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pollution exposure

Lingling Li, Da Yang, Yufang Song, Yi Shi, Bin Huang, Jun Yan, Xinxin Dong
In this study, toxic effects of bifenthrin in soil on earthworms were evaluated by acute and chronic toxic endpoints combined with a set of biomarkers. Bifenthrin was moderately toxic in 72-h filter paper test and low toxic in 14-d soil test. The exposure of earthworms to bifenthrin-polluted soil for 8 weeks showed that cocoons were inhibited by high dose of bifenthrin, and larvae were stimulated by low dose but inhibited by high dose of bifenthrin. Furthermore, 28-d soil test on the responses of enzymes associated with antioxidation and detoxification in worms showed that peroxidase (POD) was stimulated by bifenthrin, superoxide dismutase (SOD) inhibited in the early period but stimulated in the later period, glutathione S- transferase (GST) inhibited in the later period, and ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) inhibited at day 3 but markedly stimulated at day 28 at high dose...
October 21, 2016: Chemosphere
Florian Matt, Tom Cole-Hunter, David Donaire-Gonzalez, Nadine Kubesch, David Martínez, Glòria Carrasco-Turigas, Mark Nieuwenhuijsen
BACKGROUND: Physical activity (PA) has beneficial, whereas exposure to traffic related air pollution (TRAP) has adverse, respiratory effects. Few studies, however, have examined if the acute effects of TRAP upon respiratory outcomes are modified depending on the level of PA. OBJECTIVES: The aim of our study was to disentangle acute effects of TRAP and PA upon respiratory outcomes and assess the impact of participants TRAP pre-exposure. METHODS: We conducted a real-world crossover study with repeated measures of 30 healthy adults...
October 20, 2016: Environment International
Stefano R Del Giacco, Arzu Bakirtas, Elizabeth Bel, Adnan Custovic, Zuzana Diamant, Eckard Hamelmann, Enrico Heffler, Ömer Kalayci, Sejal Saglani, Svetlana Sergejeva, Sven Seys, Angela Simpson, Leif Bjermer
It is well recognized that atopic sensitisation is an important risk factor for asthma, both in adults and in children. However, the role of allergy in severe asthma is still under debate. The term "Severe Asthma" encompasses a highly heterogeneous group of patients who require treatment on steps 4-5 of GINA guidelines to prevent their asthma from becoming "uncontrolled", or whose disease remains "uncontrolled" despite this therapy. Epidemiological studies on emergency room visits and hospital admissions for asthma suggest the important role of allergy in asthma exacerbations...
October 24, 2016: Allergy
Kerry Ard, Cynthia Colen, Marisol Becerra, Thelma Velez
This study provides an empirical test of two mechanisms (social capital and exposure to air pollution) that are theorized to mediate the effect of neighborhood on health and contribute to racial disparities in health outcomes. To this end, we utilize the Social Capital Benchmark Study, a national survey of individuals nested within communities in the United States, to estimate how multiple dimensions of social capital and exposure to air pollution, explain racial disparities in self-rated health. Our main findings show that when controlling for individual-confounders, and nesting within communities, our indicator of cognitive bridging, generalized trust, decreases the gap in self-rated health between African Americans and Whites by 84%, and the gap between Hispanics and Whites by 54%...
October 19, 2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Nataša Milošević, Vladimir Jakšić, Jan Sudji, Bojan Vuković, Tijana Ičin, Nataša Milić, Milica Medić Stojanoska
Bisphenol A (BPA) is a ubiquitous environmental pollutant which is often associated with various health issues. In this study 103 healthy female volunteers in reproductive age from Serbian north province Vojvodina were enrolled and examined for the BPA exposure in the urine samples after 12 h of fasting. BPA was found in 35.92 % (37/103) of subjects. Statistically significant increment in waist circumference (p = 0.045) and waist-to-height ratio (p = 0.037) was observed among the BPA positive women in comparison with the women who had the same energetic balance and had not been exposed to BPA...
October 24, 2016: International Journal of Environmental Health Research
Alejandra R Maldonado, Miguel A Mora, José L Sericano
For many years, it has been hypothesized that Neotropical migrants breeding in the United States and Canada accumulate organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) while on their wintering grounds in Latin America. We investigated the seasonal accumulation of persistent organic pollutant (POPs) in migrant and resident passerines in Texas, Yucatán, and Costa Rica collected during the fall, winter, and spring from 2011 to 2013. A total of 153 birds were collected, and all contained detectable levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and OCPs with dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) being the most predominant pesticide...
