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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630313/targeting-reactive-nitrogen-species-suppresses-hereditary-pancreatic-cancer
#1
Mo Li, Qian Chen, Teng Ma, Xiaochun Yu
Germline mutation of BRCA2 induces hereditary pancreatic cancer. However, how BRCA2 mutation specifically induces pancreatic tumorigenesis remains elusive. Here, we have examined a mouse model of Brca2-deficiency-induced pancreatic tumors and found that excessive reactive nitrogen species (RNS), such as nitrite, are generated in precancerous pancreases, which induce massive DNA damage, including DNA double-strand breaks. RNS-induced DNA lesions cause genomic instability in the absence of Brca2. Moreover, with the treatment of antioxidant tempol to suppress RNS, not only are DNA lesions significantly reduced, but also the onset of pancreatic cancer is delayed...
June 19, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542139/regulator-of-g-protein-signaling-2-is-a-key-regulator-of-pancreatic-%C3%AE-cell-mass-and-function
#2
H Dong, Y Zhang, J Wang, D S Kim, H Wu, B Sjögren, W Gao, L Luttrell, H Wang
Pancreatic β-cell death and dysfunction contributes to the pathogenesis of both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. We aimed to examine whether the regulator of G protein signaling protein 2 (RGS2), a multifunctional inhibitor of G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) signaling, impacts β-cell death and function. Metabolic phenotypes, β-cell secretory function, and glucose and insulin tolerance were measured in RGS2 knockout (RGS2(-/-)) mice and their wild-type (RGS2(+/+)) littermate controls. β-Cell death was evaluated in RGS2-knockdown and -overexpressing β cells and RGS2(-/-) islets by flow cytometry, western blot, ELISA, TUNEL staining, and apoptosis RT(2) profiler PCR array analysis...
May 25, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537561/prediction-of-acute-pancreatitis-in-the-earliest-stages-role-of-biochemical-parameters-and-histopathological-changes
#3
Jacek Baj, Elżbieta Radzikowska, Marcin Maciejewski, Andrzej Dąbrowski, Kamil Torres
For many years, there has been a search for a set of biochemical parameters that could facilitate the assessment of severity, prognosis, and administration of early and appropriate treatment in acute pancreatitis. Administration of treatment within the first 48 hours since admission is associated with many problems of distinguishing patients with a mild form of acute pancreatitis (AP) from those with a severe form of acute pancreatitis. STUDY AIM: To assess the relationship between the extent of change in the concentration of 10 selected biochemical indicators: amylase, lipase, total bilirubin, creatinine, uric acid, aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, glucose, magnesium, and iron and histopathological lesions in the pancreas within 2 and 6 hours since induction of AP...
April 30, 2017: Polski Przeglad Chirurgiczny
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526921/glp-1-signalling-compensates-for-impaired-insulin-signalling-in-regulating-beta-cell-proliferation-in-%C3%AE-irko-mice
#4
Dan Kawamori, Jun Shirakawa, Chong Wee Liew, Jiang Hu, Tomoaki Morioka, Alokesh Duttaroy, Bryan Burkey, Rohit N Kulkarni
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: We aimed to investigate potential interactions between insulin and glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1 signalling pathways in the regulation of beta cell-cycle dynamics in vivo, in the context of the therapeutic potential of GLP-1 to modulate impaired beta cell function. METHODS: Beta cell-specific insulin receptor knockout (βIRKO) mice, which exhibit beta cell dysfunction and an age-dependent decrease in beta cell mass, were treated with the dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor vildagliptin...
May 20, 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513459/effects-of-granulocyte-colony-stimulating-factor-on-opsonin-receptor-expression-and-neutrophil-antibacterial-activity-in-a-mouse-model-of-severe-acute-pancreatitis
#5
Tuo Hong-Fang, Peng Yan-Hui, Bao Lei, Zhang Wan-Xing
The antimicrobial function of neutrophils, which is dependent on opsonin receptors, deteriorates in severe acute pancreatitis (SAP). Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) putatively enhanced levels of the opsonin receptors CD11b and CD32/16 in healthy human subjects, and provided protection against infection in animal models of SAP. A statistically convincing study of the effect of G-CSF on CD32/16 expression in an SAP model is lacking. We used a mouse model of SAP to investigate the association between G-CSF administration and CD32/16 levels on neutrophils and bacterial translocation...
