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Surya Narayan Rath, Debasrita Das, V Badireenath Konkimalla, Sukanta Kumar Pradhan
Solid tumor is generally observed in tissues of epithelial or endothelial cells of lung, breast, prostate, pancreases, colorectal, stomach, and bladder, where several genes transcription is regulated by the microRNAs (miRNAs). Argonaute (AGO) protein is a family of protein which assists in miRNAs to bind with mRNAs of the target genes. Hence, study of the binding mechanism between AGO protein and miRNAs, and also with miRNAs-mRNAs duplex is crucial for understanding the RNA silencing mechanism. In the current work, 64 genes and 23 miRNAs have been selected from literatures, whose deregulation is well established in seven types of solid cancer like lung, breast, prostate, pancreases, colorectal, stomach, and bladder cancer...
September 2016: Genomics & Informatics
Yoon Suk Jung, Hyuk Lee, Kyungeun Kim, Jin Hee Sohn, Hong Joo Kim, Jung Ho Park
The current tissue sampling techniques for subepithelial tumors (SETs) of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract have limited diagnostic efficacy. We evaluated the diagnostic yield and safety of forceps biopsies after small endoscopic submucosal dissection (SESD biopsies) in the diagnosis of gastric SETs. A total of 42 patients with gastric SETs > 10 mm were prospectively enrolled between May 2013 and October 2014. A dual knife was used to incise the mucosa and submucosa and forceps biopsies were then introduced deep into the lesion...
November 2016: Journal of Korean Medical Science
Rona J Strawbridge, Agneta Hilding, Angela Silveira, Cecilia Österholm, Bengt Sennblad, Olga McLeod, Panagiota Tsikrika, Fariba Foroogh, Elena Tremoli, Damiano Baldassarre, Fabrizio Veglia, Rainer Rauramaa, Andries J Smit, Phillipe Giral, Sudhir Kurl, Elmo Mannarino, Enzo Grossi, Ann-Christine Syvänen, Steve E Humphries, Ulf de Faire, Claes-Göran Östenson, Lars Maegdefessel, Anders Hamsten, Alexandra Bäcklund
Type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease are complex disorders involving metabolic and inflammatory mechanisms. Here we investigated whether sCD93, a group XIV c-type lectin of the endosialin family, plays a role in metabolic dysregulation or carotid intima-media thickness (IMT). Although no association was observed between sCD93 and IMT, sCD93 levels were significantly lower in subjects with type 2 diabetes (n = 901, mean ± SD 156.6 ± 40.0 ng/mL) compared with subjects without diabetes (n = 2,470, 164...
October 2016: Diabetes
Payal Shah, Navina Lueschen, Amin Ardestani, Jose Oberholzer, Johan Olerud, Per-Ola Carlsson, Kathrin Maedler
AIMS: Changes in the islet vasculature have been implicated in the regulation of β-cell survival and function during the progression to type 2 diabetes (T2D). Failure of the β-cell to compensate for the increased insulin demand in obesity eventually leads to diabetes; as a result of the complex interplay of genetic and environmental factors (e.g. ongoing inflammation within the islets) and impaired vascular function. The Angiopoietin/Tie (Ang/Tie) angiogenic system maintains vasculature and is closely related to organ inflammation and angiogenesis...
2016: PloS One
Lan Shao, Boya Feng, Yuying Zhang, Huanjiao Zhou, Weidong Ji, Wang Min
Adipose tissue dysfunction correlates with the development of diabetes. Mice with an adipocyte-specific deletion of the SUMO-specific protease SENP1 develop symptoms of type-1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). Peri-pancreatic adipocytes (PATs) exert both systemic and paracrine effects on pancreases function. Our recent studies report that PATs of SENP1-deficient mice have increased proinflammatory cytokine production compared with other adipose depots. Proinflammatory cytokines produced from PATs not only have direct cytotoxic effects on pancreatic islets, but also increase CCL5 expression in adjacent pancreatic islets, which induces persistent inflammation in pancreases by acquisition of Th1 and Th17 effector T cell subsets...
