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Non alcoholic steatohepatitis in children

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922112/plasma-cathepsin-d-correlates-with-histological-classifications-of-fatty-liver-disease-in-adults-and-responds-to-intervention
#1
Sofie M A Walenbergh, Tom Houben, Sander S Rensen, Veerle Bieghs, Tim Hendrikx, Patrick J van Gorp, Yvonne Oligschlaeger, Mike L J Jeurissen, Marion J J Gijbels, Wim A Buurman, Anita C E Vreugdenhil, Jan Willem M Greve, Jogchum Plat, Marten H Hofker, Satish Kalhan, Jussi Pihlajamäki, Patrick Lindsey, Ger H Koek, Ronit Shiri-Sverdlov
Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is characterized by liver lipid accumulation and inflammation. The mechanisms that trigger hepatic inflammation are poorly understood and subsequently, no specific non-invasive markers exist. We previously demonstrated a reduction in the plasma lysosomal enzyme, cathepsin D (CatD), in children with NASH compared to children without NASH. Recent studies have raised the concept that non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in adults is distinct from children due to a different histological pattern in the liver...
December 6, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920819/co-administration-of-metformin-and-n-acetylcysteine-with-dietary-control-improves-the-biochemical-and-histological-manifestations-in-rats-with-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver
#2
Naglaa Mohamed El-Lakkany, Sayed Hassan Seif El-Din, Abdel-Nasser Abdel-Aal Sabra, Olfat Ali Hammam, Fatma Abdel-Latif Ebeid
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a burgeoning health problem that affects 1/3 of the adult population and an increasing number of children in developed countries. Oxidative stress and insulin resistance are the mechanisms that seem to be mostly involved in its pathogenesis. This study was conceived in a NAFLD rat model to evaluate the efficacy of both metformin (MTF) and N-acetylcysteine (NAC) with dietary control on biochemical and histologic liver manifestations. Rats were classified into nine groups; normal (I), NAFLD-induced by feeding high-fat diet (HFD; II) for 12 weeks, NAFLD switched to regular diet (RD; III), NAFLD-HFD or -RD treated with MTF in a dose of 150 mg/kg (IV, V), NAC in a dose of 500 mg/kg (VI, VII) or MTF+NAC (VIII, IX) respectively for 8 weeks...
October 2016: Research in Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869416/non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-a-new-epidemic-in-children
#3
Mirta Ciocca, Margarita Ramonet, Fernando Álvarez
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is considered one of the most common causes of liver disease in adults and children, consistent with the increased prevalence of obesity in both populations worldwide. It is a multifactorial condition involving a broad spectrum of liver diseases than range from simple steatosis to steatohepatitis, and characterized by histological findings of inflammation and fibrosis. Its pathogenesis and progression are not fully understood yet, and a more complete understanding of liver disease may aid in developing new therapies and noninvasive diagnostic tools...
December 1, 2016: Archivos Argentinos de Pediatría
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818597/comparison-of-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy-proton-density-fat-fraction-and-histological-analysis-in-the-quantification-of-liver-steatosis-in-children-and-adolescents
#4
Michele Di Martino, Lucia Pacifico, Mario Bezzi, Rossella Di Miscio, Beatrice Sacconi, Claudio Chiesa, Carlo Catalano
AIM: To establish a threshold value for liver fat content between healthy children and those with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) by using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), with liver biopsy serving as a reference standard. METHODS: The study was approved by the local ethics committee, and written informed consent was obtained from all participants and their legal guardians before the study began. Twenty-seven children with NAFLD underwent liver biopsy to assess the presence of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis...
