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"body ideal"

Jean-Luc Jucker, Tracey Thornborrow, Ulrik Beierholm, D Michael Burt, Robert A Barton, Elizabeth H Evans, Mark A Jamieson, Martin J Tovée, Lynda G Boothroyd
Television consumption influences perceptions of attractive female body size. However, cross-cultural research examining media influence on body ideals is typically confounded by differences in the availability of reliable and diverse foodstuffs. 112 participants were recruited from 3 Nicaraguan villages that differed in television consumption and nutritional status, such that the contribution of both factors could be revealed. Participants completed a female figure preference task, reported their television consumption, and responded to several measures assessing nutritional status...
August 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
Marie L Smith, Elina Telford, Jeremy J Tree
Western cultures promote a thin and curvaceous ideal body size that most women find difficult to achieve by healthy measures, resulting in poor body image and increased risk for eating pathology. Research focusing on body image in lesbian and bisexual women has yielded inconsistent results. In total, 11 lesbian and bisexual women were interviewed regarding their experiences with body image. Interpretative phenomenological analysis revealed that these women experienced similar mainstream pressures to conform to a thin body ideal...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Health Psychology
Evelyn A Hunter, Annette S Kluck, Megan D Cobb-Sheehan, Erin M English, Erica Ray
Four studies explored the family food experiences (FFEs) of African-American (AA) in relation to disordered eating and body image concerns. Focus groups of AA women expressed FFEs that shaped their relationships with food (Study 1). We used the resulting framework to create a measure assessing FFEs related to disordered eating (Family Food Experiences-Black Questionnaire; FFBQ). Measure items were subjected to a content analysis (Study 2). Subject matter experts rated ten items essential (CVR ≥ 0.62, p < 0...
July 27, 2017: Appetite
Amanda Baker, Céline Blanchard
Research has primarily focused on the consequences of the female thin ideal on women and has largely ignored the effects on men. Two studies were designed to investigate the effects of a female thin ideal video on cognitive (Study 1: appearance schema, Study 2: visual-spatial processing) and self-evaluative measures in male viewers. Results revealed that the female thin ideal predicted men's increased appearance schema activation and poorer cognitive performance on a visual-spatial task. Constructs from self-determination theory (i...
July 13, 2017: Body Image
Diana E Betz, Laura R Ramsey
While most body image research emphasizes the thin ideal, a wider variety of body-ideal messages pervade U.S. popular culture today, including those promoting athleticism or curves. Two studies assessed women's reactions to messages conveying thin, athletic, and curvy ideals, compared to a control message that emphasized accepting all body types. Study 1 (N=192) surveyed women's responses to these messages and found they perceived body-acceptance and athletic messages most favorably, curvy messages more negatively, and thin messages most negatively...
May 26, 2017: Body Image
Tiffany A Brown, K Jean Forney, Dennis Pinner, Pamela K Keel
OBJECTIVE: Pressures for men to conform to a lean, muscular ideal have, in part, contributed to eating disorder and muscle dysmorphia symptoms, yet few programs have been developed and empirically evaluated to help men. This study investigated the acceptability and efficacy of a cognitive dissonance-based (DB) intervention in reducing eating disorder and muscle dysmorphia risk factors in men with body dissatisfaction. METHOD: Men were randomized to a two-session DB intervention (n = 52) or a waitlist control condition (n = 60)...
August 2017: International Journal of Eating Disorders
Mara van der Meulen, Jolanda Veldhuis, Barbara R Braams, Sabine Peters, Elly A Konijn, Eveline A Crone
Media's prevailing thin-body ideal plays a vital role in adolescent girls' body image development, but the co-occurring impact of peer feedback is understudied. The present study used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to test media imagery and peer feedback combinations on neural activity related to thin-body ideals. Twenty-four healthy female late adolescents rated precategorized body sizes of bikini models (too thin or normal), directly followed by ostensible peer feedback (too thin or normal)...
May 4, 2017: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
Eric Robinson, Paul Aveyard
BACKGROUND: There is concern that the body size of fashion store mannequins are too thin and promote unrealistic body ideals. To date there has been no systematic examination of the size of high street fashion store mannequins. METHODS: We surveyed national fashion retailers located on the high street of two English cities. The body size of 'male' and 'female' mannequins was assessed by two blinded research assistants using visual rating scales. RESULTS: The average female mannequin body size was representative of a very underweight woman and 100% of female mannequins represented an underweight body size...
2017: Journal of Eating Disorders
Hope Boyd, Sarah K Murnen
We examined the extent to which popular dolls and action figures were portrayed with gendered body proportions, and the extent to which these gendered ideals were associated with heterosexual "success." We coded internet depictions of 72 popular female dolls and 71 popular male action figures from the websites of three national stores in the United States. Sixty-two percent of dolls had a noticeably thin body, while 42.3% of action figures had noticeably muscular bodies. Further, more thin dolls were portrayed with more sex object features than less thin dolls, including revealing, tight clothing and high-heeled shoes; bodies positioned with a curved spine, bent knee, and head cant; and with a sexually appealing facial expression...
April 12, 2017: Body Image
N Michels, S D Amenyah
OBJECTIVES: To inspire effective health promotion campaigns, we tested the relationship of ideal body size and body size dissatisfaction with (1) the potential resulting health-influencing factors diet, physical activity and well-being; and (2) with media as a potential influencer of body ideals. STUDY DESIGN: This is a cross-sectional study in 370 Ghanaian adolescents (aged 11-18 years). METHODS: Questionnaires included disordered eating (EAT26), diet quality (FFQ), physical activity (IPAQ), well-being (KINDL) and media influence on appearance (SATAQ: pressure, internalisation and information)...
