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Non alcoholic steatohepatitis in children

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587303/the-role-of-lipid-and-lipoprotein-metabolism-in-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#1
REVIEW
Francesco Massimo Perla, Maurizia Prelati, Michela Lavorato, Daniele Visicchio, Caterina Anania
Due to the epidemic of obesity across the world, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has become one of the most prevalent chronic liver disorders in children and adolescents. NAFLD comprises a spectrum of fat-associated liver conditions that can result in end-stage liver disease and the need for liver transplantation. Simple steatosis, or fatty liver, occurs early in NAFLD and may progress to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, fibrosis and cirrhosis with increased risk of hepatocellular carcinoma. The mechanism of the liver injury in NAFLD is currently thought to be a "multiple-hit process" where the first "hit" is an increase in liver fat, followed by multiple additional factors that trigger the inflammatory activity...
June 6, 2017: Children
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28556786/elevated-hemoglobin-level-is-associated-with-advanced-fibrosis-in-pediatric-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#2
Valentina Giorgio, Antonella Mosca, Arianna Alterio, Anna Alisi, Antonio Grieco, Valerio Nobili, Luca Miele
OBJECTIVES: Hemoglobin (Hb) and red blood cell distribution width (RDW) have been reported to be a risk marker of metabolic syndrome (MS) and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). No study exists on pediatric populations. We aimed to determine the association between hematological parameters, and the severity of disease in children with biopsy proven NAFLD. METHODS: 117 children (85 males, mean age 12 years) with ultrasound (US) evidence of NAFLD undergoing liver biopsy for diagnosis of non alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), were prospectively enrolled between January 2011 and May 2013 in the setting of a tertiary care centre...
April 27, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540988/pathologic-impact-of-insulin-resistance-and-sensitivity-on-the-severity-of-liver-histopathology-in-pediatric-non-alcoholic-steatohepatitis
#3
Byung Han Park, Jung Min Yoon, Ja Hye Kim, Jin Hwa Moon, Young Ho Lee, Se Min Jang, Yong Joo Kim
PURPOSE: Insulin resistance (IR) has an important role in the development of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). We aimed to analyze the association between liver histopathology and IR in pediatric patients with NASH. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In 24 children with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), we investigated whether the hepatic pathologic characteristics have relations with following three biochemical indices; IR index including homeostasis model assessment of IR (HOMA-IR), quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI), and insulin sensitivity indices-free fatty acid (ISI-FFA)...
July 2017: Yonsei Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511023/efficacy-of-docosahexaenoic-acid-choline-vitamin-e-dha-cho-ve-in-paediatric-nash-a-randomized-controlled-clinical-trial
#4
Evelyn Zöhrer, Alisi Anna, Jörg Jahnel, Antonella Moscla, Claudia Della Corte, Annalisa Crudele, Günter Fauler, Valerio Nobili
Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), a progressive form of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), is one of the most common hepatic diseases in children. We conducted a randomized controlled clinical trial on children with biopsy-proven NASH based on a combinatorial nutritional approach compared to placebo. Participants were assigned to lifestyle modification plus placebo, or lifestyle modification plus a mix containing docosahexaenoic acid, choline and vitamin E (DHA-CHO-VE). Forty children and adolescents concluded the trial...
May 16, 2017: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497760/the-intestinal-microbiome-and-paediatric-liver-disease
#5
REVIEW
Daniel H Leung, Dean Yimlamai
The intestinal microbiome has been the intense focus of recent study, but how the microbiota affects connected organs, such as the liver, has not been fully elucidated. The microbiome regulates intestinal permeability and helps to metabolise the human diet into small molecules, thus directly affecting liver health. Several studies have linked intestinal dysbiosis to the severity and progression of liver diseases, such as non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, primary sclerosing cholangitis, total parenteral nutrition-associated liver disease, and cystic fibrosis-associated liver disease...
June 2017: Lancet. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319602/low-hepatic-tissue-copper-in-pediatric-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#6
Michael Mendoza, Shelley Caltharp, Ming Song, Lindsay Collin, Juna V Konomi, Craig J McClain, Miriam B Vos
OBJECTIVE: Animal models and studies in adults have demonstrated that copper restriction increases severity of liver injury in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). This has not been studied in children. We aimed to determine if lower tissue copper is associated with increased NAFLD severity in children. METHODS: This was a retrospective study of pediatric patients who had a liver biopsy including a hepatic copper quantitation. The primary outcome compared hepatic copper concentration in NAFLD versus non-NAFLD...
March 17, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214020/serum-uric-acid-concentrations-and-fructose-consumption-are-independently-associated-with-nash-in-children-and-adolescents
#7
Antonella Mosca, Valerio Nobili, Rita De Vito, Annalisa Crudele, Eleonora Scorletti, Alberto Villani, Anna Alisi, Christopher D Byrne
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Recent research has suggested that dietary fructose intake may increase serum uric acid (UA) concentrations. Both UA concentration and fructose consumption maybe also increase in NAFLD. It is not known whether dietary fructose consumption and UA concentration are independently associated with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Our aim was to investigate the factors associated with NASH in children and adolescents with proven NAFLD, and to test whether UA concentrations and fructose consumption are independently associated with NASH...
