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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675174/landmarks-in-the-treatment-of-muscle-invasive-bladder-cancer
#1
REVIEW
Niyati Lobo, Chloe Mount, Kawa Omar, Rajesh Nair, Ramesh Thurairaja, Muhammad Shamim Khan
Muscle-invasive bladder cancer is an aggressive disease associated with high morbidity and mortality. Radical cystectomy is the mainstay of treatment and has evolved since the first reported cystectomy in 1887 to include pelvic lymph node dissection and the creation of increasingly sophisticated urinary diversions, such as neobladders and pouches, which enable patients to maintain continence. Pioneering work in the 1970s established the therapeutic activity of cisplatin in patients with bladder cancer and resulted in the introduction of cisplatin-based neoadjuvant chemotherapy, which led to the first improvement in survival outcomes in decades...
July 4, 2017: Nature Reviews. Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622175/predictors-prognosis-and-management-of-new-clinically-important-atrial-fibrillation-after-noncardiac-surgery-a-prospective-cohort-study
#2
Pablo Alonso-Coello, Deborah Cook, Shou Chun Xu, Alben Sigamani, Otavio Berwanger, Soori Sivakumaran, Homer Yang, Denis Xavier, Luz Ximena Martinez, Pedro Ibarra, Purnima Rao-Melacini, Janice Pogue, Kelly Zarnke, Pilar Paniagua, Jack Ostrander, Salim Yusuf, P J Devereaux
BACKGROUND: Despite the frequency of new clinically important atrial fibrillation (AF) after noncardiac surgery and its increased association with the risk of stroke at 30 days, there are limited data informing their prediction, association with outcomes, and management. METHODS: We used the data from the PeriOperative ISchemic Evaluation trial to determine, in patients undergoing noncardiac surgery, the association of new clinically important AF with 30-day outcomes, and to assess management of these patients...
July 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619757/cdk4-6-inhibitors-sensitize-rb-positive-sarcoma-cells-to-wee1-kinase-inhibition-through-reversible-cell-cycle-arrest
#3
Ashleigh M Francis, Angela Alexander, Yanna Liu, Smruthi Vijayaraghavan, Kwang Hui Low, Dong Yang, Tuyen Bui, Neeta Somaiah, Vinod Ravi, Khandan Keyomarsi, Kelly K Hunt
Research into the biology of soft tissue sarcomas has uncovered very few effective treatment strategies that improve upon the current standard of care which usually involves surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy. Many patients with large (>5cm), high-grade sarcomas develop recurrence, and at that point have limited treatment options available. One challenge is the heterogeneity of genetic drivers of sarcomas, and many of these are not validated targets. Even when such genes are tractable targets, the rarity of each subtype of sarcoma makes advances in research slow...
June 15, 2017: Molecular Cancer Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608597/perineal-techniques-during-the-second-stage-of-labour-for-reducing-perineal-trauma
#4
REVIEW
Vigdis Aasheim, Anne Britt Vika Nilsen, Liv Merete Reinar, Mirjam Lukasse
BACKGROUND: Most vaginal births are associated with trauma to the genital tract. The morbidity associated with perineal trauma can be significant, especially when it comes to third- and fourth-degree tears. Different interventions including perineal massage, warm or cold compresses, and perineal management techniques have been used to prevent trauma. This is an update of a Cochrane review that was first published in 2011. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effect of perineal techniques during the second stage of labour on the incidence and morbidity associated with perineal trauma...
June 13, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515847/pacemaker-recycling-a-notion-whose-time-has-come
#5
REVIEW
Mason W Runge, Timir S Baman, Sheldon Davis, Kevin Weatherwax, Ed Goldman, Kim A Eagle, Thomas C Crawford
The purpose of this paper is to summarize the need, feasibility, safety, legality, and ethical perspectives of pacemaker reutilization in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). It will also describe, in-depth, Project My Heart Your Heart (PMHYH) as a model for pacemaker reuse in LMICs. The primary source of the discussion points in this paper is a collection of 14 publications produced by the research team at the University of Michigan and its collaborative partners. The need for pacemaker reutilization in LMICs is evident...
