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Boni E Elewski, Wendy Cantrell, Tina Lin
BACKGROUND: Onychomycosis is a common disease that remains a difficult disorder to treat despite the introduction of new topical agents; and not all patients are cured. Clinical experience leads us to suggest a number of host-related factors can affect the chance of cure, but studies supporting these observations are currently lacking. Although many studies, particularly on topical agents, rely on severity classification when selecting patients for inclusion, a pilot study was unable to demonstrate any prognostic value of the extension of nail involvement...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Drugs in Dermatology: JDD
David M Pariser, Martin E Wendelken, Anthony M Rycerz, Nicole Gellings Lowe, John Montgomery Yost, Shari R Lipner
Women with onychomycosis may suffer more effects on their quality of life than men. There is limited female-specific data on the treatment of onychomycosis. Tavaborole is a topical treatment option for onychomycosis. This post-hoc study evaluated the nail plates of women using data from the tavaborole 5% Phase III studies at baseline and end of study for the areas of healthy nail and infected nail. Over 52 weeks (48-week treatment, 4-week follow up), women treated with tavaborole had an average 32% increase in healthy nail and 21% decrease in infected nail...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Drugs in Dermatology: JDD
M Babayani, S Salari, S J Hashemi, P Ghasemi Nejad Almani, A Fattahi
OBJECTIVE: Onychomycosis (OM) or fungal nail infection is one of the most common fungal infections, which is increasingly prevalent. OM is caused by dermatophytes spp, yeasts and non-dermatophyte moulds (NDMs). The purpose of this study was to identify and determine the prevalence rates, predisposing factors and causative agents of OM using clinical symptoms and microscopic morphometric findings. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In the present study, 180 patients suspected of OM were evaluated by direct microscopy using KOH 20%, culturing in Mycosel and Sabouraud dextrose agar media and Olysia software for identifying the causative fungi of OM...
February 12, 2018: Journal de Mycologie Médicale
Ananya Tupaki-Sreepurna, Vijayakishore Thanneru, Sangeetha Natarajan, Savitri Sharma, Anjana Gopi, Murugan Sundaram, Anupma Jyoti Kindo
Availability of molecular methods, gene sequencing, and phylogenetic species recognition have led to rare fungi being recognized as opportunistic pathogens. Fungal keratitis and onychomycosis are fairly common mycoses in the tropics, especially among outdoor workers and enthusiasts. The frequently isolated etiological agents belong to genera Candida, Aspergillus, and Fusarium. Within the genus Fusarium, known to be recalcitrant to prolonged antifungal treatment and associated with poor outcome, members of the Fusarium solani species complex are reported to be most common, followed by members of the Fusarium oxysporum SC and the Fusarium fujikuroi SC (FFSC)...
February 14, 2018: Mycopathologia
Thansiha Nargis, Malcolm Pinto, Manjunath Mala Shenoy, Spandana Hegde
Background: Onychomycosis is a very common disease and accounts for upto 50% of the diseases affecting the nail apparatus. Diagnosis of onychomycosis is usually confirmed with the help of a potassium hydroxide (KOH) mount and fungal culture. Onychoscopy can be a handy and additional tool for the diagnosis. Aims and Objectives: To determine the dermoscopic findings in distal lateral subungual onychomycosis (DLSO). Materials and Methods: A prospective study of 60 nails with a clinical and mycological diagnosis (KOH with Chicago sky blue positive) of DLSO...
January 2018: Indian Dermatology Online Journal
G Zoulati, R Y Maïga, M El Haouri, M Er-Rami
INTRODUCTION: Trichophyton violaceum is an anthropophilic dermatophyte, common in Mediterranean and African countries, which causes particularly trichophytic tinea in school-aged children. The objective of this work is to study the clinical and epidemiological profile of T. violaceum infections. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This is a descriptive retrospective study of a series of twelve cases of T. violaceum dermatophytosis diagnosed among patients referred to our laboratory for suspicion of dermatomycosis during a period from January 2011 to December 2016...
February 9, 2018: Journal de Mycologie Médicale
Nikolaos Kourkoumelis, Georgios Gaitanis, Aristea Velegraki, Ioannis D Bassukas
Trichophyton rubrum and Candida species comprise the majority of onychomycosis pathogens. The aim of this study was to evaluate Raman spectroscopy for the differentiation between healthy and either T. rubrum or Candida infected nails. Raman measurements were performed on clippings (N = 52) infected either by T. rubrum (N = 12) or Candida species (N = 14; C. parapsilosis (sensu lato): N = 11, C. glabrata: N = 1, C. albicans: N = 2) with healthy nails (N = 26) used as controls. Systematic spectral differences were observed in the 500-520 cm-1 band region, attributable to a diverting imprint of the disulfide stretching of cystine and cysteine residues among samples...