May 9, 2017: Postȩpy Higieny i Medycyny Doświadczalnej
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500662/application-of-a-novel-bioreactor-for-in-vivo-engineering-of-pancreas-tissue
#6
Javad Hashemi, Parvin Pasalar, Masoud Soleimani, Reza Khorramirouz, Kiarad Fendereski, Seyed Ehsan Enderami, Abdol-Mohammad Kajbafzadeh
Type 1 diabetes is characterized by autoimmune destruction of pancreatic cells. Organ transplantation is an acceptable treatment for native organ failure. However, it is associated with several problems due to a number of reasons, such as the lack of appropriate donors and immunosuppression. In our present study, a novel model is presented for in vivo recellularization of acellular pancreas by implanting between the host pancreas and the adjacent omental flap. In this study, the pancreases were harvested and cannulated via the common bile duct and then, the scaffolds were acellularized by a detergent-based protocol...
May 13, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492724/human-islet-xenotransplantation-in-rodents-a-literature-review-of-experimental-model-trends
#7
Leandro Ryuchi Iuamoto, André Silva Franco, Fábio Yuji Suguita, Felipe Futema Essu, Lucas Torres Oliveira, Juliana Mika Kato, Matheus Belloni Torsani, Alberto Meyer, Wellington Andraus, Eleazar Chaib, Luiz Augusto Carneiro D'Albuquerque
Among the innovations for the treatment of type 1 diabetes, islet transplantation is a less invasive method of treatment, although it is still in development. One of the greatest barriers to this technique is the low number of pancreas donors and the low number of pancreases that are available for transplantation. Rodent models have been chosen in most studies of islet rejection and type 1 diabetes prevention to evaluate the quality and function of isolated human islets and to identify alternative solutions to the problem of islet scarcity...
April 2017: Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442472/functional-and-metabolomic-consequences-of-atp-dependent-potassium-channel-inactivation-in-human-islets
#8
Changhong Li, Amanda M Ackermann, Kara E Boodhansingh, Tricia R Bhatti, Chengyang Liu, Jonathan Schug, Nicolai Doliba, Bing Han, Karen E Cosgrove, Indraneel Banerjee, Franz M Matschinsky, Itzhak Nissim, Klaus H Kaestner, Ali Naji, N Scott Adzick, Mark J Dunne, Charles A Stanley, Diva D De León
Loss-of-function mutations of β-cell KATP channels cause the most severe form of congenital hyperinsulinism (KATPHI). KATPHI is characterized by fasting and protein-induced hypoglycemia that is unresponsive to medical therapy. For a better understanding of the pathophysiology of KATPHI, we examined cytosolic calcium, insulin secretion, oxygen consumption, and [U-(13)C]glucose metabolism in islets isolated from the pancreases of children with KATPHI who required pancreatectomy. Basal cytosolic calcium ([Ca(2+)] i ) and insulin secretion were higher in KATPHI islets compared to controls...
April 25, 2017: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434388/microrna-221-3p-is-up-regulated-and-serves-as-a-potential-biomarker-in-pancreatic-cancer
#9
Feng Li, Jian-Wei Xu, Lei Wang, Han Liu, Ye Yan, San-Yuan Hu
It has been demonstrated that circulating MicroRNAs (miRNAs) could be potential biomarkers for cancer diagnosis and prognosis. For pancreatic cancer (PCa), little is known about miR-221-3p biological function or its prognostic value. In the current study, we profiled miR-221-3p expression in PCa cell lines. Compared with normal pancreases ductal epithelial cells, miR-221-3p is up-regulated in all PCa cell lines analysed. In SW1990 cells, overexpression of miR-221-3p increased cell proliferation and inhibited apoptosis, while inhibition of miR-221-3p decreased cell growth rate and promoted apoptosis...
April 21, 2017: Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine, and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429231/a-method-for-microencapsulation-of-cells-and-a-device-for-its-realization
#10
S A Lepekhova, O A Goldberg, A A Kravchenko, A E Batraks, E V Koval, I S Kurgansky, K A Apartsin
The device for cell encapsulation makes it possible to fabricate microcapsules of a preset size with even smooth surface, without defects or adhesion to each other, with viable cells inside the capsule. The cells were derived from newborn piglet pancreases.