May 2017: Public Health
Erin Vinoski, Jennifer B Webb, Jan Warren-Findlow, Kirstyn A Brewer, Katheryn A Kiffmeyer
Yoga has become an increasingly common health practice among U.S. adults over the past decade. With this growth in popularity, yoga-related print media have been criticized for shifting away from yoga's traditional philosophies and promoting a thin, lean ideal physique representing the "yoga body." The purpose of this study was to (a) analyze the presence and content of advertisements over the 40-year publication history of Yoga Journal magazine and (b) explore female advertisement models' socio-demographic and appearance-related attributes over time...
February 16, 2017: Body Image
Gertrud Pfister, Kristine Rømer
This article explores women's lived experiences with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) on the basis of semistructured interviews with 21 Danish women. It provides insights about the problems that they experienced and how they coped with PCOS. The interviews revealed that they were highly influenced by society's femininity norms. Many of them perceived their bodies as "different" because of the symptoms of PCOS, namely, hirsutism. They used different strategies to live up to body ideals and cope with the symptoms...
February 2017: Health Care for Women International
Teri Del Rosso
This article explores the magazine advertising strategies and tactics used by health and beauty products to target middle-aged women. Advertisements found in the April 2013 issues of Shape, Fitness, and Women's Health were analyzed using intersectionality to determine how these advertisements are presenting messages pertaining to age, gender, and sexuality and how these messages can "other" and marginalize certain identities. The findings suggest that advertisement strategies implement pseudoscience, heteronormativity, hegemonic beauty, and body ideals to establish an idealized version of middle-aged womanhood...
July 29, 2016: Journal of Women & Aging
Marie Sehm, Petra Warschburger
There is evidence that intrapersonal psychological factors might contribute to the development of binge eating. However, studies considering reciprocal effects between risk factors and disordered eating are rare. The present article investigates the nature of the temporal relationships between binge eating and low self-esteem, depressive symptoms, interoceptive deficits, perfectionism, weight/shape concerns, dietary restraint, and the internalization of the societal body ideal in adolescence while taking into account the moderating effects of age and gender...
July 11, 2016: Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology
M Forghieri, D Monzani, A Mackinnon, S Ferrari, C Gherpelli, G M Galeazzi
Human postural control is dependent on the central integration of vestibular, visual and proprioceptive inputs. Psychological states can affect balance control: anxiety, in particular, has been shown to influence balance mediated by visual stimuli. We hypothesized that patients with eating disorders would show postural destabilization when exposed to their image in a mirror and to the image of a fashion model representing their body ideal in comparison to body neutral stimuli. Seventeen females patients attending a day centre for the treatment of eating disorders were administered psychometric measures of body dissatisfaction, anxiety, depression and underwent posturographic measures with their eyes closed, open, watching a neutral stimulus, while exposed to a full length mirror and to an image of a fashion model corresponding to their body image...
August 26, 2016: Neuroscience Letters
S D Amenyah, N Michels
BACKGROUND: Understanding the sociocultural perception of body size and its relation to body weight management is essential for policy and intervention planning. Herein, African adolescents deserve special interest because of a possible shift in body size ideals due to globalization and because of adolescence as a vulnerable stage of life. Therefore, the objective of this study was to explore body size beliefs and its determinants (sociodemographic and beliefs) in Ghanaian adolescents...
October 2016: Public Health
Mary-Ellen Brierley, Kevin R Brooks, Jonathan Mond, Richard J Stevenson, Ian D Stephen
The dominant evolutionary theory of physical attraction posits that attractiveness reflects physiological health, and attraction is a mechanism for identifying a healthy mate. Previous studies have found that perceptions of the healthiest body mass index (weight scaled for height; BMI) for women are close to healthy BMI guidelines, while the most attractive BMI is significantly lower, possibly pointing to an influence of sociocultural factors in determining attractive BMI. However, less is known about ideal body size for men...
2016: PloS One
Karen A Patte, Scott T Leatherdale
Background: Unhealthy weight-control methods and problematic alcohol use appear linked, with individuals engaging in both behaviours at greater risk of adverse consequences. Most studies have been conducted among females and young adults, yet both dieting and binge drinking emerge at earlier stages of development. Moreover, gender differences are likely due to contrasting body ideals. This study investigated the co-occurrence of dieting and alcohol use among youth, focusing on varying weight goals in males and females, and meal skipping, as a form of food restriction...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Public Health
Jody Langdon, Paul Rukavina, Christy Greenleaf
The purpose of the present study was to investigate particular psychosocial predictors of obesity bias in prehealth professionals, which include the internalization of athletic and general body ideals, perceived media pressure and information, and achievement goal orientations. Exercise science undergraduate students (n= 242) filled out a survey containing questions of demographic characteristics, achievement goals, social-cultural attitudes toward appearance (using Sociocultural Attitudes Towards Appearance Questionnaire-3), and obesity bias measurements (using the antifat attitudes test and fat phobia scale)...
June 2016: Advances in Physiology Education
Sabine Loeber, Ramona Burgmer, Andrea Wyssen, Judith Leins, Martina Rustemeier, Simone Munsch, Stephan Herpertz
OBJECTIVE: Previous research demonstrated that the exposure to media portrayals of the thin body ideal negatively affects body satisfaction and mood of healthy women and thus represents a sociocultural risk factor for the development of eating disorders. However, at present, it is not known whether negative effects of the thin ideal are pronounced in eating-disordered patients. METHOD: Female inpatients with a current diagnosis of anorexia nervosa (N = 36), bulimia nervosa (N = 32), or mood or anxiety disorder (N = 31), and women with no current psychiatric diagnosis were randomly assigned to exposure to magazine pictures depicting the thin female body ideal or landscape scenes in two experimental phases (leafing through a magazine followed by instructed imagination of a picture from the magazine)...
July 2016: International Journal of Eating Disorders
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