July 2016: Adipocyte
Hongbeom Kim, Jin-Young Jang, Donghee Son, Seungyeoun Lee, Youngmin Han, Yong Chan Shin, Jae Ri Kim, Wooil Kwon, Sun-Whe Kim
Stapling is a popular method for stump closure in distal pancreatectomy (DP). However, research on which cartridges are suitable for different pancreatic thickness is lacking. To identify the optimal stapler cartridge choice in DP according to pancreatic thickness.From November 2011 to April 2015, data were prospectively collected from 217 consecutive patients who underwent DP with 3-layer endoscopic staple closure in Seoul National University Hospital, Korea. Postoperative pancreatic fistula (POPF) was graded according to International Study Group on Pancreatic Fistula definitions...
August 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Minoru Tsuchitani, Junko Sato, Hiroko Kokoshima
As basic knowledge for evaluation of pancreatic toxicity, anatomical structures were compared among experimental animal species, including rats, dogs, monkeys, and minipigs. In terms of gross anatomy, the pancreases of dogs, monkeys, and minipigs are compact and similar to that of humans. The rat pancreas is relatively compact at the splenic segment, but the duodenal segment is dispersed within the mesentery. In terms of histology, the islet of each animal is characterized by a topographic distribution pattern of α- versus β-cells...
July 2016: Journal of Toxicologic Pathology
Shan Gao, Xiuyuan Zhang, Yibo Qin, Shixin Xu, Ju Zhang, Zhihong Wang, Weiwei Wang, Deling Kong, Chen Li
Netrin-1 is typically known as a neural guidance cue, which has been implicated in pancreas development. Since regenerative, angiogenic and anti-inflammatory properties of Netrin-1 have been reported in multiple tissues, we have investigated the potential role of Netrin-1 in the endocrine islet and its implication in mice with high-fat diet (HFD)/streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes. Effects of exogenous Netrin-1 on β-cell [Ca(2+)]i, cyclic AMP (cAMP) and insulin production were assessed in vitro The long-term impact of Netrin-1 treatment was then evaluated in HFD/STZ-induced diabetic mice by subcutaneous implantation of osmotic minipumps which release Netrin-1 in a sustained manner for 4 weeks...
November 1, 2016: Clinical Science (1979-)
Sarah J Richardson, Teresa Rodriguez-Calvo, Ivan C Gerling, Clayton E Mathews, John S Kaddis, Mark A Russell, Marie Zeissler, Pia Leete, Lars Krogvold, Knut Dahl-Jørgensen, Matthias von Herrath, Alberto Pugliese, Mark A Atkinson, Noel G Morgan
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Human pancreatic beta cells may be complicit in their own demise in type 1 diabetes, but how this occurs remains unclear. One potentially contributing factor is hyperexpression of HLA class I antigens. This was first described approximately 30 years ago, but has never been fully characterised and was recently challenged as artefactual. Therefore, we investigated HLA class I expression at the protein and RNA levels in pancreases from three cohorts of patients with type 1 diabetes...
November 2016: Diabetologia
Yogesh A Kulkarni, Mayuresh S Garud
Among various metabolic disorders, diabetes mellitus is one of the most common disorder. Present study was designed to evaluate the effectiveness of aqueous extract of Bauhinia variegata leaves (AE) in animal models of type I and type II diabetes. Type I diabetes was induced by streptozotocin at the dose of 55mg/kg (i.p.) in male Sprague Dawley rats while type II diabetes was induced by high fat diet and streptozotocin at the dose of 35mg/kg (i.p.). Diabetic animals were treated with AE at the dose of 250, 500 and 1000mg/kg...