October 22, 2016: Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Sricharani Rao Balmuri, Uthra Selvaraj, Vadivel Vinod Kumar, Savarimuthu Philip Anthony, Aristides Michael Tsatsakis, Kirill Sergeevich Golokhvast, Thiagarajan Raman
Cadmium (Cd), classified as human carcinogen, is an extremely toxic heavy metal pollutant, and there is an increasing environmental concern for cadmium exposure through anthropogenic sources including cigarette smoke. Though Cd based nanoparticles such as cadmium oxide (CdO) are being widely used in a variety of clinical and industrial applications, the toxicity of CdO nanoparticles has not been well characterized. Herein we report the toxicity of CdO nanoparticles employing zebrafish as a model. Two different CdO nanoparticles were prepared, calcination of Cd(OH)2 without any organic molecule (CdO-1) and calcination of Cd-citrate coordination polymer (CdO-2), to evaluate and compare the toxicity of these two different CdO nanoparticles...
October 20, 2016: Environmental Research
Martí Nadal, Joaquim Rovira, Jordi Díaz-Ferrero, Marta Schuhmacher, José L Domingo
In May 2016, a fire occurred in one of the largest landfills in Europe (Seseña, Toledo, Spain), where 70,000-90,000tons of tires had been illegally accumulated for >15years. Because of the proximity of population nuclei and the duration of the episode (>20days), we conducted a preliminary human health risk assessment study just after the tire fire. Samples of air and soil were collected in 3 areas surrounding the landfill (El Quiñón, at only 500m, and Seseña Nuevo and Seseña Viejo, both at 4km), as well as in background sites...
October 20, 2016: Environment International
Qixiao Jiang, Chunbo Wang, Chan Xue, Lingfang Xue, Meiting Wang, Changhao Li, Ziwen Deng, Qian Wang
Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), a persistent organic pollutant, is associated with developmental toxicity. This study investigated the mechanism of PFOA-induced developmental cardiotoxicity in chicken embryo, focusing on the interactions between developmental exposure to PFOA and the levels of l-carnitine (LC), acetyl-l-carnitine (ALC) and propionyl-l-carnitine (PLC) in the heart. To evaluate the developmental cardiotoxicity, fertile chicken eggs were exposed to 0.1, 0.5, 1, 2 or 5mg/kg PFOA via air cell injection...
October 19, 2016: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
Bin Wang, Qian Chen, Lixiao Shen, Shasha Zhao, Weiyi Pang, Jun Zhang
Perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are commonly used in industrial applications and consumer products, and their potential health impacts are of concern, especially for vulnerable population like fetuses. However, in utero exposure to PFASs and health implications are far from fully characterized in China. To fill in the gap, we analyzed 10 PFASs in cord plasma samples (N=687) collected in Shanghai between 2011 and 2012, one of the regions widely polluted with PFASs in China. A questionnaire survey on maternal and diet-related factors was conducted...
October 19, 2016: Environment International
Alexandra E Neal, Paul A Moore
Animals living in aquatic habitats regularly encounter anthropogenic chemical pollution. Typically, the toxicity of a chemical toxicant is determined by the median lethal concentration (LC50) through a static exposure test. However, LC50 values and static tests do not provide an accurate representation of exposure to pollutants within natural stream systems. In their native habitats, animals experience exposure as a fluctuating concentration due to turbulent mixing, temporal variations of contamination (seasonal inputs), and contaminant input type (point vs...
October 19, 2016: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
J E Correia, C A Christofoletti, A C C Marcato, J F U Marinho, C S Fontanetti
Sugarcane vinasse is one of the main residues generated by the transformation of cane into ethanol. Because of the high organic content (COD), high biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), low pH, the large amount that this residue is generated (15l for every liter of ethanol produced) and their use as fertilizer on the sugarcane crop, this residue is potentially polluting to the soil ecossystem and by percolation to water ecossystem too. Thus, this study aimed to assess the toxicity of vinasse by analyzing Oreochromis niloticus gills exposed to different dilutions (1%, 2...
October 19, 2016: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Zhenyang Yu, Guohua Sun, Yanjun Liu, Daqiang Yin, Jing Zhang
Trans-generational effects are increasingly used to indicate long-term influences of environmental pollutants. However, such studies can be complex and yield inconclusive results. In this study, the trans-generational effects of sulfamethoxazole (SMX) on Caenorhabditis elegans on lifespan, reproduction and population growth were tested for 7 consecutive generations, which included gestating generation (F0), embryo-exposed generation (F1), germline-exposed generation (F2), the first non-exposed generation (F3) and the three following generations (F4-F6)...