October 21, 2016: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27688650/pediatric-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-recent-solutions-unresolved-issues-and-future-research-directions
#5
REVIEW
Maria Grazia Clemente, Claudia Mandato, Marco Poeta, Pietro Vajro
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in children is becoming a major health concern. A "multiple-hit" pathogenetic model has been suggested to explain the progressive liver damage that occurs among children with NAFLD. In addition to the accumulation of fat in the liver, insulin resistance (IR) and oxidative stress due to genetic/epigenetic background, unfavorable lifestyles, gut microbiota and gut-liver axis dysfunction, and perturbations of trace element homeostasis have been shown to be critical for disease progression and the development of more severe inflammatory and fibrotic stages [non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH)]...
September 28, 2016: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27581063/nonobese-fatty-liver-disease
#6
Donghee Kim, W Ray Kim
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) refers to a group of conditions characterized by hepatic steatosis in the absence of significant alcohol consumption. NAFLD is seen commonly in patients with metabolic abnormalities associated with obesity, such as type II diabetes, dyslipidemia, and metabolic syndrome. Evidently, however, not all obese subjects develop NAFLD and, more importantly, NAFLD can be found in nonobese individuals. Although NAFLD occurring in nonobese subjects has been reported in children and adults of all ethnicities, it appears to be recognized more frequently in Asians, even when strict ethnicity-specific body mass index criteria are used to define obesity...
August 28, 2016: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27567691/perilipin-staining-distinguishes-between-steatosis-and-nonalcoholic-steatohepatitis-in-adults-and-children
#7
Rotonya M Carr, Ravindra Dhir, Kalyankar Mahadev, Megan Comerford, Naga P Chalasani, Rexford S Ahima
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 25, 2016: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27565159/beverage-consumption-and-paediatric-nafld
#8
Antonella Mosca, Claudia Della Corte, Maria Rita Sartorelli, Francesca Ferretti, Francesco Nicita, Andrea Vania, Valerio Nobili
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common chronic liver disease in children and adolescents, due to the increased worldwide incidence of obesity among children. It is now clear enough that of diet high in carbohydrates and simple sugars are associated with hepatic steatosis and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Several studies have shown that an increased consumption of simple sugars is also positively associated with overweight and obesity, and related co-morbidities, such as type 2 diabetes, metabolic syndrome and NAFLD...
August 26, 2016: Eating and Weight Disorders: EWD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27442361/dietary-fructose-intake-in-obese-children-and-adolescents-relation-to-procollagen-type-iii-n-terminal-peptide-p3np-and-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#9
Rasha Tarif Hamza, Alaa Youssef Ahmed, Doaa Gamal Rezk, Amira Ibrahim Hamed
BACKGROUND: Excessive use of fructose has been incriminated as a risk factor for hepatic steatosis. Procollagen type III N-terminal peptide (P3NP) is a marker for steatohepatitis. Thus, we aimed to assess fructose intake in obese children and its relation to nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and P3NP. METHODS: Fifty-five obese children were compared to 30 controls. All were subjected to dietary fructose and anthropometric assessment, fasting blood sugar (FBS), fasting insulin (FI) and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), lipid profile, uric acid, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), P3NP and abdominal ultrasound...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism: JPEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27262842/hepatokines-and-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#10
Dariusz M Lebensztejn, Marta Flisiak-Jackiewicz, Irena Białokoz-Kalinowska, Anna Bobrus-Chociej, Irina Kowalska
Nowadays non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is becoming the most common chronic liver pathology both in adults and children. NAFLD manifestation ranges from a simple liver steatosis to steatohepatitis (nonalcoholic steatohepatitis - NASH), which may progress to advanced fibrosis, cirrhosis and end-stage liver disease. Due to the coexistence of visceral obesity, insulin resistance and dyslipidemia, NAFLD is considered to be the hepatic manifestation of metabolic syndrome. In recent years, in the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease and also NAFLD, more and more attention has been paid to the so-called organokines, proteins with both paracrine or/and endocrine activities...
