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pollution exposure

Kelly K Ferguson, Helen B Chin
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Preterm birth is a significant worldwide health problem of uncertain origins. The extant body of literature examining environmental contaminant exposures in relation to preterm birth is extensive but results remain ambiguous for most organic pollutants, metals and metalloids, and air pollutants. In the present review we examine recent epidemiologic studies investigating these associations, and identify recent advances and the state of the science. Additionally, we highlight biological mechanisms of action in the pathway between chemical exposures and preterm birth, including inflammation, oxidative stress, and endocrine disruption, that deserve more attention in this context...
March 2017: Current Epidemiology Reports
J Paige Souder, Daniel A Gorelick
To study the effects of environmental endocrine disruptor compounds (EDCs) on aquatic animals, embryos and larvae are typically incubated in water containing defined concentrations of EDCs. However, the amount of EDC uptake into the animal is often difficult to determine. Using radiolabeled estradiol ([(3)H]E2), we previously developed a rapid, straightforward assay to measure estradiol uptake from water into zebrafish embryos and larvae. Here, we extend this approach to measure the uptake of two additional EDCs, bisphenol A (BPA) and ethinyl estradiol (EE2)...
September 21, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
Dingkun Fu, Andrew Bridle, Melanie Leef, Catarina Norte Dos Santos, Barbara Nowak
Hepatic gene expression and gill histology were measured in sand flathead (Platycephalus bassensis) from a metal polluted estuary. The gene expression analyses were conducted on fish from two most polluted sites and a reference site. The metal-related genes were metal-regulatory transcription factor 1 (MTF1), transferrin (TF), ferriportin1 (FPN1), ferritin and metallothionein. The transcripts of MTF1, TF, and FPN1 were significantly higher in the liver of fish caught at polluted sites, suggesting these genes are potential biomarkers for environmental exposure to metal...
September 18, 2017: Marine Environmental Research
Zhi-Jun Zang, You-Qiang Fang, Su-Yun Ji, Yong Gao, Yuan-Qiang Zhu, Ting-Ting Xia, Mei-Hua Jiang, Ya-Nan Zhang
BACKGROUND: Formaldehyde, a ubiquitous environmental pollutant, is used extensively and has been proved to impair male reproduction in mammals. However, no trials have explored whether formaldehyde affects sexual function. AIM: To evaluate the effect of long-term formaldehyde exposure on sexual behavior and to investigate the potential mechanism. METHODS: Forty C57BL/6 male mice were randomly allocated to four equally sized groups. Mice were exposed to formaldehyde at a dose of 0 (control), 0...
September 21, 2017: Journal of Sexual Medicine
Jiao Chen, Shaoyu Lü, Zhe Zhang, Xuxia Zhao, Xinming Li, Piao Ning, Mingzhu Liu
Fertilizer plays an important role in maintaining soil fertility, increasing yields and improving harvest quality. However, a significant portion of fertilizers are lost, increasing agricultural cost, wasting energy and polluting the environment, which are challenges for the sustainability of modern agriculture. To meet the demands of improving yields without compromising the environment, environmentally friendly fertilizers (EFFs) have been developed. EFFs are fertilizers that can reduce environmental pollution from nutrient loss by retarding, or even controlling, the release of nutrients into soil...
September 20, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Yung Chang, Wei-Yuan Lee, Yu-Jie Lin, Todd Hsu
Mercuric ion (Hg(2+)) is the most prevalent form of inorganic Hg found in polluted aquatic environment. As inhibition of DNA damage repair has been proposed as one of the mechanisms of Hg(2+)-induced genotoxicity in aquatic animals and mammalian cells, this study explored the susceptibility of different stages of nucleotide excision repair (NER) in zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos to Hg(2+) using UV-damaged DNA as the repair substrate. Exposure of embryos at 1h post fertilization (hpf) to HgCl2 at 0.1-2.5μM for 9h caused a concentration-dependent inhibition of NER capacity monitored by a transcription-based DNA repair assay...
September 14, 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
Zhiyuan Li, Wenwei Che, H Christopher Frey, Alexis K H Lau
The objectives of this study were to: (1) evaluate PM2.5 inflow to metro train cabins when doors open at stations; (2) assess the spatial and temporal variability in PM2.5 exposure concentration; and (3) quantify the relationship between in-cabin concentration versus outdoor and non-ambient PM2.5. We measured in-cabin PM2.5 concentrations using portable monitors at the door-side and center of a train cabin simultaneously on a Hong Kong metro line. In addition, platform and in-cabin pollutant concentrations near a train door were simultaneously measured...