October 9, 2017: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
V Buder, M Augustin, I Schäfer, G Welsch, P Catala-Lehnen, K Herberger
BACKGROUND: The prevention, early diagnosis and treatment of onychomycosis is of great importance for professional athletes to avoid physical limitations by complications. So far, there is only little data on the prevalence of dermatomycosis in professional athletes. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to detect the prevalence of dermatomycosis in professional football players compared to the general population. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The prospective, non-interventional, controlled study on the prevalence of dermatomycosis in professional football players was carried out on football players of a German Bundesliga team compared with a previously studied, equivalently aged German working population...
February 7, 2018: Der Hautarzt; Zeitschrift Für Dermatologie, Venerologie, und Verwandte Gebiete
Fangfang Bao, Yiou Fan, Lele Sun, Yu Yongxiang, Zhenzhen Wang, Qing Pan, Changping Yu, Liu Hong, Furen Zhang
BACKGROUND: The current gold standard for diagnosing onychomycosis is direct microscopic examination and culturing. Fungal culture is a time-consuming procedure, while direct microscopy of potassium hydroxide (KOH) mounts suffers from low sensitivity. More rapid and sensitive methods for the diagnosis of onychomycosis are in high demand. OBJECTIVE: To establish an effective method for the diagnosis of onchomycosis by assessing the efficacies of fungal fluorescent staining and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) ribosomal DNA (rDNA) polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based sequencing...
February 6, 2018: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology: JEADV
Muhammad Anees, Ghazala Butt, Shaista Gull, Asif Nazeer, Ijaz Hussain, Muhammad Ibrahim
OBJECTIVE: To determine skin changes in patients of End Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) on maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) and factors affecting these changes. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional observational study. PLACE AND DURATION OF STUDY: Nephrology Department, Mayo Hospital, Lahore in collaboration with Dermatology Department, King Edward Medical University, Lahore, from October 2015 to January 2016. METHODOLOGY: Two hundred patients who were undergoing MHD for more than three months were included in the study...
February 2018: Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons—Pakistan: JCPSP
Hafize Sav, Ayse Baris, Deniz Turan, Rabiye Altinbas, Sümeyye Sen
Although the frequency of candidal onychomycosis is increasing daily, there is little information in literature about the epidemiology, pathogenesis, and antifungal susceptibility of this dermatological disease. This study aimed to provide information about the epidemiology, pathogenesis, and azole susceptibility of Candida species isolated from patients living in a region with continental climate. After identification of the isolated strains using conventional methods, proteinase and phospholipase activities were determined by a plate method and biofilm-forming ability was determined using the microplate method...
January 25, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
Haruki Tachibana, Naomichi Kumagai, Yoshiyuki Tatsumi
Use of oral antifungals in the treatment of onychomycosis is commonplace; but their use can be limited by safety and patient concerns. Due to their broader safety margins, topical antifungals (efinaconazole, tavaborole, and ciclopirox) are a useful option in the treatment of mild-to-moderate onychomycosis in the USA, but their antifungal activity has yet to be directly compared. This study aims to identify important factors contributing to in vivo efficacies of the three topical antifungals. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were determined by Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) M38-A2 broth microdilution...
October 19, 2017: Journal of Fungi (Basel, Switzerland)
Ananya Tupaki-Sreepurna, Bhavna T Jishnu, Vijayakishore Thanneru, Savitri Sharma, Anjana Gopi, Murugan Sundaram, Anupma Jyoti Kindo
Onychomycosis is a fungal nail infection which is relatively common and difficult to treat. Treatment modalities include nail avulsion, surgical debridement and combination therapy with oral and topical antifungal drugs. In spite of a host of available drugs, clinical cure rates remain discouraging. Drug toxicities, prolonged regimens, lack of patient compliance, and high keratin affinity of drugs are all contributive factors. Efinaconazole is a novel topical triazole antifungal agent that has shown excellent in vitro activity against both dermatophyte and non-dermatophyte fungi causing onychomycosis...