June 24, 2016: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Léon van Gurp, Cindy J M Loomans, Pim P van Krieken, Gitanjali Dharmadhikari, Erik Jansen, Femke C A S Ringnalda, Evelyne Beerling, Jacco van Rheenen, Eelco J P de Koning
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Dynamic processes in pancreatic tissue are difficult to study. We aimed to develop an intravital imaging method to longitudinally examine engraftment, vascularisation, expansion and differentiation in mature islets or embryonic pancreases transplanted under the kidney capsule. METHODS: Isolated pancreatic islets from adult mice and murine embryonic day (E)12.5 pancreases containing fluorescent biomarkers were transplanted under the kidney capsule of immunodeficient recipient mice...
November 2016: Diabetologia
Lizbeth Calzada, Angélica Morales, Tonantzin C Sosa-Larios, Luis A Reyes-Castro, Guadalupe L Rodríguez-González, Verónica Rodríguez-Mata, Elena Zambrano, Sumiko Morimoto
A maternal low-protein (LP) diet programs fetal pancreatic islet β-cell development and function and predisposes offspring to metabolic dysfunction later in life. We hypothesized that maternal protein restriction during pregnancy differentially alters β- and α-cell populations in offspring by modifying islet ontogeny and function throughout life. We aimed to investigate the effect of an LP maternal diet on pancreatic islet morphology and cellular composition in female offspring on postnatal days (PNDs) 7, 14, 21, 36, and 110...
August 2016: Nutrition Research
Noèlia Téllez, Marina Vilaseca, Yasmina Martí, Arturo Pla, Eduard Montanya
Limitations in β-cell regeneration potential in middle-aged animals could contribute to the increased risk to develop diabetes associated with aging. We investigated β-cell regeneration of middle-aged Wistar rats in response to two different regenerative stimuli: partial pancreatectomy (Px + V) and gastrin administration (Px + G). Pancreatic remnants were analyzed 3 and 14 days after surgery. β-Cell mass increased in young animals after Px and was further increased after gastrin treatment. In contrast, β-cell mass did not change after Px or after gastrin treatment in middle-aged rats...
September 1, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
Huw Twamley, Andrew Haigh, Claire Williment, Cara Hudson, Julie Whitney, James Neuberger
OBJECTIVES: Anecdotal evidence suggests that organ donation from deceased donors referred to the Coroner/Procurator Fiscal (PF) could be increased if all followed best practice. The aim of this prospective audit was to establish how referrals affected organ donation and to develop evidence-based guidelines to ensure that organ donation can be facilitated safely without interfering in the Coroner/PF's investigative process. DESIGN: Prospective audit. SETTING: All acute National Health Service Hospitals in the UK where deceased organ donation was considered...
2016: BMJ Open
Alice E Adriaenssens, Berit Svendsen, Brian Y H Lam, Giles S H Yeo, Jens J Holst, Frank Reimann, Fiona M Gribble
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Intra-islet and gut-islet crosstalk are critical in orchestrating basal and postprandial metabolism. The aim of this study was to identify regulatory proteins and receptors underlying somatostatin secretion though the use of transcriptomic comparison of purified murine alpha, beta and delta cells. METHODS: Sst-Cre mice crossed with fluorescent reporters were used to identify delta cells, while Glu-Venus (with Venus reported under the control of the Glu [also known as Gcg] promoter) mice were used to identify alpha and beta cells...
October 2016: Diabetologia
Daniel Pipeleers, Thomas Robert, Ines De Mesmaeker, Zhidong Ling
: : A depleted β-cell mass causes diabetes complications that cannot be avoided by insulin administration. β-Cell replacement can stop their development when restoring insulin's homeostatic role. This requires a sufficient number and an adequate functional state of the β cells, together defined as "functional β-cell mass." Intraportal implants of human pancreatic islet cells correct hyperglycemia in patients with type1 diabetes, but this effect is transient and often incomplete. Studies to improve outcome are hindered by shortage in donor pancreases...
