucial in maintaining healthy psychological wellbeing, and its dysregulation is often linked to a range of neuropsychiatric disorders including depression. The neurobiological underpinnings of cognitive reappraisal, an emotion regulation strategy, have been shown to include the amygdala and regions of the prefrontal cortex. A novel study by Dore, Weber, and Ochsner (2017) has demonstrated that neural activity in these regions during uninstructed visualization of affective stimuli can successfully predict which individuals are more likely to subsequently employ emotion regulation, and under what circumstances...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637536/mental-health-morbidity-among-people-subject-to-immigration-detention-in-the-uk-a-feasibility-study
#20
P Sen, J Arugnanaseelan, E Connell, C Katona, A A Khan, P Moran, K Robjant, K Slade, J Tan, K Widyaratna, J Youd, A Forrester
AIMS: The UK has one of the largest systems of immigration detention in Europe.. Those detained include asylum-seekers and foreign national prisoners, groups with a higher prevalence of mental health vulnerabilities compared with the general population. In light of little published research on the mental health status of detainees in immigration removal centres (IRCs), the primary aim of this study was to explore whether it was feasible to conduct psychiatric research in such a setting...
June 22, 2017: Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences
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