May 2017: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28162008/clinical-implications-of-understanding-the-association-between-oxidative-stress-and-pediatric-nafld
#8
Jake P Mann, Massimiliano Raponi, Valerio Nobili
Oxidative stress is central to the pathogenesis of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. The reactive oxygen species (ROS) that characterise oxidative stress are generated in several cellular sites and their production is influence by multi-organ interactions. Areas covered: Mitochondrial dysfunction is the main source of ROS in fatty liver and is closely related to endoplasmic reticulum stress. Both are caused by lipotoxicity and together these three factors form a cycle of progressive organelle damage, resulting in sterile inflammation and apoptosis...
April 2017: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28144387/from-the-liver-to-the-heart-cardiac-dysfunction-in-obese-children-with-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#9
EDITORIAL
Anna Di Sessa, Giuseppina Rosaria Umano, Emanuele Miraglia Del Giudice, Nicola Santoro
In the last decades the prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has increased as a consequence of the childhood obesity world epidemic. The liver damage occurring in NAFLD ranges from simple steatosis to steatohepatitis, fibrosis and cirrhosis. Recent findings reported that fatty liver disease is related to early atherosclerosis and cardiac dysfunction even in the pediatric population. Moreover, some authors have shown an association between liver steatosis and cardiac abnormalities, including rise in left ventricular mass, systolic and diastolic dysfunction and epicardial adipose tissue thickness...
January 18, 2017: World Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922112/plasma-cathepsin-d-correlates-with-histological-classifications-of-fatty-liver-disease-in-adults-and-responds-to-intervention
#10
Sofie M A Walenbergh, Tom Houben, Sander S Rensen, Veerle Bieghs, Tim Hendrikx, Patrick J van Gorp, Yvonne Oligschlaeger, Mike L J Jeurissen, Marion J J Gijbels, Wim A Buurman, Anita C E Vreugdenhil, Jan Willem M Greve, Jogchum Plat, Marten H Hofker, Satish Kalhan, Jussi Pihlajamäki, Patrick Lindsey, Ger H Koek, Ronit Shiri-Sverdlov
Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is characterized by liver lipid accumulation and inflammation. The mechanisms that trigger hepatic inflammation are poorly understood and subsequently, no specific non-invasive markers exist. We previously demonstrated a reduction in the plasma lysosomal enzyme, cathepsin D (CatD), in children with NASH compared to children without NASH. Recent studies have raised the concept that non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in adults is distinct from children due to a different histological pattern in the liver...
December 6, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920819/co-administration-of-metformin-and-n-acetylcysteine-with-dietary-control-improves-the-biochemical-and-histological-manifestations-in-rats-with-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver
#11
Naglaa Mohamed El-Lakkany, Sayed Hassan Seif El-Din, Abdel-Nasser Abdel-Aal Sabra, Olfat Ali Hammam, Fatma Abdel-Latif Ebeid
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a burgeoning health problem that affects 1/3 of the adult population and an increasing number of children in developed countries. Oxidative stress and insulin resistance are the mechanisms that seem to be mostly involved in its pathogenesis. This study was conceived in a NAFLD rat model to evaluate the efficacy of both metformin (MTF) and N-acetylcysteine (NAC) with dietary control on biochemical and histologic liver manifestations. Rats were classified into nine groups; normal (I), NAFLD-induced by feeding high-fat diet (HFD; II) for 12 weeks, NAFLD switched to regular diet (RD; III), NAFLD-HFD or -RD treated with MTF in a dose of 150 mg/kg (IV, V), NAC in a dose of 500 mg/kg (VI, VII) or MTF+NAC (VIII, IX) respectively for 8 weeks...
October 2016: Research in Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869416/non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-a-new-epidemic-in-children
#12
Mirta Ciocca, Margarita Ramonet, Fernando Álvarez
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is considered one of the most common causes of liver disease in adults and children, consistent with the increased prevalence of obesity in both populations worldwide. It is a multifactorial condition involving a broad spectrum of liver diseases than range from simple steatosis to steatohepatitis, and characterized by histological findings of inflammation and fibrosis. Its pathogenesis and progression are not fully understood yet, and a more complete understanding of liver disease may aid in developing new therapies and noninvasive diagnostic tools...
December 1, 2016: Archivos Argentinos de Pediatría
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818597/comparison-of-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy-proton-density-fat-fraction-and-histological-analysis-in-the-quantification-of-liver-steatosis-in-children-and-adolescents
#13
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Michele Di Martino, Lucia Pacifico, Mario Bezzi, Rossella Di Miscio, Beatrice Sacconi, Claudio Chiesa, Carlo Catalano
AIM: To establish a threshold value for liver fat content between healthy children and those with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) by using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), with liver biopsy serving as a reference standard. METHODS: The study was approved by the local ethics committee, and written informed consent was obtained from all participants and their legal guardians before the study began. Twenty-seven children with NAFLD underwent liver biopsy to assess the presence of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis...
