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Psychological disorders

Stefanie Franke, Christine Kalweit, Annelene Frey, Hanna Heddergott, Astrid-Christine Mitschke, Matthias Wehrmeyer, Nina Heinrichs, Christoph Kröger
AIM OF THE STUDY: Coping with psychological trauma plays a central role in victims of acts of violence. The Victim Reparation Law (in German: Opferentschädigungsgesetz, OEG) provides services for the reparation of participation. To further improve the care of the affected persons, the characteristics of the victims were determined in relation to the acts and the perpetrators. METHOD: 312 OEG-files of adult victims were sighted. On the basis of a system of categories, demographic data, trauma specific and health-related characteristics of the victims, relevant characteristics of the perpetrators and the violence, as well as predictors for the time difference between the violent act and the application were determined...
June 22, 2018: Psychotherapie, Psychosomatik, Medizinische Psychologie
L R Tavares, M R Barbosa
BACKGROUND: Geriatric depression is a common and debilitating psychopathology, but evidence supports the efficacy of psychotherapy in its treatment. Group therapy provides advantages over individual interventions. However, only three systematic reviews have focused specifically on the efficacy of group therapy for geriatric depression. OBJECTIVE: To ascertain the effects of group psychotherapy on geriatric depression in people aged 60 years and older, compared with alternative treatments or no treatment...
June 18, 2018: Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics
Ylenia Nicolini, Antonella Tramacere, Stefano Parmigiani, Harold Dadomo
In this review, we analyze erectile dysfunction (ED) in the context of sexual selection. We highlight that ED is a specific human male characteristic linked to the loss of the baculum or penile bone and results from a range of physical and psychological factors. We discuss evolutionary interpretations that consider dysfunctional penile erection as an honest signal of a low-quality male. We further emphasize the importance of considering psychosocial context and early attachment dynamics for understanding the etiology of some types of ED...
June 22, 2018: Journal of Sex Research
Silvia Lai, Alessio Molfino, Oriano Mecarelli, Patrizia Pulitano, Santo Morabito, Valentina Pistolesi, Roberto Romanello, Alessia Zarabla, Alessandro Galani, Nicla Frassetti, Paola Aceto, Carlo Lai
Neurological, psychological, and cognitive disorders in chronic kidney disease may contribute to poor quality of life in these patients. The aim of this study was to assess the electroencephalographic, psychological, and cognitive changes before and after hemodialysis (HD) compared with healthy controls (HC). Sixteen HD patients and 15 HC were enrolled. Electroencephalogram (EEG), Minnesota multiphasic personality inventory (MMPI-2) Satisfaction profile (SAT-P), and Neuropsychological test Global z-scores (NPZ5) were performed before (T0) and after (T1) HD treatment and in HC...
June 22, 2018: Therapeutic Apheresis and Dialysis
Marwa Mohamed Zalat, Eman Mohamed Mortada, Omnia Samir El Seifi
This study was conducted to assess the level of mental health difference between working and non-working women, to explore their stigma and attitude toward seeking psychological help for mental-health problems. World Health Organization's Self-reporting questionnaire (SRQ-20), adoption of Discrimination-Devaluation scale (D-D) scale for measuring self-stigma and attitude toward Seeking Mental Health Services (IASMHS) Inventory were used. The sampled teachers reported a higher attitude towards seeking mental health services when compared to housewives...
June 21, 2018: Community Mental Health Journal
Sunyoung Park, Hyera Ryu, Ji-Yoon Lee, Aruem Choi, Dai-Jin Kim, Sung Nyun Kim, Jung-Seok Choi
Aims: The present study investigated neural connectivity associated with treatment responses in patients with Internet gaming disorder (IGD) using resting-state electroencephalography (EEG) coherence analyses. Methods: We included 30 patients with IGD and 32 healthy control subjects (HCs). Of the IGD patients, 18 completed an outpatient treatment that included pharmacotherapy with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors for 6 months. Resting-state EEG coherence and self-report questionnaires were used to evaluate clinical and psychological features pre- and post-treatment, and data were analyzed using generalized estimating equations...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Kenneth S Kendler, Henrik Ohlsson, Silviu Bacanu, Jan Sundquist, Kristina Sundquist
Previous high-risk family designs in psychiatry have focused largely on offspring of affected parents. We take a pedigree-based approach and examine the social, psychological, and psychiatric features of offspring from extended pedigrees selected for high-densities of alcohol use disorder (AUD) or drug abuse (DA). We identified, from the Swedish population, 665,715 pedigrees containing a mean of 17.9 parents, aunts/uncles, grandparents, and cousins of a core full-sibship we term the pedigree offspring. We then derived 13 empirical classes of these pedigrees based on the density of cases of AUD and DA...
