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pollution exposure

Amy E Kalkbrenner, Gayle C Windham, Cheng Zheng, Rob McConnell, Nora L Lee, James J Schauer, Brian Thayer, Juhi Pandey, Heather E Volk
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have reported associations of perinatal exposure to air toxics, including some metals and volatile organic compounds, with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). OBJECTIVES: Our goal was to further explore associations of perinatal air toxics with ASD and associated quantitative traits in high-risk multiplex families. METHODS: We included participants of a U.S. family-based study [the Autism Genetic Resource Exchange (AGRE)] who were born between 1994 and 2007 and had address information...
March 12, 2018: Environmental Health Perspectives
Michael S McLachlan, Emma Undeman, Fangyuan Zhao, Matthew MacLeod
Predicting human exposure to an environmental contaminant based on its emissions is one of the great challenges of environmental chemistry. It has been done successfully on a local or regional scale for some persistent organic pollutants. Here we assess whether it can be done at a global scale, using PCB 153 as a test chemical. The global multimedia fate model BETR Global and the human exposure model ACC-HUMAN were employed to predict the concentration of PCB 153 in human milk for 56 countries around the world from a global historical emissions scenario...
March 19, 2018: Environmental Science. Processes & Impacts
Vineeta Tanwar, Aashish Katapadi, Jeremy M Adelstein, Jacob A Grimmer, Loren E Wold
Purpose: Environmental stressors are disturbing our ecosystem at an accelerating rate. An increasingly relevant stressor are air pollutants, whose levels are increasing worldwide with threats to human health. These air pollutants are associated with increased mortality and morbidity from cardiovascular diseases. In this review we discuss environmental stressors focusing mainly on the various types of air pollutants, their short-term and long-term cardiovascular effects, and providing the epidemiological evidence associated with adverse cardiovascular outcomes...
February 2018: Current Opinion in Physiology
Timothy W Collins, Sara E Grineski, Jayajit Chakraborty
This article outlines a conceptual model and comparatively applies it to results from environmental justice (EJ) studies of flood risk in the Miami, Florida, and Houston, Texas, metropolitan areas. In contrast to most EJ studies of air pollution, which have found that socially-vulnerable groups experience disproportionate risk, distributive EJ studies of flooding reveal inconsistent findings regarding the relationship between social vulnerability and flood exposure. Counterintuitively (from a conventional EJ perspective), some pre-flood EJ studies have found that socially-advantaged people experience the highest residential exposure to flood risks...
February 2018: Regional Environmental Change
Maria C Mirabelli, Tegan K Boehmer, Scott A Damon, Kanta D Sircar, Hilary K Wall, Fuyuen Y Yip, Hatice S Zahran, Paul L Garbe
INTRODUCTION: Poor air quality affects respiratory and cardiovascular health. Information about health risks associated with outdoor air quality is communicated to the public using air quality alerts. This study was conducted to assess associations of existing respiratory and heart disease with three aspects of air quality awareness: awareness of air quality alerts, discussing with a health professional strategies to reduce air pollution exposure, and avoiding busy roads to reduce air pollution exposure when walking, biking, or exercising outdoors...
March 15, 2018: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
Chul-Hyun Cho, Ho-Kyoung Yoon, Seung-Gul Kang, Leen Kim, Eun-Il Lee, Heon-Jeong Lee
Objective: Light pollution has become a social and health issue. We performed an experimental study to investigate impact of dim light at night (dLAN) on sleep in female subjects, with measurement of salivary melatonin. Methods: The 25 female subjects (Group A: 12; Group B: 13 subjects) underwent a nocturnal polysomnography (NPSG) session with no light (Night 1) followed by an NPSG session randomly assigned to two conditions (Group A: 5; Group B: 10 lux) during a whole night of sleep (Night 2)...
March 19, 2018: Psychiatry Investigation
Dandan Xu, Yi Zhang, Lian Zhou, Tiantian Li
The association between exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM) and reduced lung function parameters has been reported in many works. However, few studies have been conducted in developing countries with high levels of air pollution like China, and little attention has been paid to the acute effects of short-term exposure to air pollution on lung function. The study design consisted of a panel comprising 86 children from the same school in Nanjing, China. Four measurements of lung function were performed...