April 26, 2017: World Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480326/combining-oncolytic-virotherapy-with-p53-tumor-suppressor-gene-therapy
#6
REVIEW
Christian Bressy, Eric Hastie, Valery Z Grdzelishvili
Oncolytic virus (OV) therapy utilizes replication-competent viruses to kill cancer cells, leaving non-malignant cells unharmed. With the first U.S. Food and Drug Administration-approved OV, dozens of clinical trials ongoing, and an abundance of translational research in the field, OV therapy is poised to be one of the leading treatments for cancer. A number of recombinant OVs expressing a transgene for p53 (TP53) or another p53 family member (TP63 or TP73) were engineered with the goal of generating more potent OVs that function synergistically with host immunity and/or other therapies to reduce or eliminate tumor burden...
June 16, 2017: Molecular Therapy Oncolytics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428885/the-why-what-and-how-of-the-new-fact-standards-for-immune-effector-cells
#7
EDITORIAL
Marcela V Maus, Sarah Nikiforow
Novel cellular therapies outside of traditional hematopoietic stem cell transplantation or hematopoietic progenitor cell (HPC) therapy are currently under evaluation in clinical trials across the United States and around the world. Several cellular products, e.g., CD19-directed Chimeric Antigen Receptor (CAR) T cells, are poised for FDA approval and thus increased use at a wider range of academic centers within the next year, with the likelihood of dissemination to standard oncology practice once safety is confirmed...
2017: Journal for Immunotherapy of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401731/impact-of-early-personal-history-characteristics-on-the-pace-of-aging-implications-for-clinical-trials-of-therapies-to-slow-aging-and-extend-healthspan
#8
Daniel W Belsky, Avshalom Caspi, Harvey J Cohen, William E Kraus, Sandhya Ramrakha, Richie Poulton, Terrie E Moffitt
Therapies to extend healthspan are poised to move from laboratory animal models to human clinical trials. Translation from mouse to human will entail challenges, among them the multifactorial heterogeneity of human aging. To inform clinical trials about this heterogeneity, we report how humans' pace of biological aging relates to personal-history characteristics. Because geroprotective therapies must be delivered by midlife to prevent age-related disease onset, we studied young-adult members of the Dunedin Study 1972-73 birth cohort (n = 954)...
August 2017: Aging Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384123/magnetic-resonance-imaging-with-hyperpolarized-agents-methods-and-applications
#9
Erin B Adamson, Kai D Ludwig, David G Mummy, Sean B Fain
In the past decade, hyperpolarized (HP) contrast agents have been under active development for MRI applications to address the twin challenges of functional and quantitative imaging. Both HP helium ((3)He) and xenon ((129)Xe) gases have reached the stage where they are under study in clinical research. HP (129)Xe, in particular, is poised for larger scale clinical research to investigate asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and fibrotic lung diseases. With advances in polarizer technology and unique capabilities for imaging of (129)Xe gas exchange into lung tissue and blood, HP (129)Xe MRI is attracting new attention...
July 7, 2017: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322974/current-modalities-in-cancer-immunotherapy-immunomodulatory-antibodies-cars-and-vaccines
#10
REVIEW
Jason Lohmueller, Olivera J Finn
Successes of immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) and chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cell therapy in curing patients with otherwise lethal cancers have validated immunotherapy as a treatment for cancer and have inspired excitement for its broader potential. Most promising is the ability of each approach to eliminate bulky and advanced-stage cancers and to achieve durable cures. Despite this success, to date only a subset of cancer patients and a limited number of cancer types respond to these therapies. A major goal now is to expand the types of cancer and number of patients who can be successfully treated...
March 16, 2017: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069160/implementing-lung-cancer-screening-the-us-experience
#11
REVIEW
D R Aberle
The reduced lung cancer mortality observed with low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) screening in the National Lung Screening Trial (NLST) has led to annual screening in the United States as a covered benefit by both private insurers and the federal health insurance programme, the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services. Reimbursement for screening requires data submission to a federal registry on all individuals, whether privately or federally insured. Data must document individual patient eligibility as well as shared decision-making regarding the benefits and risks of LDCT screening, smoking cessation counselling, and the importance of annual screening...