October 21, 2016: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27688650/pediatric-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-recent-solutions-unresolved-issues-and-future-research-directions
#14
REVIEW
Maria Grazia Clemente, Claudia Mandato, Marco Poeta, Pietro Vajro
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in children is becoming a major health concern. A "multiple-hit" pathogenetic model has been suggested to explain the progressive liver damage that occurs among children with NAFLD. In addition to the accumulation of fat in the liver, insulin resistance (IR) and oxidative stress due to genetic/epigenetic background, unfavorable lifestyles, gut microbiota and gut-liver axis dysfunction, and perturbations of trace element homeostasis have been shown to be critical for disease progression and the development of more severe inflammatory and fibrotic stages [non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH)]...
September 28, 2016: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27581063/nonobese-fatty-liver-disease
#15
REVIEW
Donghee Kim, W Ray Kim
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) refers to a group of conditions characterized by hepatic steatosis in the absence of significant alcohol consumption. NAFLD is seen commonly in patients with metabolic abnormalities associated with obesity, such as type II diabetes, dyslipidemia, and metabolic syndrome. Evidently, however, not all obese subjects develop NAFLD and, more importantly, NAFLD can be found in nonobese individuals. Although NAFLD occurring in nonobese subjects has been reported in children and adults of all ethnicities, it appears to be recognized more frequently in Asians, even when strict ethnicity-specific body mass index criteria are used to define obesity...
August 28, 2016: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27567691/perilipin-staining-distinguishes-between-steatosis-and-nonalcoholic-steatohepatitis-in-adults-and-children
#16
Rotonya M Carr, Ravindra Dhir, Kalyankar Mahadev, Megan Comerford, Naga P Chalasani, Rexford S Ahima
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27565159/beverage-consumption-and-paediatric-nafld
#17
REVIEW
Antonella Mosca, Claudia Della Corte, Maria Rita Sartorelli, Francesca Ferretti, Francesco Nicita, Andrea Vania, Valerio Nobili
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common chronic liver disease in children and adolescents, due to the increased worldwide incidence of obesity among children. It is now clear enough that of diet high in carbohydrates and simple sugars are associated with hepatic steatosis and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Several studies have shown that an increased consumption of simple sugars is also positively associated with overweight and obesity, and related co-morbidities, such as type 2 diabetes, metabolic syndrome and NAFLD...
December 2016: Eating and Weight Disorders: EWD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27442361/dietary-fructose-intake-in-obese-children-and-adolescents-relation-to-procollagen-type-iii-n-terminal-peptide-p3np-and-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#18
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Rasha Tarif Hamza, Alaa Youssef Ahmed, Doaa Gamal Rezk, Amira Ibrahim Hamed
BACKGROUND: Excessive use of fructose has been incriminated as a risk factor for hepatic steatosis. Procollagen type III N-terminal peptide (P3NP) is a marker for steatohepatitis. Thus, we aimed to assess fructose intake in obese children and its relation to nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and P3NP. METHODS: Fifty-five obese children were compared to 30 controls. All were subjected to dietary fructose and anthropometric assessment, fasting blood sugar (FBS), fasting insulin (FI) and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), lipid profile, uric acid, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), P3NP and abdominal ultrasound...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism: JPEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27262842/hepatokines-and-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#19
REVIEW
Dariusz M Lebensztejn, Marta Flisiak-Jackiewicz, Irena Białokoz-Kalinowska, Anna Bobrus-Chociej, Irina Kowalska
Nowadays non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is becoming the most common chronic liver pathology both in adults and children. NAFLD manifestation ranges from a simple liver steatosis to steatohepatitis (nonalcoholic steatohepatitis - NASH), which may progress to advanced fibrosis, cirrhosis and end-stage liver disease. Due to the coexistence of visceral obesity, insulin resistance and dyslipidemia, NAFLD is considered to be the hepatic manifestation of metabolic syndrome. In recent years, in the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease and also NAFLD, more and more attention has been paid to the so-called organokines, proteins with both paracrine or/and endocrine activities...
2016: Acta Biochimica Polonica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27198736/reduced-lysosomal-acid-lipase-activity-a-potential-role-in-the-pathogenesis-of-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-in-pediatric-patients
#20
Praveen Kumar Conjeevaram Selvakumar, Mohammad Nasser Kabbany, Rocio Lopez, Giulia Tozzi, Anna Alisi, Naim Alkhouri, Valerio Nobili
BACKGROUND: Within the spectrum of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), recent evidence suggests that adult patients with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) have significantly lower blood lysosomal acid lipase (LAL) activity than those with steatosis. This has not been studied in pediatric patients with NAFLD. AIM: Investigate blood LAL activity in pediatric patients with NAFLD and assess its correlation with histological severity. METHODS: We collected data on consecutive children with biopsy-proven NAFLD including demographics, anthropometrics, and routine laboratory tests...
August 2016: Digestive and Liver Disease
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