March 17, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
J Hurtado-Gallego, K Martín-Betancor, I Rodea-Palomares, F Leganés, R Rosal, F Fernández-Piñas
This work describes the construction of two novel self-luminescent bioreporter strains of the cyanobacterium Nostoc sp. PCC 7120 by fusing the promoter region of the sodA and sodB genes (encoding the superoxide dismutases MnSod and FeSod, respectively) to luxCDABE from Photorhabdus luminescens aimed at detecting pollutants that generate reactive oxygen species (ROS), particularly O2 - . Bioreporters were tested against methyl viologen (MV) as the inducer of superoxide anion (O2 - ). Both bioreporters were specific for O2 - and Limits of detection (LODs) and Maximum Permissive Concentrations (MPCs) were calculated: Nostoc sp...
March 3, 2018: Chemosphere
Oddvar Myhre, Marit Låg, Gro Villanger, Bente Oftedal, Johan Øvrevik, Jørn A Holme, Heidi Aase, Ragnhild E Paulsen, Anna Bal-Price, Hubert Dirven
Epidemiological studies have demonstrated that air pollution particulate matter (PM) and adsorbed toxicants (organic compounds and trace metals) may affect child development already in utero. Recent studies have also indicated that PM may be a risk factor for neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs). A pattern of increasing prevalence of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been suggested to partly be linked to environmental pollutants exposure, including PM. Epidemiological studies suggest associations between pre- or postnatal exposure to air pollution components and ADHD symptoms...
March 14, 2018: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
Ana Molina, Nieves Abril, Noelia Morales-Prieto, José Monterde, Nahúm Ayala, Antonio Lora, Rosario Moyano
Thousands of safety-related studies have been published on bisphenol A (BPA), an ubiquitous environmental pollutant with estrogenic activity and many other potential biological effects. In recent years, BPA exposure has been shown to cause anovulation and infertility through irreversible alteration of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis in several organisms, including fish and mammals. Recently, the European Chemical Agency classified BPA as a "substance of very high concern" because of its endocrine-disrupting properties, which have serious effects on human health...
March 14, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Rachel M Speer, Catherine F Wise, Jamie L Young, AbouEl-Makarim Aboueissa, Mark Martin Bras, Mike Barandiaran, Erick Bermúdez, Lirio Márquez-D'Acunti, John Pierce Wise
Hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] is a marine pollution of concern as recent studies show it has a global distribution, with some regions showing high Cr concentrations in marine animal tissue, and it is extensively used. Leatherback sea turtles (Dermochelys coriacea) are an endangered marine species that may experience prolonged exposures to environmental contaminants including Cr(VI). Human activities have led to global Cr(VI) contamination of the marine environment. While Cr(VI) has been identified as a known human carcinogen, the health effects in marine species are poorly understood...
March 4, 2018: Aquatic Toxicology
Sohail Ahmed Rajper, Sana Ullah, Zhongqiu Li
Air pollution causes severe physical and psychological health complications. Considering China's continuously-deteriorating air quality, this study aimed to assess the self-reported effects of air pollution on the behavior and physical health of the students of 13 densely populated cities, and their awareness, practices, and perception of air pollution and its associated public health risks. A detailed, closed-ended questionnaire was administered to 2100 students from 54 universities and schools across China...
2018: PloS One
Ya-Chi Li, Hui-Ling Lin, Fang-Chun Liao, Sing-Siang Wang, Hsiu-Chu Chang, Hung-Fu Hsu, Sue-Hsien Chen, Gwo-Hwa Wan
BACKGROUND: Few studies have investigated the difference in bacterial contamination between conventional reused ventilator systems and disposable closed ventilator-suction systems. The aim of this study was to investigate the bacterial contamination rates of the reused and disposable ventilator systems, and the association between system disconnection and bacterial contamination of ventilator systems. METHODS: The enrolled intubated and mechanically ventilated patients used a conventional reused ventilator system and a disposable closed ventilator-suction system, respectively, for a week; specimens were then collected from the ventilator circuit systems to evaluate human and environmental bacterial contamination...
2018: PloS One
Beatriz V R Pereira, Gregorio Nolazco Matus, Monica Jones Costa, André Cordeiro Alves Dos Santos, Elaine C M Silva-Zacarin, Janaina Braga do Carmo, Bruno Nunes
Over time, many pollutants of anthropogenic origin have caused the contamination of aquatic ecosystems. Among several characteristics, these compounds can reach the trophic chain, causing deleterious interactions with the biota. Pharmaceutical substances can be included in this scenario as emerging contaminants that reach the aquatic environment because of direct human and veterinary usage, and release by industrial effluents, as well as through domestic dumping of surplus drugs. The effects of these compounds on exposed organisms have been studied since the 1990s, but ecotoxicological data for such chemicals are still scarce especially concerning aquatic organisms from tropical regions...
