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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102105/pitching-form-determines-probabilistic-structure-of-errors-in-pitch-location
#1
Masahiro Shinya, Shinji Tsuchiya, Yousuke Yamada, Kimitaka Nakazawa, Kazutoshi Kudo, Shingo Oda
According to recent motor control studies, it is important to know probabilistic structure of his/her own motor errors to choose an optimal motor plan (i.e., where you aim at) to maximise the expected gain. In this study, we questioned if pitching form determines the probabilistic structure of pitching errors in baseball pitchers. Eighteen collegiate baseball pitchers with various pitching forms including right- and left-handed overarm, sidearm and underarm throwers threw 100 pitches aiming at a target located 90 cm above the ground...
January 19, 2017: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095807/comparison-of-developmental-milestone-attainment-in-early-treated-hiv-infected-infants-versus-hiv-unexposed-infants-a-prospective-cohort-study
#2
Sarah Benki-Nugent, Dalton Wamalwa, Agnes Langat, Kenneth Tapia, Judith Adhiambo, Daisy Chebet, Helen Moraa Okinyi, Grace John-Stewart
BACKGROUND: Infant HIV infection is associated with delayed milestone attainment. The extent to which effective antiretroviral therapy (ART) prevents these delays is not well defined. METHODS: Ages at attainment of milestones were compared between HIV-infected (initiated ART by age <5 months), and HIV-unexposed uninfected (HUU) infants. Kaplan Meier analyses were used to estimate and compare (log-rank tests) ages at milestones between groups. Adjusted analyses were performed using Cox proportional hazards models...
January 17, 2017: BMC Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095019/elbow-injuries-in-adult-overhead-athletes
#3
Tony T Wong, Dana J Lin, Rama S Ayyala, Jonathan K Kazam
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this article is to review common elbow injuries found in overhead athletes with focus on mechanism, clinical features, imaging appearance, and treatment options. CONCLUSION: The overhead throwing motion subjects the elbow to a variety of complex forces, which places both osseous and soft-tissue structures at high risk for injury.
January 17, 2017: AJR. American Journal of Roentgenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091799/prenatal-risk-factors-and-the-etiology-of-adhd-review-of-existing-evidence
#4
REVIEW
Emma Sciberras, Melissa Mulraney, Desiree Silva, David Coghill
While it is well accepted that attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a highly heritable disorder, not all of the risk is genetic. It is estimated that between 10 and 40% of the variance associated with ADHD is likely to be accounted for by environmental factors. There is considerable interest in the role that the prenatal environment might play in the development of ADHD with previous reviews concluding that despite demonstration of associations between prenatal risk factors (e.g. prematurity, maternal smoking during pregnancy) and ADHD, there remains insufficient evidence to support a definite causal relationship...
January 2017: Current Psychiatry Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090144/maximal-power-training-induced-different-improvement-in-throwing-velocity-and-muscle-strength-according-to-playing-positions-in-elite-male-handball-players
#5
M Cherif, H Chtourou, N Souissi, A Aouidet, K Chamari
This study was designed to assess the effect of strength and power training on throwing velocity and muscle strength in handball players according to their playing positions. Twenty-two male handball players were assigned to either an experimental group (n=11) or a control group (n=11) (age: 22.1 ± 3.0 years). They were asked to complete (i) the ball throwing velocity test and (ii) the one-repetition maximum (1-RM) tests for the half-back squat, the pull-over, the bench press, the developed neck, and the print exercises before and after 12 weeks of maximal power training...
December 2016: Biology of Sport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090141/do-maximal-aerobic-power-and-blood-lactate-concentration-affect-specific-judo-fitness-test-performance-in-female-judo-athletes
#6
H Garbouj, M A Selmi, R Haj Sassi, M Haj Yahmed, K Chamari, A Chaouachi
The Special Judo Fitness Test (SJFT) has become the test most widely used by coaches and physical trainers for assessment of competitors' judo-specific physical aptitude and training programme prescription. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between the SJFT performance indices and both maximal aerobic power and the level of blood lactate concentrations in female judo athletes. Seventeen female judokas (age: 21.9±1.6 years, body mass: 74.6±27.4 kg, height: 164.5±8.6 cm; BMI: 27.1±8...
December 2016: Biology of Sport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079648/acute-response-of-the-infraspinatus-and-biceps-tendons-to-pitching-in-youth-baseball
#7
Adam Popchak, Nathan Hogaboom, Dharmesh Vyas, John Abt, Anthony Delitto, James J Irrgang, Michael Boninger
PURPOSE: Youth baseball frequently results in repetitive strain injuries. Quantitative ultrasound allows real-time imaging with the ability to identify acute markers of tendon change. The study objective was to determine acute quantitative ultrasound changes in the long head of the biceps and infraspinatus tendons of the throwing and non-throwing shoulders during a pitching performance. We hypothesized the tendons of the pitching arm would exhibit an increased width and decreased echogenicity after pitching and that tendons of the non-pitching arm would not demonstrate such changes...