April 2017: Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396510/in-vivo-enrichment-of-diabetogenic-t-cells
#11
Martin A Thelin, Stephan Kissler, Frederic Vigneault, Alexander L Watters, Des White, Sandeep T Koshy, Sarah A Vermillion, David J Mooney, Thomas Serwold, Omar A Ali
Dysfunctional T cells can mediate autoimmunity, but the inaccessibility of autoimmune tissues and the rarity of autoimmune T cells in the blood hinder their study. Here, we describe a method to enrich and harvest autoimmune T cells in vivo using a biomaterial scaffold loaded with protein antigens. In model antigen systems, we find that antigen-specific T cells become enriched within scaffolds containing their cognate antigens. When scaffolds containing lysates from an insulin-producing β-cell line were implanted subcutaneously in autoimmune diabetes prone NOD mice, β-cell reactive T cells homed to these scaffolds and became enriched...
April 10, 2017: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376984/insulin-almost-a-century-of-lifesaving
#12
(no author information available yet)
The identification and purification of insulin in 1922 changed life for individuals with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). Its discovery was, to a certain extent, serendipitous. Although medical researchers suspected that some type of hormone was responsible for carbohydrate metabolism, by the end of the 19th century they had made little progress. When World War I broke out, efforts stalled. A somewhat cantankerous group of Canadian researchers led by Frederick Grant Banting, a surgeon, are credited with insulin's discovery...
April 1, 2017: Consultant Pharmacist: the Journal of the American Society of Consultant Pharmacists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28373771/pancreatic-hardness-correlation-of-surgeon-s-palpation-durometer-measurement-and-preoperative-magnetic-resonance-imaging-features
#13
Tae Ho Hong, Joon-Il Choi, Michael Yong Park, Sung Eun Rha, Young Joon Lee, Young Kyoung You, Moon Hyung Choi
AIM: To evaluate the correlation between subjective assessments of pancreatic hardness based on the palpation, objective measurements using a durometer, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings for assessing pancreatic hardness. METHODS: Eighty-three patients undergoing pancreatectomies were enrolled. An experienced surgeon subjectively evaluated the pancreatic hardness in the surgical field by palpation. The pancreatic hardness was also objectively evaluated using a durometer...
March 21, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28360408/senescence-of-pancreas-in-middle-aged-rats-with-normal-vascular-function
#14
Mohamad Kassem, Zahid Rasul Niazi, Malak Abbas, Ali El Habhab, Guillaume Kreutter, Sonia Khemais-Benkhiat, Cyril Auger, Maria-Cristina Antal, Valérie B Schini-Kerth, Florence Toti, Laurence Kessler
BACKGROUND In organ transplantation, particularly pancreas transplantation, donor age is a determinant factor for graft survival. Physiological aging is crucial in the progressive deterioration of organs in adulthood. We compared the senescence and function features of pancreas and vascular tissues in young rats and middle-aged rats. MATERIAL AND METHODS Islet morphology and the area of cells secreting insulin or glucagon was investigated using immunohistology in young rats (12 weeks) and middle-aged rats (52 weeks) (n=8)...
March 31, 2017: Annals of Transplantation: Quarterly of the Polish Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296236/development-of-the-endocrine-pancreas-in-the-beagle-dog-from-fetal-to-adult-life
#15
Emilie Bricout-Neveu, Severine Pechberty, Karine Reynaud, Cindy Maenhoudt, Marie José Lecomte, Philippe Ravassard, Paul Czernichow
Our objectives were to describe, in Beagle dogs, the ontogenesis of beta (insulin-producing) and alpha (glucagon-producing) cells from fetal to early postnatal life and adulthood. In addition, to have some insight into interspecies comparison, Beagle dog pancreases were compared to pancreases from a Labrador and Chow Chow. At midgestation, the epithelium was dense, beta cells scarce, and alpha cells numerous and concentrated in the center of the pancreatic bud. From 36 to 45 days post conception (pc), beta cell numbers increased and the epithelium expanded and branched out...