March 15, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Fabien Bernard, Sylvain Dumez, Sébastien Lemière, Anne Platel, Fabrice Nesslany, Annabelle Deram, Franck Vandenbulcke, Damien Cuny
Cadmium (Cd) is a highly toxic element for living organisms and is widespread in metal-contaminated soils. As organisms which can grow up on these polluted areas, plants have some protection mechanisms against Cd issues. Among the plant kingdom, the Brassicaceae family includes species which are known to be able to tolerate and accumulate Cd in their tissues. In this study, Brassica oleracea var. viridis cv "Prover" was exposed to a range of artificially Cd-contaminated soils (from 2.5 up to 20 mg kg-1 ) during 3, 10, and 56 days and the effects on life traits, photosynthesis activity, antioxidant enzymatic activities were studied...
March 15, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Sarva Mangala Praveena, Seoh Wei Teh, Ranjith Kumar Rajendran, Narayanan Kannan, Chu-Ching Lin, Rozaini Abdullah, Suresh Kumar
Phthalates have been blended in various compositions as plasticizers worldwide for a variety of purposes. Consequently, humans are exposed to a wide spectrum of phthalates that needs to be researched and understood correctly. The goal of this review is to focus on phthalate's internal exposure pathways and possible role of human digestion on liver toxicity. In addition, special focus was made on stem cell therapy in reverting liver toxicity. The known entry of higher molecular weight phthalates is through ingestion while inhalation and dermal pathways are for lower molecular weight phthalates...
March 15, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Qian Zhang, Shengli Wang, Zhongren Nan, Yepu Li, Fei Zang
Wastewater irrigation can increase metal concentrations in soil and wheat, thereby posing metal-associated health risk via food ingestion. We investigated levels of mercury (Hg) and arsenic (As) in roots, husks, stems, leaves, and grains of wheat and their fractionations in farmland soil from Baiyin City, an industrial and mining city, northwest China. Results show that the mean concentrations of Hg in soils from Dongdagou and Xidagou stream in Baiyin were 8.5 times and three times higher than local soil background values, respectively...
March 15, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Yehuda Ben-Shahar
Manganese (Mn) is an essential trace element that acts as a metal co-factor in diverse biochemical and cellular functions. However, chronic environmental exposure to high levels of Mn is a well-established risk factor for the etiology of severe, atypical parkinsonian syndrome (manganism) via its accumulation in the basal ganglia, pallidum, and striatum brain regions, which is often associated with abnormal dopamine, GABA, and glutamate neural signaling. Recent studies have indicated that chronic Mn exposure at levels that are below the risk for manganism can still cause behavioral, cognitive, and motor dysfunctions via poorly understood mechanisms at the molecular and cellular levels...
2018: Frontiers in Genetics
Sebhat Erqou, Jane E Clougherty, Oladipupo Olafiranye, Jared W Magnani, Aryan Aiyer, Sheila Tripathy, Ellen Kinnee, Kevin E Kip, Steven E Reis
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to assess racial differences in air pollution exposures to ambient fine particulate matter (particles with median aerodynamic diameter <2.5 µm [PM2.5 ]) and black carbon (BC) and their association with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors, arterial endothelial function, incident CVD events, and all-cause mortality. APPROACH AND RESULTS: Data from the HeartSCORE study (Heart Strategies Concentrating on Risk Evaluation) were used to estimate 1-year average air pollution exposure to PM2...
March 15, 2018: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
Stefan-Adrian Strungaru, Madalina Andreea Robea, Gabriel Plavan, Elena Todirascu-Ciornea, Alin Ciobica, Mircea Nicoara
Fishes are the first group of vertebrates that respond when the environment is contaminated with pollutants resulted from anthropogenic activities. The development of the toxicity tests is bringing new evidence about the toxicological effects of the pollutants upon the life forms. Behavioural abnormalities in the swimming performance and cognitive processes were well associated with the response of organisms to pollutants from environment. The aim of the paper was to study the behavioural changes of zebrafish (memory, swimming performances and aggression) and oxidative stress (superoxide dismutase and malondialdehyde) during 32 h of acute exposure with methylmercury (II) chloride to measure its neurotoxicity effects upon fish community...
May 2018: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
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