October 19, 2016: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Hans-Uwe Dahms, Eun-Ji Won, Hui-Su Kim, Jeonghoon Han, Heum Gi Park, Sami Souissi, Sheikh Raisuddin, Jae-Seong Lee
Aquatic invertebrates contribute significantly to environmental impact assessment of contaminants in aquatic ecosystems. Much effort has been made to identify viable and ecologically relevant invertebrate test organisms to meet rigorous regulatory requirements. Copepods, which are ecologically important and widely distributed in aquatic organisms, offer a huge opportunity as test organisms for aquatic toxicity testing. They have a major role not only in the transfer of energy in aquatic food chains, but also as a medium of transfer of aquatic pollutants across the tropic levels...
October 14, 2016: Aquatic Toxicology
Meng Qi, Xi Zhu, Wei Du, Yilin Chen, Yuanchen Chen, Tianbo Huang, Xuelian Pan, Qirui Zhong, Xu Sun, Eddy Y Zeng, Baoshan Xing, Shu Tao
Because people spend most of their time indoors, the characterization of indoor air quality is important for exposure assessment. Unfortunately, indoor air data are scarce, leading to a major data gap in risk assessment. In this study, PM2.5 concentrations in both indoor and outdoor air were simultaneously measured using on-line particulate counters in 13 households in Haidian, Beijing for both heating and non-heating seasons. A bimodal distribution of PM2.5 concentrations suggests rapid transitions between polluted and non-polluted situations...
October 18, 2016: Environmental Pollution
Anne-Sophie Dumas, Ludivine Taconnat, Evangelos Barbas, Guillem Rigaill, Olivier Catrice, Delphine Bernard, Abdelilah Benamar, David Macherel, Abdelhak El Amrani, Richard Berthomé
BACKGROUND: Higher plants have to cope with increasing concentrations of pollutants of both natural and anthropogenic origin. Given their capacity to concentrate and metabolize various compounds including pollutants, plants can be used to treat environmental problems - a process called phytoremediation. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the stabilization, the extraction, the accumulation and partial or complete degradation of pollutants by plants remain poorly understood. RESULTS: Here, we determined the molecular events involved in the early plant response to phenanthrene, used as a model of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons...
October 21, 2016: BMC Genomics
Nina Holland
Environmental research and public health in the 21st century face serious challenges such as increased air pollution and global warming, widespread use of potentially harmful chemicals including pesticides, plasticizers, and other endocrine disruptors, and radical changes in nutrition and lifestyle typical of modern societies. In particular, exposure to environmental and occupational toxicants may contribute to the occurrence of adverse birth outcomes, neurodevelopmental deficits, and increased risk of cancer and other multifactorial diseases such as diabetes and asthma...
October 21, 2016: Reviews on Environmental Health
Peter G Alexander, Karen L Clark, Rocky S Tuan
Limb congenital defects afflict approximately 0.6:1000 live births. In addition to genetic factors, prenatal exposure to drugs and environmental toxicants, represents a major contributing factor to limb defects. Examples of well-recognized limb teratogenic agents include thalidomide, warfarin, valproic acid, misoprostol, and phenytoin. While the mechanism by which these agents cause dymorphogenesis is increasingly clear, prediction of the limb teratogenicity of many thousands of as yet uncharacterized environmental factors (pollutants) remains inexact...
October 21, 2016: Birth Defects Research. Part C, Embryo Today: Reviews
Edimar Olegário de Campos Júnior, Rosiane Gomes da Silva Oliveira, Boscolli Barbosa Pereira, Henrique Nazareth Souto, Carlos Fernando Campos, Júlio Cesar Nepomuceno, Sandra Morelli
Exposure to certain pollutants induces a series of alterations in deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) that may result in genotoxic/mutagenic effects in exposed individuals. The present study aimed to monitor genotoxic, mutagenic, and recombinogenic potential and consequently water quality in two streams in the Paranaíba River basin in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, using two bioindicator fish (Rhamdia quelen and Geophagus brasiliensis). The micronucleus (MN) test and somatic recombination and mutation test (SMART) were employed to assess DNA damage...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
Surya Narayan Pradhan, Aleena Das, Ramovatar Meena, Ranjan Kumar Nanda, Paulraj Rajamani
Occupational exposure to air pollution induces oxidative stress and prolonged exposure increases susceptibility to cardiovascular and respiratory diseases in several working groups. Biofluid of these subjects may reflect perturbed metabolic phenotypes. In this study we carried out a comparative molecular profiling study using parallel biofluids collected from subjects (n = 85) belonging to auto rickshaw drivers (ARD), traffic cops (TC) and office workers (OW). Higher levels of oxidative stress and inflammation markers in serum of ARD subjects were observed as compared to OW and TC...
October 21, 2016: Scientific Reports
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