March 14, 2017: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293391/gestational-diabetes-leads-to-down-regulation-of-cdk4-prb-e2f1-pathway-genes-in-pancreatic-islets-of-rat-offspring
#16
Zahra Nazari, Mohammad Nabiuni, Mohsen Saeidi, Mohammad Jafar Golalipour
OBJECTIVES: The link between a hyperglycemic intrauterine environment and the development of diabetes later in life has been observed in offspring exposed to gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), but the underlying mechanisms for this phenomenon are still not clear. Reduced β-cells mass is a determinant in the development of diabetes (type 1 and type 2 diabetes). Some recent studies have provided evidence that the CDK4-pRB-E2F1 regulatory pathway is involved in β-cells proliferation...
February 2017: Iranian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281120/transduodenal-transpapillary-endopancreatic-surgery-with-a-rigid-resectoscope-experiments-on-ex-vivo-in-vivo-animal-models-and-human-cadavers
#17
Philip C Müller, Daniel C Steinemann, Felix Nickel, Lukas Chinczewski, Beat P Müller-Stich, Georg R Linke, Kaspar Z'graggen
BACKGROUND: Surgery for chronic pancreatitis is afflicted with high morbidity. A novel transduodenal-transpapillary endopancreatic resection (EPR) may provide a less invasive alternative approach. MATERIALS AND METHODS: After laparoscopic duodenotomy the papilla was dilated and accessed with a rigid resectoscope. A resection of pancreatic head tissue was performed from inside the organ. First, the feasibility and resection volume were assessed in bovine pancreas...
March 9, 2017: Surgical Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273237/effects-of-diazoxide-in-experimental-acute-necrotizing-pancreatitis
#18
Roberta de Oliveira Andrade, Tiago Kunitake, Marcia Kiyomi Koike, Marcel C C Machado, Heraldo Possolo Souza
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to assess the effects of diazoxide on the mortality, pancreatic injury, and inflammatory response in an experimental model of acute pancreatitis. METHODS: Male Wistar rats (200-400 g) were divided randomly into two groups. Fifteen minutes before surgery, animals received physiological (0.9%) saline (3 mL/kg) (control group) or 45 mg/kg diazoxide (treatment group) via the intravenous route. Acute pancreatitis was induced by injection of 2.5% sodium taurocholate via the biliopancreatic duct...
February 1, 2017: Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258621/endoscopic-ultrasonography-diagnosis-of-subepithelial-lesions
#19
REVIEW
Mitsuhiro Kida, Yusuke Kawaguchi, Eiji Miyata, Rikiya Hasegawa, Toru Kaneko, Hiroshi Yamauchi, Shuko Koizumi, Kosuke Okuwaki, Shiro Miyazawa, Tomohisa Iwai, Hidehiko Kikuchi, Maya Watanabe, Hiroshi Imaizumi, Wasaburo Koizumi
Using endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS), it is practicable to diagnose subepithelial lesions (SEL) with originating layer, echo level, and internal echo pattern etc. Lipoma, lymphangioma, and cyst have characteristic features; therefore, there is no need for endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration (EUS-FNA). Ectopic pancreas and glomus tumors, which originate from the third and fourth layers, are frequently seen in the antrum. However, ectopic pancreas located in the fundus or body is large and originates from the third and fourth layers (thickening of fourth layer)...
May 2017: Digestive Endoscopy: Official Journal of the Japan Gastroenterological Endoscopy Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28252345/evidence-of-stress-in-%C3%AE-cells-obtained-with-laser-capture-microdissection-from-pancreases-of-brain-dead-donors
#20
Aref Ebrahimi, Min-Ho Jung, Jonathan M Dreyfuss, Hui Pan, Dennis Sgroi, Susan Bonner-Weir, Gordon C Weir
Isolated islets used for transplantation are known to be stressed, which can result from the circumstances of death, in particular brain death, the preservation of the pancreas with its warm and cold ischemia, from the trauma of the isolation process, and the complex events that occur during tissue culture. The current study focused upon the events that occur before the islet isolation procedure. Pancreases were obtained from brain dead donors (n = 7) with mean age 50 (11) and normal pancreatic tissue obtained at surgery done for pancreatic neoplasms (n = 7), mean age 69 (9)...
March 4, 2017: Islets
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