January 11, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060814/glenohumeral-joint-kinematics-following-clavicular-fracture-and-repairs
#8
Claudio Rosso, Michael Nasr, Kempland C Walley, Ethan R Harlow, Babak Haghpanah, Ashkan Vaziri, Arun J Ramappa, Ara Nazarian, Joseph P DeAngelis
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this biomechanical study was to determine the effect of shortened clavicle malunion on the center of rotation of the glenohumeral (GH) joint, and the capacity of repair to restore baseline kinematics. METHODS: Six shoulders underwent automated abduction (ABD) and abbreviated throwing motion (ATM) using a 7-DoF automated upper extremity testing system in combination with an infrared motion capture system to measure the center of rotation of the GH joint...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056637/triple-play-additive-contributions-of-enhanced-expectancies-autonomy-support-and-external-attentional-focus-to-motor-learning
#9
Gabriele Wulf, Rebecca Lewthwaite, Priscila Cardozo, Suzete Chiviacowsky
In the OPTIMAL theory of motor learning (Wulf & Lewthwaite, 2016), 3 factors are postulated to facilitate learning: Enhanced expectancies (EE) for performance, autonomy support (AS), and an external focus (EF) of attention. Enhancing learners' expectancies for future performance (e. g., through positive feedback) benefits learning. Further, supporting learners' need for autonomy (e.g., by giving them choices) has been found to promote learning. Finally, directing learners' attention to the intended movement effect (external focus) has beneficial effects for learning...
January 5, 2017: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28055009/expression-of-adenoviral-e1a-throws-the-pidd-switch
#10
Jay R Radke, James L Cook
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 5, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051932/social-learning-and-culture-in-child-and-chimpanzee
#11
Andrew Whiten
A few decades ago, we knew next to nothing about the behavior of our closest animal relative, the chimpanzee, but long-term field studies have since revealed an undreamed-of richness in the diversity of their cultural traditions across Africa. These discoveries have been complemented by a substantial suite of experimental studies, now bridging to the wild through field experiments. These field and experimental studies, particularly those in which direct chimpanzee-child comparisons have been made, delineate a growing set of commonalities between the phenomena of social learning and culture in the lives of chimpanzees and humans...
January 3, 2017: Annual Review of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050917/acute-caffeine-ingestion-on-performance-in-young-judo-athletes
#12
Camilla Astley, Diego Souza, Marcos Polito
PURPOSE: To compare the acute effect of caffeine ingestion on performance in young judo athletes. METHODS: In a randomized double-blind design, eighteen judo athletes (16.1 ± 1.4 yrs.) were evaluated on three nonconsecutive days. On the first day, the special judo fitness test (SJFT) was used as a control session. On the second day, the sample was randomly divided into two equal groups. One group received 4 mg.kg(-1) of caffeine (capsule) and the other group received a placebo...
January 4, 2017: Pediatric Exercise Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045528/insights-into-the-thermal-eliminations-and-photoeliminations-of-b-n-heterocycles-a-theoretical-study
#13
Wen-Jie Wu, Quan-Song Li, Ze-Sheng Li
Understanding the photochemistry of organoboron compounds is essential to expand optoelectronic applications. In this work, the complete active space self-consistent field (CASSCF) and its second-order perturbation (CASPT2) methods combining with density functional theory (DFT) have been employed to investigate the elimination mechanisms of compound 6,7-dihydro-5(4)-benzo[d]pyrido[2,1-f][1,2]azaborininr (B4) on the ground state (S0) and the first excited state (S1). B4 is one of the 1,2-B,N-heterocycles that undergo competitive thermal elimination and photoelimination depending on the substitution groups on the B atom and the chelate backbone, thus providing a high-selectivity synthesis strategy for luminescent compounds...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040085/upper-limb-non-unions-treated-with-bmp-7-efficacy-and-clinical-results
#14
Rahul Singh, Sabri Bleibleh, Nikolaos K Kanakaris, Peter V Giannoudis
The management of upper limb non-unions can be challenging and often with unpredictable outcomes. In this study we present our experience with the use of BMP-7 in the treatment of upper limb non-unions. Between 2004 and 2011 all consecutive patients who were treated with BMP-7 were followed up prospectively until fracture union. Fracture union was assessed with regular radiological and clinical assessment. At the final follow up clinical assessment included the short Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH) score...