May 5, 2017: Journal of Fungi (Basel, Switzerland)
Seung Seog Han, Gyeong Hun Park, Woohyung Lim, Myoung Shin Kim, Jung Im Na, Ilwoo Park, Sung Eun Chang
Although there have been reports of the successful diagnosis of skin disorders using deep learning, unrealistically large clinical image datasets are required for artificial intelligence (AI) training. We created datasets of standardized nail images using a region-based convolutional neural network (R-CNN) trained to distinguish the nail from the background. We used R-CNN to generate training datasets of 49,567 images, which we then used to fine-tune the ResNet-152 and VGG-19 models. The validation datasets comprised 100 and 194 images from Inje University (B1 and B2 datasets, respectively), 125 images from Hallym University (C dataset), and 939 images from Seoul National University (D dataset)...
2018: PloS One
Secil Vural, Seher Bostanci, Pelin Koçyigit, Deniz Çaliskan, Nilgun Baskal, Nursel Aydin
The present study evaluated the properties of nails, frequency of ingrown nails in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM), risk factors for developing ingrown nails, and effect of diabetic polyneuropathy and vasculopathy on the development and outcome of ingrown nails. Our 6-month epidemiologic prospective study included 300 patients with type 2 DM attending a DM outpatient clinic for routine examinations. The general characteristics and foot changes of the study population were investigated. Diabetic polyneuropathy and vasculopathy were evaluated using a biothesiometer, monofilament tests, and arterial Doppler ultrasonography...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Foot and Ankle Surgery: Official Publication of the American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons
Purva Thatai, Bharti Sapra
AIM: The present investigation's intention was to develop an optimized nail lacquer (NL) for the management of onychomycosis. MATERIALS & METHODS: The NL was optimized statistically adopting 32 full factorial design having different polymer ratios and solvent ratios. The formulations were assessed for drug permeation drying time and peak adhesive strength of the film. Characterization was done using techniques including attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), x-ray diffraction (XRD), etc...
February 2018: Therapeutic Delivery
Khatiya Chelidze, Shari R Lipner
Nail changes are a common feature of alopecia areata (AA) and are a significant source of cosmetic disfigurement and functional impairment. This review provides an update of the prevalence, clinical and histopathological features, pathogenesis, differential diagnosis, clinical course, prognosis, and management of nail changes in patients with AA. Searches for peer-reviewed journal articles were conducted using the PubMed/MEDLINE database with the search terms "nail changes alopecia areata," "alopecia areata nails," and specific searches on "trachyonychia alopecia areata" and "pitting alopecia areata...
January 10, 2018: International Journal of Dermatology
Marjorie Uber, Vânia O Carvalho, Kerstin T Abagge, Renata Robl Imoto, Betina Werner
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Nail clipping, the act of cutting the distal portion of a nail for microscopic analysis, can complement the diagnosis of skin diseases with nail involvement, such as psoriasis. This study aimed to describe histopathologic findings on 81 nails from 52 children and adolescents with skin psoriasis and to determine whether these changes correlated with the severity of skin and nail involvement. METHODS: Children with psoriasis were enrolled in this cross-sectional study to obtain Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI) and Nail Psoriasis Severity Index (NAPSI) scores...
January 4, 2018: Pediatric Dermatology
A K Gupta, T C Vlahovic, K A Foley, N Gellings Lowe, R Turner, M Brown, S Hall
BACKGROUND: Topical antifungal treatments for onychomycosis are applied to clean, unpolished nails for 48 weeks or longer. Patients often wish to mask their infection with nail polish yet there is no evidence to suggest antifungal efficacy in the presence of nail polish. OBJECTIVE: To determine if tavaborole retains the ability to penetrate the nail plate and inhibit fungal growth in the presence of nail polish. METHOD: Tavaborole was applied to human fingernails painted with 2 or 4 coats of nail polish, and unpainted nails in an ex vivo model...
January 8, 2018: Journal of Dermatological Treatment
Alina Kline-Schoder, Zung Le, Vesna Zderic
OBJECTIVES: The aim of our study was to determine the effectiveness of using ultrasound (US) to increase the permeability of the nail, with the goal of improving outcomes in the treatment of onychomycosis. METHODS: Porcine nails were used because of their similarity to human nails. A hydrophilic blue dye was used as a drug-mimicking compound. Two sets of experiments were performed: luminosity experiments to assess the dye levels inside the nail after US and sham treatments and diffusion cell experiments for determination of changes in nail permeability due to US application...
December 30, 2017: Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine: Official Journal of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine
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