June 21, 2018: Molecular Psychiatry
Solveig Glestad Christiansen, Anne Line Bretteville-Jensen
BACKGROUND: There has been an absolute and relative increase in the number of patients with cannabis-related disorders as the principal diagnosis in many countries in recent years. Cannabis is now the most frequently mentioned problem drug reported by new patients in Europe, and cannabis patients constituted one third of all drug treatment patients in 2015. There is limited knowledge with regard to patient characteristics, the extent and types of health and psychosocial problems, as well as their association with long-term outcomes...
June 22, 2018: BMC Public Health
Fujika Katsuki, Hiroshi Takeuchi, Takahiko Inagaki, Tohru Maeda, Yosuke Kubota, Nao Shiraishi, Hideaki Tabuse, Tadashi Kato, Atsurou Yamada, Norio Watanabe, Tatsuo Akechi, Toshiaki A Furukawa
BACKGROUND: Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a common and often chronic problem. Patients with chronic MDD often have negative impacts on the health of their families. Family psychoeducation is recognized as part of the optimal treatment for patients with psychotic disorder, and has been shown to reduce the rate of relapse in individuals with schizophrenia and to reduce the burden on their caregivers. Thus, we predict that family psychoeducation has the potential to reduce the burden on the caregivers of patients with chronic MDD...
June 22, 2018: BMC Psychiatry
Laura M Heath, Jill Torrie, Kathryn J Gill
OBJECTIVE: This study examined the physical and mental health of Cree adults, as well as the personal, clinical, and environmental factors associated with the presence of lifetime anxiety and mood disorders. METHODS: Mental health was assessed using the computerised version of the Diagnostic Interview Schedule (CDIS-IV), and standardised instruments were used to assess physical health, addiction severity, and psychological distress in 506 randomly selected participants from 4 Northern Cree communities in Quebec...
January 1, 2018: Canadian Journal of Psychiatry. Revue Canadienne de Psychiatrie
Preethi Premkumar, Juliana Onwumere, Lucy Betts, Fränze Kibowski, Elizabeth Kuipers
Schizotypal traits are a cluster of personality styles suggesting a potential liability for schizophrenia-spectrum disorders. Interpersonal schizotypal traits include cognitive disorganisation which consists of social anxiety, and introvertive anhedonia which consists of a lack of pleasure in social activities. Rejection sensitivity is evident all along this continuum. This study aimed to determine whether psychosocial quality of life (QOL), neuroticism and agreeableness mediates the relation between schizotypy and rejection sensitivity...
June 5, 2018: Psychiatry Research
Kiook Baek, Seonhee Yang, Miyoung Lee, Insung Chung
Background: Many studies have reported negative psychological or physical effects of emotional labor. Relationship between work-related musculoskeletal disorder and psychosocial factors has been reported. To manage organizational and psychosocial factors of musculoskeletal disorder with work place intervention among emotional laborers, the factors contributing to musculoskeletal pain must be identified and clarified. Methods: Data from the fourth Korean Working Conditions Survey was analyzed...
June 2018: Safety and Health At Work
Karolis Baronas, Tautvydas Rančelis, Aidas Pranculis, Ingrida Domarkienė, Laima Ambrozaitytė, Vaidutis Kučinskas
Background: Alcohol use disorder (AUD) is a chronic relapsing brain disease characterized by compulsive alcohol use, loss of control over alcohol intake, and a negative emotional state when not using (1). Abusive alcohol consumption directly affects a person's physical and psychological health and social life. The World Health Organization has shown that Lithuania is a leading country in pure alcohol consumption in the world (2). The aim of this study is to find novel genome variants that are associated with the AUD in the Lithuanian cohort...
2018: Acta Medica Lituanica
Wallace Jones, William Silkworth, Nathaniel Dusto, Victoria S Pelak, Jean Berliner, Isabelle Buard, Benzi Kluger
Here we present a patient with persistent central visual oscillopsia, review the literature on this condition, and report results from an experimental intervention using repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation. A 57-year-old man reported persistent visual oscillopsia after a traumatic brain injury suffered 20 years earlier. Symptoms were presumed to be of cortical origin given his normal eye movements, eye stability, and peripheral vestibular function. Furthermore, he reported oscillopsia with visual imagery during eye closure...