May 2017: Clinical Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007073/closing-in-on-the-pumpkin-trial-of-the-jarvik-2015-ventricular-assist-device
#12
REVIEW
J Timothy Baldwin, Iki Adachi, John Teal, Christopher A Almond, Robert D Jaquiss, M Patricia Massicotte, Kurt Dasse, Flora S Siami, Victor Zak, Jonathan R Kaltman, William T Mahle, Robert Jarvik
The Infant Jarvik ventricular assist device (VAD; Jarvik Heart, Inc., New York, NY) has been developed to support the circulation of infants and children with advanced heart failure. The first version of the device was determined to have elevated hemolysis under certain conditions. The objective of this work was to determine appropriate modifications to the Infant Jarvik VAD that would result in acceptably low hemolysis levels. In vitro hemolysis testing revealed that hemolysis was related to the shape of the pump blade tips and a critical speed over which hemolysis would occur...
January 2017: Seminars in Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery. Pediatric Cardiac Surgery Annual
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27990643/phase-1-randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-study-to-determine-the-safety-tolerability-and-pharmacokinetics-of-a-single-escalating-dose-and-repeated-doses-of-cn-105-in-healthy-adult-subjects
#13
Jeffrey T Guptill, Shruti M Raja, Felix Boakye-Agyeman, Robert Noveck, Sarah Ramey, Tian Ming Tu, Daniel T Laskowitz
Spontaneous intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) remains a devastating stroke subtype, affecting as many as 80,000 people annually in the United States and associated with extremely high mortality. In the absence of any pharmacological interventions demonstrated to improve outcome, care for patients with ICH remains largely supportive. Thus, despite advances in the understanding of ICH and brain injury, there remains an unmet need for interventions that improve neurologic recovery and outcomes. Recent research suggesting inflammation and APOE genotype play a role in modifying neurologic outcome after brain injury has led to the development of an APOE-derived peptide agent (CN-105)...
June 2017: Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930644/immunotherapy-for-the-treatment-of-breast-cancer-checkpoint-blockade-cancer-vaccines-and-future-directions-in-combination-immunotherapy
#14
REVIEW
Heather L McArthur, David B Page
Immunotherapy encompasses both vaccines that direct immune responses to tumor-associated antigens, and checkpoint blocking antibodies that inhibit immune system suppression by targeting key pathways mediated by cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen 4, programmed death 1 (PD-1), and programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1). Both of these approaches currently are being explored as potential strategies for the treatment of breast cancer. Recent studies suggest that immunotherapy is poised to change the therapeutic landscape for some breast cancers...
November 2016: Clinical Advances in Hematology & Oncology: H&O
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906472/long-term-clinical-impact-and-cost-effectiveness-of-obeticholic-acid-for-the-treatment-of-primary-biliary-cholangitis
#15
Sumeyye Samur, Matthew Klebanoff, Reiner Banken, Daniel S Pratt, Rick Chapman, Daniel A Ollendorf, Anne M Loos, Kathleen Corey, Chin Hur, Jagpreet Chhatwal
Primary biliary cholangitis (PBC) is a chronic, progressive autoimmune liver disease that mainly affects middle-aged women. Obeticholic acid (OCA), which was recently approved by the Food and Drug Administration for PBC treatment, has demonstrated positive effects on biochemical markers of liver function. Our objective was to evaluate the long-term clinical impact and cost-effectiveness of OCA as a second-line treatment for PBC in combination with ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) in adults with an inadequate response to UDCA...
March 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885887/cell-therapies-for-parkinson-s-disease-how-far-have-we-come
#16
Thomas B Stoker, Roger A Barker
Over the past three decades, significant progress has been made in the development of potential regenerative cell-based therapies for neurodegenerative disease, with most success being seen in Parkinson's disease. Cell-based therapies face many challenges including ethical considerations, potential for immune-mediated rejection with allogeneic and xenogeneic tissue, pathological spread of protein-related disease into the grafted tissue as well as the risk of graft overgrowth and tumorigenesis in stem cell-derived transplants...