July 5, 2016: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
Jinmai Jiang, Ana Clara P Azevedo-Pouly, Roxana S Redis, Eun Joo Lee, Yuriy Gusev, David Allard, Dhruvitkumar S Sutaria, Mohamed Badawi, Ola A Elgamal, Megan R Lerner, Daniel J Brackett, George A Calin, Thomas D Schmittgen
Transcribed ultraconserved regions (T-UCRs) are a class of non-coding RNAs with 100% sequence conservation among human, rat and mouse genomes. T-UCRs are differentially expressed in several cancers, however their expression in pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PDAC) has not been studied. We used a qPCR array to profile all 481 T-UCRs in pancreatic cancer specimens, pancreatic cancer cell lines, during experimental pancreatic desmoplasia and in the pancreases of P48Cre/wt; KrasLSL-G12D/wt mice. Fourteen, 57 and 29% of the detectable T-UCRs were differentially expressed in the cell lines, human tumors and transgenic mouse pancreases, respectively...
June 23, 2016: Oncotarget
Yusuke Katsuki, Hiroshi Yagi, Teru Okitsu, Minoru Kitago, Kazuki Tajima, Yoshie Kadota, Taizo Hibi, Yuta Abe, Masahiro Shinoda, Osamu Itano, Shoji Takeuchi, Yuko Kitagawa
OBJECTIVES: Because therapeutic options for severe diabetes are currently limited, there is a continuing need for new therapeutic strategies, especially in the field of regenerative medicine. Collaborative efforts across the fields of tissue engineering technology and islet biology may be able to create functionally engineered islets capable of restoring endocrine function in patients with insulin-dependent diabetes. METHODS: This engineered scaffold was seeded with isolated primary porcine islets via the pancreatic duct using a multi-step infusion technique...
September 2016: Pancreatology: Official Journal of the International Association of Pancreatology (IAP) ... [et Al.]
Mia Abels, Matteo Riva, Hedvig Bennet, Emma Ahlqvist, Oleg Dyachok, Vini Nagaraj, Liliya Shcherbina, Rikard G Fred, Wenny Poon, Maria Sörhede-Winzell, Joao Fadista, Andreas Lindqvist, Lena Kask, Ramasri Sathanoori, Marloes Dekker-Nitert, Michael J Kuhar, Bo Ahrén, Claes B Wollheim, Ola Hansson, Anders Tengholm, Malin Fex, Erik Renström, Leif Groop, Valeriya Lyssenko, Nils Wierup
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Insufficient insulin release and hyperglucagonaemia are culprits in type 2 diabetes. Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART, encoded by Cartpt) affects islet hormone secretion and beta cell survival in vitro in rats, and Cart (-/-) mice have diminished insulin secretion. We aimed to test if CART is differentially regulated in human type 2 diabetic islets and if CART affects insulin and glucagon secretion in vitro in humans and in vivo in mice. METHODS: CART expression was assessed in human type 2 diabetic and non-diabetic control pancreases and rodent models of diabetes...
September 2016: Diabetologia
Magnus Ståhle, Aksel Foss, Bengt Gustafsson, Marko Lempinen, Torbjörn Lundgren, Ehab Rafael, Gunnar Tufveson, Bastian Theisinger, Daniel Brandhorst, Olle Korsgren, Andrew Friberg
This study aimed to evaluate a 50/50 mix of perfluorohexyloctane/polydimethylsiloxane 5 (F6H8S5) preservation of pancreases in a clinical setting compared with standard solutions for 1) cold ischemia-time (CIT) <10 hour and 2) a extended CIT > 20 hour. Procured clinical grade pancreases were shipped in either F6H8S5 or in standard preservation solutions, i.e., University of Wisconsin (UW) or Custodiol. F6H5S5 were pre-oxygenated for at least 15 minutes. Included clinical grade pancreases were procured in UW or Custodiol...
May 27, 2016: Cell Transplantation
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