2016: Acta Biochimica Polonica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27198736/reduced-lysosomal-acid-lipase-activity-a-potential-role-in-the-pathogenesis-of-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-in-pediatric-patients
#11
Praveen Kumar Conjeevaram Selvakumar, Mohammad Nasser Kabbany, Rocio Lopez, Giulia Tozzi, Anna Alisi, Naim Alkhouri, Valerio Nobili
BACKGROUND: Within the spectrum of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), recent evidence suggests that adult patients with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) have significantly lower blood lysosomal acid lipase (LAL) activity than those with steatosis. This has not been studied in pediatric patients with NAFLD. AIM: Investigate blood LAL activity in pediatric patients with NAFLD and assess its correlation with histological severity. METHODS: We collected data on consecutive children with biopsy-proven NAFLD including demographics, anthropometrics, and routine laboratory tests...
August 2016: Digestive and Liver Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27182456/role-of-serum-biomarkers-in-early-detection-of-non-alcoholic-steatohepatitis-and-fibrosis-in-west-virginian-children
#12
Komal Sodhi, Lucas Bracero, Andrew Feyh, Alexandra Nichols, Krithika Srikanthan, Tariq Latif, Deborah Preston, Joseph I Shapiro, Yoram Elitsur
BACKGROUND: Obesity, an epidemic among West Virginia children, as well as insulin resistance (IR), is well-established contributors to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Progression of NASH can lead to hepatic fibrosis and cirrhosis, making early detection imperative. The standard for diagnosing NASH is histologically via liver biopsy, which is highly invasive and generally contraindicated in children. By studying serum biomarkers associated with NASH, we aim to identify high risk children who can benefit from a less invasive, alternative approach to the early detection of NASH...
February 2016: Journal of Clinical & Cellular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26912150/novel-molecular-mechanisms-in-the-development-of-non-alcoholic-steatohepatitis
#13
REVIEW
Davide Povero, Ariel E Feldstein
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is one of the most common causes of chronic liver disease in adults and children worldwide. NAFLD has become a severe health issue and it can progress towards a more severe form of the disease, the non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). A combination of environmental factors, host genetics, and gut microbiota leads to excessive accumulation of lipids in the liver (steatosis), which may result in lipotoxicity and trigger hepatocyte cell death, liver inflammation, fibrosis, and pathological angiogenesis...
February 2016: Diabetes & Metabolism Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26734629/detection-of-carcinogenic-etheno-dna-adducts-in-children-and-adolescents-with-non-alcoholic-steatohepatitis-nash
#14
Ulrike Teufel, Teresa Peccerella, Guido Engelmann, Thomas Bruckner, Christa Flechtenmacher, Gunda Millonig, Felix Stickel, Georg F Hoffmann, Peter Schirmacher, Sebastian Mueller, Helmut Bartsch, Helmut K Seitz
BACKGROUND: Carcinogenic exocyclic-DNA adducts like 1,N(6)-etheno-2'-deoxyadenosine (εdA) are formed through reactive intermediates of 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE) or other lipid peroxidation (LPO) products with the DNA bases A, C, methyl-C and G. High levels of hepatic etheno-DNA adducts have been detected in cancer prone liver diseases including alcoholic liver disease (ALD). In ALD εdA levels correlated significantly with cytochrome P-450 2E1 (CYP2E1) expression which is also induced in non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH)...
December 2015: Hepatobiliary Surgery and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26573228/lps-induced-tnf-%C3%AE-factor-mediates-pro-inflammatory-and-pro-fibrogenic-pattern-in-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#15
Sara Ceccarelli, Nadia Panera, Marco Mina, Daniela Gnani, Cristiano De Stefanis, Annalisa Crudele, Chiara Rychlicki, Stefania Petrini, Giovannella Bruscalupi, Laura Agostinelli, Laura Stronati, Salvatore Cucchiara, Giovanni Musso, Cesare Furlanello, Gianluca Svegliati-Baroni, Valerio Nobili, Anna Alisi
Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is currently considered one of the major players in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) pathogenesis and progression. Here, we aim to investigate the possible role of LPS-induced TNF-α factor (LITAF) in inducing a pro-inflammatory and pro-fibrogenic phenotype of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH).We found that children with NAFLD displayed, in different liver-resident cells, an increased expression of LITAF which correlated with histological traits of hepatic inflammation and fibrosis...