December 2016: Regenerative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834476/bone-marrow-cells-for-heart-repair-clinical-evidence-and-perspectives
#17
Anweshan Samanta, Ajay K Kaja, Muhammad R Afzal, Ewa K Zuba-Surma, Buddhadeb Dawn
More than 15 years ago, bone marrow cell (BMC) therapy for cardiac repair was hailed as a highly promising and revolutionary treatment approach that was poised to benefit countless patients with ischemic heart disease (IHD) and heart failure. The ensuing years have unfortunately witnessed endless controversy not only about the mechanisms of action of cardiac repair with cell therapy, but also regarding the efficacy of such approach. Somewhat discordant results from smaller clinical trials with diverse study designs, BMC types, routes of injection, timing after myocardial infarction (MI), and other key study variables have been less than conclusive...
November 11, 2016: Minerva Cardioangiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27776790/the-association-of-health-literacy-and-blood-pressure-reduction-in-a-cohort-of-patients-with-hypertension-the-heart-healthy-lenoir-trial
#18
Jacqueline R Halladay, Katrina E Donahue, Crystal W Cené, Quefeng Li, Doyle M Cummings, Alan L Hinderliter, Cassandra L Miller, Beverly A Garcia, Edwin Little, Margorie Rachide, Jim Tillman, Alice S Ammerman, Darren DeWalt
OBJECTIVE: Lower health literacy is associated with poorer health outcomes. Few interventions poised to mitigate the impact of health literacy in hypertensive patients have been published. We tested if a multi-level quality improvement intervention could differentially improve Systolic Blood Pressure (SBP) more so in patients with low vs. higher health literacy. METHODS: We conducted a non-randomized prospective cohort trial of 525 patients referred with uncontrolled hypertension...
March 2017: Patient Education and Counseling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27755705/effects-of-fertilizer-on-inorganic-soil-n-in-east-africa-maize-systems-vertical-distributions-and-temporal-dynamics
#19
Katherine L Tully, Jonathan Hickman, Madeline McKenna, Christopher Neill, Cheryl A Palm
Fertilizer applications are poised to increase across sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), but the fate of added nitrogen (N) is largely unknown. We measured vertical distributions and temporal variations of soil inorganic N following fertilizer application in two maize (Zea mays L.)-growing regions of contrasting soil type. Fertilizer trials were established on a clayey soil in Yala, Kenya, and on a sandy soil in Tumbi, Tanzania, with application rates of 0-200 kg N/ha/yr. Soil profiles were collected (0-400 cm) annually (for three years in Yala and two years in Tumbi) to examine changes in inorganic N pools...
September 2016: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27627817/perioperative-aspirin-for-prevention-of-venous-thromboembolism-the-perioperative-ischemia-evaluation-2-trial-and-a-pooled-analysis-of-the-randomized-trials
#20
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
John W Eikelboom, Clive Kearon, Gordon Guyatt, Daniel I Sessler, Salim Yusuf, Deborah Cook, James Douketis, Ameen Patel, Andrea Kurz, Rene Allard, Philip M Jones, Rodolfo J Dennis, Thomas W Painter, Sergio D Bergese, Kate Leslie, Duminda N Wijeysundera, Kumar Balasubramanian, Emmanuelle Duceppe, Scott Miller, Johan Diedericks, P J Devereaux
BACKGROUND: The PeriOperative ISchemia Evaluation-2 (POISE-2) trial compared aspirin with placebo after noncardiac surgery. METHODS: The authors randomly assigned 10,010 patients undergoing noncardiac surgery to receive 200 mg aspirin or placebo 2 to 4 h before surgery and then 100 mg aspirin daily or placebo daily for up to 30 days after surgery. Herein, the authors report the effect of aspirin on venous thromboembolism (VTE), including deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism, as well as an updated pooled analysis of randomized trials of antiplatelet therapy for VTE prevention in noncardiac surgery patients...
December 2016: Anesthesiology
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