September 20, 2017: Environmental Research
Yanxia Luo, Haibin Li, Fangfang Huang, Nicholas Van Halm-Lutterodt, Qin Xu, Anxin Wang, Jin Guo, Lixin Tao, Xia Li, Mengyang Liu, Deqiang Zheng, Sipeng Chen, Feng Zhang, Xinghua Yang, Peng Tan, Wei Wang, Xueqin Xie, Xiuhua Guo
The effects of ambient temperature on stroke death in China have been well addressed. However, few studies are focused on the attributable burden for the incident of different types of stroke due to ambient temperature, especially in Beijing, China. We purpose to assess the influence of ambient temperature on hospital stroke admissions in Beijing, China. Data on daily temperature, air pollution, and relative humidity measurements and stroke admissions in Beijing were obtained between 2013 and 2014. Distributed lag non-linear model was employed to determine the association between daily ambient temperature and stroke admissions...
September 20, 2017: Environmental Pollution
William D Klaren, David Vine, Stefan Vogt, Larry W Robertson
Animal studies show that exposure to the environmental pollutant 3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB126) causes alterations in hepatic metals as measured in acid-digested volume-adjusted tissue. These studies lack the detail of the spatial distribution within the liver. Here we use X-ray fluorescence microscopy (XFM) to assess the spatial distribution of trace elements within liver tissue. Liver samples from male Sprague Dawley rats, treated either with vehicle or PCB126, were formalin fixed and paraffin embedded...
September 23, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
J L Brooks, C Boston, S Doka, D Gorsky, K Gustavson, D Hondorp, D Isermann, J D Midwood, T C Pratt, A M Rous, J L Withers, C C Krueger, S J Cooke
Freshwater ecosystems provide many ecosystem services; however, they are often degraded as a result of human activity. To address ecosystem degradation in the Laurentian Great Lakes, Canada and the United States of America established the Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement (GLWQA). In 1987, 43 highly polluted and impacted areas were identified under the GLWQA as having one or more of 14 Beneficial Use Impairments (BUIs) to the physical and chemical habitat for fish, wildlife and humans, and were designated as Areas of Concern (AOC)...
September 22, 2017: Environmental Management
Diana A Monteiro, Edwin W Taylor, Francisco T Rantin, Ana L Kalinin
Metal pollutants have been considered one of the main factors underlying the depletion of biodiversity in natural populations unbalancing aquatic environments. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of exposure to inorganic Hg on myocardial contractility and the electrocardiogram (ECG) of two ecologically distinct Neotropical fish species, namely: matrinxã (Brycon amazonicus) and trahira (Hoplias malabaricus). Matrinxãs were exposed to a sublethal concentration of 0.1mgL(-1) of Hg in water for 96h...
September 20, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
Miao Guan, Wendi Fang, Sana Ullah, Xiaowei Zhang, Quaiser Saquib, Abdulaziz A Al-Khedhairy
The knowledge of gene-chemical interaction can be used to derive toxicological mechanism of chemical pollutants, therefore, it might be useful to discriminate chemicals with different mechanisms. In this study, three narcotic chemicals (4-chlorophenol (4-CP), 3, 4-dichloroaniline (DCA) and 2, 2, 2-trichloroethanol (TCE)) and three specific acting chemicals (triclosan (TCS), clarithromycin (CLARY), sulfamethoxazole (SMX)) were assessed by Escherichia coli (E. coli) genome-wide knockout screening. 66, 97, 88, 144, 198 and 180 initial robust hits were identified by exposure to 4-CP, DCA, TCE, TCS, CLARY and SMX with two replicates at the concentration of IC50, respectively...
September 19, 2017: Environmental Pollution
Donatella D'Antoni, Louise Smith, Vivian Auyeung, John Weinman
BACKGROUND: Although evidence shows that poor air quality can harm human health, we have a limited understanding about the behavioural impact of air quality forecasts. Our aim was to understand to what extent air quality warning systems influence protective behaviours in the general public, and to identify the demographic and psychosocial factors associated with adherence and non-adherence to the health advice accompanying these warnings. METHOD: In August 2016 literature was systematically reviewed to find studies assessing intended or actual adherence to health advice accompanying air quality warning systems, and encouraging people to reduce exposure to air pollution...
