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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431380/recent-aspects-of-uranium-toxicology-in-medical-geology
#1
REVIEW
Geir Bjørklund, Olav Albert Christophersen, Salvatore Chirumbolo, Olle Selinus, Jan Aaseth
Uranium (U) is a chemo-toxic, radiotoxic and even a carcinogenic element. Due to its radioactivity, the effects of U on humans health have been extensively investigated. Prolonged U exposure may cause kidney disease and cancer. The geological distribution of U radionuclides is still a great concern for human health. Uranium in groundwater, frequently used as drinking water, and general environmental pollution with U raise concerns about the potential public health problem in several areas of Asia. The particular paleo-geological hallmark of India and other Southern Asiatic regions enhances the risk of U pollution in rural and urban communities...
April 18, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431356/heavy-metals-pollution-levels-and-children-health-risk-assessment-of-yerevan-kindergartens-soils
#2
Gevorg Tepanosyan, Nairuhi Maghakyan, Lilit Sahakyan, Armen Saghatelyan
Children, the most vulnerable urban population group, are exceptionally sensitive to polluted environments, particularly urban soils, which can lead to adverse health effects upon exposure. In this study, the total concentrations of Ag, As, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Ti, V, and Zn were determined in 111 topsoil samples collected from kindergartens in Yerevan. The objectives of this study were to evaluate heavy metal pollution levels of kindergarten's soils in Yerevan, compare with national legal and international requirements on heavy metal contents in kindergarten soil, and assess related child health risk...
April 18, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431317/ambient-pm2-5-exposure-and-premature-mortality-burden-in-the-holy-city-varanasi-india
#3
Vaishali Jain, Sagnik Dey, Sourangsu Chowdhury
More than 3 million population residing in the holy city Varanasi and sub-urban areas is exposed to very high level of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) from various sources. Continuous monitoring by Central Pollution Control Board started only in 2015; therefore what was the pollution level in the past and how it has changed over the years are not known. We use MODIS aerosol products to infer PM2.5 and examine 15-year climatology. Data shows a rapid (1.5-3% per year) increase in PM2.5 in the last 15 years and high (87% days in a year) persistence of PM2...
April 18, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430968/sex-chromosome-dependent-differential-viability-of-human-spermatozoa-during-prolonged-incubation
#4
Young-Ah You, Woo-Sung Kwon, Md Saidur Rahman, Yoo-Jin Park, Young-Ju Kim, Myung-Geol Pang
STUDY QUESTION: Are there significant differences in the ability of X chromosome-bearing (X) spermatozoa and Y chromosome-bearing (Y) spermatozoa to survive incubation under stressful conditions? SUMMARY ANSWER: Y spermatozoa are more vulnerable to stress than their X counterparts depending on culture period and temperature, and show higher expression of apoptotic proteins. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: The primary sex ratio is determined by there being an equal number of spermatozoa carrying X and Y chromosomes...
April 19, 2017: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430847/invited-commentary-bias-attenuation-and-identification-of-causal-effects-with-multiple-negative-controls
#5
Wang Miao, Eric Tchetgen Tchetgen
In this commentary, we describe several extensions to the interesting and important negative control exposure approach for partial confounding adjustment in time-series analysis proposed by Flanders et al. (Am J Epidemiol. 2012;000(0):000-000). Specifically, by leveraging the availability of exposure time series, we show that under certain additional fairly reasonable assumptions, one can incorporate both past and future exposures as multiple negative control exposures to further attenuate confounding bias...
April 18, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429404/air-pollution-weight-loss-and-metabolic-benefits-of-bariatric-surgery-a-potential-model-for-study-of-metabolic-effects-of-environmental-exposures
#6
R Ghosh, W J Gauderman, H Minor, H A Youn, F Lurmann, K R Cromar, L Chatzi, B Belcher, C R Fielding, R McConnell
BACKGROUND: Emerging experimental evidence suggests that air pollution may contribute to development of obesity and diabetes, but studies of children are limited. OBJECTIVES: We hypothesized that pollution effects would be magnified after bariatric surgery for treatment of obesity, reducing benefits of surgery. METHODS: In 75 obese adolescents, excess weight loss (EWL), high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, triglycerides, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c ) were measured prospectively at baseline and following laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB)...
April 21, 2017: Pediatric Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429270/degradation-of-streptomycin-in-aquatic-environment-kinetics-pathway-and-antibacterial-activity-analysis
#7
Yanru Shen, Wenyan Zhao, Chunling Zhang, Yujie Shan, Junxian Shi
Streptomycin used in human and veterinary medicine is released into the environment mainly through excretions. As such, its elimination in water should be investigated to control pollution. In this study, the degradation of streptomycin in water was studied, and the influence of variables, including light exposure, solution pH, temperature, ionic strength, dissolved organic matter (DOM), and coexisting surfactants, on degradation was investigated. Streptomycin degradation was consistent with the first-order model in aquatic environments...