December 2016: Injury
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28036184/discovering-a-first-order-phase-transition-in-li-ceo2-system
#15
Kaikai Li, Xiaoye Zhou, Anmin Nie, Sheng Sun, Yan-Bing He, Wei Ren, Baohua Li, Feiyu Kang, Jang-Kyo Kim, Tong-Yi Zhang
An in-depth understanding of (de)lithiation induced phase transition in electrode materials is crucial to grasp their structure-property relationships and provide guidance to the design of more desirable electrodes. By operando synchrotron XRD (SXRD) measurement and Density Functional Theory (DFT) based calculations, we discover a reversible first-order phase transition for the first time during (de)lithiation of CeO2 nanoparticles. The LixCeO2 compound phase is identified to possess the same fluorite crystal structure with FM3M space group as that of the pristine CeO2 nanoparticles...
December 30, 2016: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035865/effect-of-contact-and-no-contact-small-sided-games-on-elite-handball-players
#16
Antonio Dello Iacono, Domenico Martone, Alessandro Moura Zagatto, Yoav Meckel, Mahmood Sindiani, Mirjana Milic, Johnny Padulo
This study aimed to investigate the effect of contact (C-SSG) and no-contact (NC-SSG) handball small-sided games (SSGs) on motion patterns and physiological responses of elite handball players. Twelve male handball players performed 10 C-SSG and 10 NC-SSG while being monitored through the heart rate (HR) and rate of perceived exertion (RPE) as physiological responses and time-motion activities profile using video-match analysis. Both game conditions resulted in similar HR responses (P > 0.05), but the NC-SSG led to a higher RPE scores...
December 30, 2016: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032029/evaluation-and-treatment-of-internal-impingement-of-the-shoulder-in-overhead-athletes
#17
REVIEW
Keith T Corpus, Christopher L Camp, David M Dines, David W Altchek, Joshua S Dines
One of the most common pathologic processes seen in overhead throwing athletes is posterior shoulder pain resulting from internal impingement. "Internal impingement" is a term used to describe a constellation of symptoms which result from the greater tuberosity of the humerus and the articular surface of the rotator cuff abutting the posterosuperior glenoid when the shoulder is in an abducted and externally rotated position. The pathophysiology in symptomatic internal impingement is multifactorial, involving physiologic shoulder remodeling, posterior capsular contracture, and scapular dyskinesis...
December 18, 2016: World Journal of Orthopedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031762/effects-of-fatigue-on-throwing-performance-in-experienced-team-handball-players
#18
Alberto Nuño, Ignacio J Chirosa, Roland van den Tillaar, Rafael Guisado, Ignacio Martín, Isidoro Martinez, Luis J Chirosa
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of central and peripheral physiological fatigue on throwing accuracy and ball release velocity in team handball. Twenty male subjects (age 24.7 ± 3.9 yrs, body mass 88.5 ± 5.0 kg, body height 1.86 ± 0.05 m, training experience 12.7 ± 3.8 yrs) from one handball team participated in this study. The participants completed four sets of eight laps of a circuit that consisted of specific team handball drills/exercises, with decreasing recovery times between the laps in each set in order to induce physiological fatigue...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Human Kinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031601/undergraduate-pharmacology-curriculum-at-an-international-medical-college-in-india
#19
Vasudha Devi, Vishal Bhat, Ganesh K Shenoy
Pharmacology is an important aspect of rational therapeutics. There has been a long-standing need for a change in the undergraduate medical curriculum of pharmacology. A review of literature throws up different approaches to improve the curriculum and to provide more importance to conceptualization and relevance to clinical practice. This article describes the undergraduate pharmacology curriculum which is revised to meet the needs of our unique status as an international medical college in India. We highlight how our curriculum prepares the students for future clinical practice by inculcating higher cognitive skills and soft skills...
October 2016: Indian Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028836/does-physical-education-influence-eye-hand-coordination-the-lifestyles-of-our-kids-intervention-study
#20
L J Wicks, R M Telford, R B Cunningham, S J Semple, R D Telford
In Australian government-funded primary schools, the responsibility for physical education (PE) falls mainly on general classroom teachers, many of whom possess limited PE training. This study sought to examine the impact of specialist-taught PE on eye-hand coordination (EHC) development. In this 4-year cluster-randomized intervention, participants were 187 boys and 172 girls initially in grade 2 in 29 primary schools, where no school employed university-trained specialist PE teachers. In 13 (intervention) schools, specialist PE teachers conducted 268 PE classes (two 45-minute sessions/wk) from grade 2 to grade 6...
December 28, 2016: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
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