June 2018: Cognitive and Behavioral Neurology: Official Journal of the Society for Behavioral and Cognitive Neurology
L S Chutko, S Yu Surushkina, E A Yakovenko, A V Sergeev, A V Rozhkova
AIM: To assess cognitive and emotional disorders in children of primary school age who have a history of specific language impairment (SLI). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Eighty-six children, aged 7-9 years, who were previously studied at age of 3-6 years with a diagnosis of SLI with a predominant disorder of expressive speech, were examined. Common neurological examination, psychological and psychometric testing were performed. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Clinical manifestations of the developmental disorder of expressive speech of moderate degree remained in 19...
2018: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
Steven A Safren, Aaron J Blashill, Jasper S Lee, Conall O'Cleirigh, Julia Tomassili, Katie B Biello, Matthew J Mimiaga, Kenneth H Mayer
OBJECTIVE: Among men who have sex with men (MSM), HIV sexual risk and poor self-care behavior is associated with syndemics, or co-occurring psychosocial problems. Though prior research has demonstrated an additive total effect of syndemics on HIV risk behavior and infection, mostly within cross-sectional designs, it is possible that these associations are not direct but rather that syndemics disrupt relevant individual-level mediating psychological variables. One of the more common individual-level psychological variables that predicts health behavior generally, and HIV risk behavior specifically, is self-efficacy...
June 21, 2018: Health Psychology: Official Journal of the Division of Health Psychology, American Psychological Association
Ken Yonezawa, Shunsuke Nonaka, Yuka Iwakura, Yuka Kusano, Yuko Funamoto, Nobukazu Kanchi, Naohiro Yamaguchi, Yuko Kusumoto, Akira Imamura, Hiroki Ozawa
Several studies report that patients with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have a low plasma concentration of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). Since fish intake varies among countries and is high in Japan, those results may not apply to Japanese patients with ADHD. However, there is currently not enough evidence to support this. We compared the plasma PUFAs levels of patients with ADHD with the standard reference levels for healthy subjects, and examined the relationship between those PUFAs levels and the subject's psychological evaluation...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Neural Transmission
Arinobu Hori, Tomohiro Morita, Izumi Yoshida, Masaharu Tsubokura
Cognitive-behavioural therapy is a first-line treatment for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), but it is difficult to implement in disaster settings. We report the case of an 80-year-old Japanese woman, who was diagnosed with PTSD after the 2011 triple disaster (earthquake, tsunami and nuclear plant accident) in Fukushima. Her recovery was greatly enhanced by the social support she received while living in Idobata-Nagaya community housing, established by Soma city in Fukushima, where residents could naturally discuss their traumatic experiences...
June 19, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
Sandra Diminic, Mary Bartram
OBJECTIVE: Provincial and territorial governments are considering how best to improve access to psychotherapy from the current patchwork of programmes. To achieve the best value for money, new funding needs to reach a wider population rather than simply replacing services funded through insurance benefits. We considered lessons for Canada from the relative uptake of private insurance and public funding for allied health psychotherapy in Australia. METHOD: We analysed published administrative claims data from 2003-2004 to 2014-2015 on Australian privately insured psychologist services, publicly insured psychotherapy under the 'Better Access' initiative, and public grant funding for psychotherapy through the 'Access to Allied Psychological Services' programme...
January 1, 2018: Canadian Journal of Psychiatry. Revue Canadienne de Psychiatrie
Paul Faulkner, Dara G Ghahremani, Rachel F Tyndale, Gerhard Hellemann, Edythe D London
Background: Although nicotine alters serotonergic neurochemistry, clinical trials of serotonergic medications for smoking cessation have provided mixed results. Understanding the role of serotonergic dysfunction in tobacco use disorder may advance development of novel pharmacotherapies. Methods: Functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to measure resting-state functional connectivity of the raphe nuclei as an indicator of serotonergic function. Connectivity of the dorsal and median raphe nuclei was compared between 18 young smokers (briefly-abstinent, ~40 minutes post-smoking) and 19 young non-smokers (16-21 years old); connectivity was also examined in a separate sample of overnight-abstinent smokers (18-25 years old), before and after smoking the first cigarette of the day...
June 19, 2018: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
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