September 22, 2017: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
Håkan Pleijel, Malin C Broberg, Johan Uddling, Gina Mills
Tropospheric ozone is known to adversely affect crops and other vegetation. Most studies have focussed on the effects of elevated ozone levels vs. present ambient. We investigated the effect of present ambient surface ozone (O3) concentrations vs. preindustrial on a range of agronomically important response variables in field-grown wheat, using results from 33 experiments (representing 9 countries, 3 continents, 17 cultivars plus one set of 4 cultivars) having both charcoal filtered (CF) and non-filtered (NF) air treatments...
September 19, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
N Palacios, K L Munger, K C Fitzgerald, J E Hart, T Chitnis, A Ascherio, F Laden
BACKGROUND: Air pollution is thought to raise the risk of neurological disease by promoting neuroinflammation, oxidative stress, glial activation and cerebrovascular damage. Multiple Sclerosis is a common auto-immune disorder, primarily affecting young women. We conducted, to a large prospective study of particulate matter (PM) exposure and multiple sclerosis (MS) risk in two prospective cohorts of women: the Nurses Health Study (NHS) and the Nurses Health Study II (NHS II). METHODS: Cumulative average exposure to different size fractions of PM up to the onset of MS was estimated using spatio-temporal models...
September 19, 2017: Environment International
Yuewei Liu, Yun Zhou, Jixuan Ma, Wei Bao, Jingjing Li, Ting Zhou, Xiuqing Cui, Zhe Peng, Hai Zhang, Min Feng, Yuan Yuan, Yuanqi Chen, Xiji Huang, Yonggang Li, Yonggang Duan, Tingming Shi, Lei Jin, Li Wu
Evidence concerning the association between ambient gaseous air pollutant exposures and semen quality is sparse, and findings in previous studies remain largely inconsistent. We enrolled 1759 men with 2184 semen examinations at a large reproductive medical center in Wuhan, China between 2013 and 2015. Inverse distance weighting interpolation was performed to estimate individual exposures to SO2, NO2, CO and O3 during the entire period (lag 0-90 days) and key periods (lag 0-9, 10-14, 70-90 days) of sperm development...
September 22, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
Giulia Guerriero, Gerardino D'Errico, Rossella Di Giaimo, Dea Rabbito, Oladokun Sulaiman Olanrewaju, Gaetano Ciarcia
Important toxicological achievements have been made during the last decades using reptiles. We focus our investigation on gonadal reproductive health of the soil biosentinel Podarcis sicula which is very sensitive to endocrine-disrupting chemicals. The aim of this study is to quantitatively detect, by sensitive microassays, reactive oxygen species and the glutathione antioxidants in the testis and investigate if they are differentially expressed before and after remediation of a site of the "Land of Fires" (Campania, Italy) subject to illicit dumping of unknown material...
September 22, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Cheryl S Rosenfeld
The gut microbiome consists of over 10(3)-10(4) microorganism inhabitants that together possess 150 times more genes that the human genome and thus should be considered an "organ" in of itself. Such communities of bacteria are in dynamic flux and susceptible to changes in host environment and body condition. In turn, gut microbiome disturbances can affect health status of the host. Gut dysbiosis might result in obesity, diabetes, gastrointestinal, immunological, and neurobehavioral disorders. Such host diseases can originate due to shifts in microbiota favoring more pathogenic species that produce various virulence factors, such as lipopolysaccharide...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Benjamin Bowe, Yan Xie, Tingting Li, Yan Yan, Hong Xian, Ziyad Al-Aly
Elevated levels of fine particulate matter <2.5 µm in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5) are associated with increased risk of cardiovascular outcomes and death, but their association with risk of CKD and ESRD is unknown. We linked the Environmental Protection Agency and the Department of Veterans Affairs databases to build an observational cohort of 2,482,737 United States veterans, and used survival models to evaluate the association of PM2.5 concentrations and risk of incident eGFR <60 ml/min per 1.73 m(2), incident CKD, eGFR decline ≥30%, and ESRD over a median follow-up of 8...
September 21, 2017: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
Curtis W Noonan, Erin O Semmens, Paul Smith, Solomon W Harrar, Luke Montrose, Emily Weiler, Marcy McNamara, Tony J Ward
BACKGROUND: Household air pollution due to biomass combustion for residential heating adversely affects vulnerable populations. Randomized controlled trials to improve indoor air quality in homes of children with asthma are limited, and no such studies have been conducted in homes using wood for heating. OBJECTIVES: Our aims were to test the hypothesis that household-level interventions, specifically improved-technology wood-burning appliances or air-filtration devices, would improve health measures, in particular Pediatric Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire (PAQLQ) scores, relative to placebo, among children living with asthma in homes with wood-burning stoves...
September 13, 2017: Environmental Health Perspectives
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