April 20, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427549/lung-diseases-associated-with-hydrocarbon-exposure
#8
REVIEW
Stephen J Connellan
The human race has been exposed to the potential toxicity of hydrocarbons, whether by the inhaled or ingested route, for thousands of years and the consequent inflammatory reaction in the lungs depends on the degree of exposure, volatility and viscosity of the particular hydrocarbon in question. Heating, lighting, transportation, industry and nature all provide the potential for both inhalation and/or ingestion of hydrocarbons. Some forms, such as those related to petroleum products, e.g. diesel exhaust particles (DEP) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) have been shown to cause both malignant and non-malignant respiratory diseases...
May 2017: Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427493/hair-mercury-levels-and-their-relationship-with-seafood-consumption-among-preschool-children-in-shanghai
#9
Jin Yan, Zhen Yan Gao, Ju Wang, Chong Huai Yan
Mercury is a global pollutant. Children are vulnerable to environmental toxicants. Seafood consumption is a major source of methylmercury exposure. In order to ascertain children's mercury exposure levels and study their relationship with seafood consumption, we conducted a cross-sectional study among preschool children in Shanghai. According to our data, the geometric mean of the mercury levels in children's hair was 191.9 (95% CI: 181.8, 202.4) μg/kg. These results indicate that high income may be a predictor of elevated mercury levels in children's hair...
March 2017: Biomedical and Environmental Sciences: BES
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426990/concentration-of-perfluorinated-compounds-and-cotinine-in-human-foetal-organs-placenta-and-maternal-plasma
#10
Linn Salto Mamsen, Bo A G Jönsson, Christian H Lindh, Rasmus H Olesen, Agnete Larsen, Erik Ernst, Thomas W Kelsey, Claus Yding Andersen
BACKGROUND: Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are bio-accumulative pollutants, and prenatal exposure to PFASs is believed to impact human foetal development and may have long-term adverse health effects later in life. Additionally, maternal cigarette smoking may be associated with PFAS levels. Foetal exposure has previously been estimated from umbilical cord plasma, but the actual concentration in foetal organs has never been measured. OBJECTIVES: The concentrations of 5 PFASs and cotinine - the primary metabolite of nicotine - were measured in human foetuses, placentas, and maternal plasma to evaluate to what extent these compounds were transferred from mother to foetus and to determine if the PFAS concentrations were associated with maternal cigarette smoking...
April 17, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426984/biomagnetic-monitoring-and-element-content-of-lichen-transplants-in-a-mixed-land-use-area-of-ne-italy
#11
Danijela Kodnik, Aldo Winkler, Fabio Candotto Carniel, Mauro Tretiach
The aim of this study was to verify whether it is possible to discriminate between the different pollution sources present in a mixed land use area of NE Italy on the basis of the magnetic properties and the element content of lichen transplants. Thalli of Pseudevernia furfuracea were collected in a pristine area of the South-Eastern Alps and exposed for 2months in 40 sites located at the knots of a 700m step grid covering ca. 40km(2) of a mosaic of agricultural, forested, industrial and urban areas. In this way, the samples could be analyzed after a defined period of time, and compared to pre-exposure conditions...
April 17, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426942/polychlorinated-biphenyl-and-polybrominated-diphenyl-ether-profiles-in-serum-from-cattle-sheep-and-goats-across-california
#12
S Sethi, X Chen, P H Kass, B Puschner
It has been previously been shown by our lab and others that persistent organic pollutants, such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), are contaminants in milk produced for human consumption. To further this research we determined the concentration of 21 PCB and 14 PBDE congeners in livestock serum, mainly bovine, across California. Congeners were extracted from serum using solid phase extraction (SPE), cleaned up by silica cartridge and quantified using gas chromatography-triple quadruple mass spectrometry...