December 8, 2015: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26074683/controversy-in-the-diagnosis-of-pediatric-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#16
REVIEW
Pierluigi Marzuillo, Anna Grandone, Laura Perrone, Emanuele Miraglia Del Giudice
In the last years childhood obesity has reached epidemic diffusion with about 200 million school-age children worldwide being overweight or obese. Simultaneously, also the prevalence of obesity comorbidities has been increased and the non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has become the most common form of liver disease in childhood. Also if there are some not-invasive diagnostic possibilities, the diagnostic gold standard is represented by hepatic biopsy giving to the clinicians the possibility to both diagnose the NAFLD and evaluate its progression to fibrosis or cirrhosis with greater certainty than other techniques...
June 7, 2015: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26069285/altered-gut-liver-axis-and-hepatic-adiponectin-expression-in-osas-novel-mediators-of-liver-injury-in-paediatric-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver
#17
Valerio Nobili, Anna Alisi, Renato Cutrera, Guido Carpino, Cristiano De Stefanis, Valentina D'Oria, Rita De Vito, Salvatore Cucchiara, Eugenio Gaudio, Giovanni Musso
BACKGROUND: Mechanism(s) connecting obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS) to liver injury in paediatric non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) are unknown. We hypothesised alterations in gut-liver axis and in the pool and phenotype of hepatic progenitor cells (HPCs) may be involved in OSAS-associated liver injury in NAFLD. METHODS: Eighty biopsy-proven NAFLD children (age, mean±SD, 11.4±2.0 years, 56% males, body mass index z-score 1.95±0.57) underwent a clinical-biochemical assessment, with measurement of insulin sensitivity, plasma cytokines, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), an intestinal permeability test and a standard polysomnography...
August 2015: Thorax
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25764498/circulating-soluble-fas-and-fas-ligand-levels-are-elevated-in-children-with-nonalcoholic-steatohepatitis
#18
Naim Alkhouri, Anna Alisi, Vera Okwu, Ammar Matloob, Federica Ferrari, Annalisa Crudele, Rita De Vito, Rocio Lopez, Ariel E Feldstein, Valerio Nobili
BACKGROUND: There is an urgent need to develop alternatives to liver biopsy in children to diagnose nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), the aggressive form of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Increased hepatocyte apoptosis plays a central role in the development of NASH. AIMS: To evaluate the plasma levels of two markers of apoptosis, soluble Fas (sFas) and soluble Fas ligand (sFasL), in children with NAFLD and assess their utility as biomarkers of disease severity...
August 2015: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25755423/non-invasive-diagnosis-of-fibrosis-in-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#19
Anil Arora, Praveen Sharma
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common chronic liver disease in developed as well as in developing countries. Its prevalence continues to rise currently affecting approximately 20-30% of adults and 10% of children in the United States. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease represents a wide spectrum of conditions ranging from fatty liver, which in general follows a benign non-progressive clinical course, to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), a more serious form of NAFLD that may progress to cirrhosis and end-stage liver disease...
June 2012: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25753407/paediatric-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-an-overview
#20
REVIEW
S A AlKhater
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a progressive disease that encompasses a spectrum of liver diseases, ranging from simple steatosis to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Data related to survival in children are scarce, but these data firmly associate NAFLD with higher risks of hepatic and non-hepatic morbidities and mortalities compared with the general population. More recently, the association between NAFLD and cardiovascular disease among children has increasingly been recognized. Given that obesity is a major risk factor for the disease, paediatric NAFLD is becoming a global issue, paralleling the dramatic rise in obesity worldwide...
May 2015: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
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