April 14, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426746/low-levels-of-cd-induce-persisting-epigenetic-modifications-and-acclimation-mechanisms-in-the-earthworm-lumbricus-terrestris
#13
Maja Šrut, Victoria Drechsel, Martina Höckner
Toxic effects of cadmium (Cd), a common soil pollutant, are still not very well understood, particularly in regard to its epigenetic impact. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess DNA methylation changes and their persistence in the earthworm Lumbricus terrestris upon chronic low dose Cd exposure using methylation sensitive amplification polymorphism (MSAP). Moreover, the biomarker response and fitness of the earthworms, as well as the expression of detoxification-related genes (metallothionein (MT) and phytochelatin synthase (PCS)) was evaluated...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426724/cloning-retinoid-and-peroxisome-proliferator-activated-nuclear-receptors-of-the-pacific-oyster-and-in-silico-binding-to-environmental-chemicals
#14
Susanne Vogeler, Tamara S Galloway, Michail Isupov, Tim P Bean
Disruption of nuclear receptors, a transcription factor superfamily regulating gene expression in animals, is one proposed mechanism through which pollution causes effects in aquatic invertebrates. Environmental pollutants have the ability to interfere with the receptor's functions through direct binding and inducing incorrect signals. Limited knowledge of invertebrate endocrinology and molecular regulatory mechanisms, however, impede the understanding of endocrine disruptive effects in many aquatic invertebrate species...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426293/identifying-thermal-breakdown-products-of-thermoplastics
#15
Marianne Guillemot, Benoît Oury, Sandrine Melin
Polymers processed to produce plastic articles are subjected to temperatures between 150°C and 450°C or more during overheated processing and breakdowns. Heat-based processing of this nature can lead to emission of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) into the thermoplastic processing shop. In this study, laboratory experiments, qualitative and quantitative emissions measurement in thermoplastic factories were carried out. The first step was to identify the compounds released depending on the thermoplastic nature, the temperature and the type of process...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424066/short-term-exposure-to-pm2-5-and-vanadium-and-changes-in-asthma-gene-dna-methylation-and-lung-function-decrements-among-urban-children
#16
Kyung Hwa Jung, David Torrone, Stephanie Lovinsky-Desir, Matthew Perzanowski, Joshua Bautista, Jacqueline R Jezioro, Lori Hoepner, Jamie Ross, Frederica P Perera, Steven N Chillrud, Rachel L Miller
BACKGROUND: Both short and long-term exposure to traffic-related air pollutants have been associated with asthma and reduced lung function. We hypothesized that short-term indoor exposure to fine particulate matter <2.5 μm (PM2.5) and vanadium (V) would be associated with altered buccal cell DNA methylation of targeted asthma genes and decreased lung function among urban children in a nested subcohort of African American and Dominican children. METHODS: Six day integrated levels of air pollutants were measured from children's homes (age 9-14; n = 163), repeated 6 months later (n = 98)...
April 19, 2017: Respiratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423135/childhood-cancer-and-environmental-integrity-a-commentary-and-a-proposal
#17
Carlo Modonesi, Enrico Oddone, Celestino Panizza, Gemma Gatta
Improvements in the health standards of developed and developing societies depend primarily on the relationships between economy and environment. Recent long-term changes in the chemical composition of man-made environments may be linked to changes in the biology of human beings. Here we argue that children are at the greatest risk of being affected by the dangerous effects of these changes, with particular reference to cancer. The concept of cancer risk must be extended to new contexts. Considering the increasing rates of chemical pollution and its spreading in the environment, we illustrate a proposal aiming to protect the human health, in an intra- and intergenerational perspective...
April 10, 2017: Revista de Saúde Pública
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423049/inmap-a-model-for-air-pollution-interventions
#18
Christopher W Tessum, Jason D Hill, Julian D Marshall
Mechanistic air pollution modeling is essential in air quality management, yet the extensive expertise and computational resources required to run most models prevent their use in many situations where their results would be useful. Here, we present InMAP (Intervention Model for Air Pollution), which offers an alternative to comprehensive air quality models for estimating the air pollution health impacts of emission reductions and other potential interventions. InMAP estimates annual-average changes in primary and secondary fine particle (PM2...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420543/serum-persistent-organic-pollutants-pops-and-prostate-cancer-risk-a-case-cohort-study
#19
Jung-Eun Lim, Chungmo Nam, Jiyeon Yang, Koon Ho Rha, Kyung-Min Lim, Sun Ha Jee
It is still unclear whether persistent organic pollutants (POPs) exposure increases the prostate cancer incidence risk. This prospective cohort study evaluated the associations between serum POPs concentrations and prostate cancer risk. Within a case-cohort study, we identified 110 people diagnosed with prostate cancer and randomly selected 256 sub-cohort participants without prostate cancer. Serum concentrations of 32 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners and 19 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were measured...
April 10, 2017: International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420490/are-herbarium-mosses-reliable-indicators-of-historical-nitrogen-deposition
#20
Tora Finderup Nielsen, Jesper Ruf Larsen, Anders Michelsen, Hans Henrik Bruun
Mosses collected decades ago and stored in herbaria are often used to assess historical nitrogen deposition. This method is effectively based on the assumption that tissue N concentration remains constant during storage. The present study raises serious doubt about the generality of that assumption. We measured tissue N and C concentrations as well as δ(15)N, δ(13)C, Pb and Mg in herbarium and present day samples of seven bryophyte species from six sites across Denmark. While an increase in nitrogen deposition during the last century is well-documented for the study site, we surprisingly found foliar N concentration to be higher in historical samples than in modern samples...
April 15, 2017: Environmental Pollution
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