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Poise trial

Jacqueline R Halladay, Katrina E Donahue, Crystal W Cené, Quefeng Li, Doyle M Cummings, Alan L Hinderliter, Cassandra L Miller, Beverly A Garcia, Edwin Little, Margorie Rachide, Jim Tillman, Alice S Ammerman, Darren DeWalt
OBJECTIVE: Lower health literacy is associated with poorer health outcomes. Few interventions poised to mitigate the impact of health literacy in hypertensive patients have been published. We tested if a multi-level quality improvement intervention could differentially improve Systolic Blood Pressure (SBP) more so in patients with low vs. higher health literacy. METHODS: We conducted a non-randomized prospective cohort trial of 525 patients referred with uncontrolled hypertension...
October 20, 2016: Patient Education and Counseling
Katherine L Tully, Jonathan Hickman, Madeline McKenna, Christopher Neill, Cheryl A Palm
Fertilizer applications are poised to increase across sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), but the fate of added nitrogen (N) is largely unknown. We measured vertical distributions and temporal variations of soil inorganic N following fertilizer application in two maize (Zea mays L.)-growing regions of contrasting soil type. Fertilizer trials were established on a clayey soil in Yala, Kenya, and on a sandy soil in Tumbi, Tanzania, with application rates of 0-200 kg N/ha/yr. Soil profiles were collected (0-400 cm) annually (for three years in Yala and two years in Tumbi) to examine changes in inorganic N pools...
September 2016: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
John W Eikelboom, Clive Kearon, Gordon Guyatt, Daniel I Sessler, Salim Yusuf, Deborah Cook, James Douketis, Ameen Patel, Andrea Kurz, Rene Allard, Philip M Jones, Rodolfo J Dennis, Thomas W Painter, Sergio D Bergese, Kate Leslie, Duminda N Wijeysundera, Kumar Balasubramanian, Emmanuelle Duceppe, Scott Miller, Johan Diedericks, P J Devereaux
BACKGROUND: The PeriOperative ISchemia Evaluation-2 (POISE-2) trial compared aspirin with placebo after noncardiac surgery. METHODS: The authors randomly assigned 10,010 patients undergoing noncardiac surgery to receive 200 mg aspirin or placebo 2 to 4 h before surgery and then 100 mg aspirin daily or placebo daily for up to 30 days after surgery. Herein, the authors report the effect of aspirin on venous thromboembolism (VTE), including deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism, as well as an updated pooled analysis of randomized trials of antiplatelet therapy for VTE prevention in noncardiac surgery patients...
September 14, 2016: Anesthesiology
James T Thackeray, Frank M Bengel
The autonomic nervous system is the primary extrinsic control of heart rate and contractility, and is subject to adaptive and maladaptive changes in cardiovascular disease. Consequently, noninvasive assessment of neuronal activity and function is an attractive target for molecular imaging. A myriad of targeted radiotracers have been developed over the last 25 years for imaging various components of the sympathetic and parasympathetic signal cascades. While routine clinical use remains somewhat limited, a number of larger scale studies in recent years have supplied momentum to molecular imaging of autonomic signaling...
December 2016: Quarterly Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
Frederik Nevens, Pietro Andreone, Giuseppe Mazzella, Simone I Strasser, Christopher Bowlus, Pietro Invernizzi, Joost P H Drenth, Paul J Pockros, Jaroslaw Regula, Ulrich Beuers, Michael Trauner, David E Jones, Annarosa Floreani, Simon Hohenester, Velimir Luketic, Mitchell Shiffman, Karel J van Erpecum, Victor Vargas, Catherine Vincent, Gideon M Hirschfield, Hemant Shah, Bettina Hansen, Keith D Lindor, Hanns-Ulrich Marschall, Kris V Kowdley, Roya Hooshmand-Rad, Tonya Marmon, Shawn Sheeron, Richard Pencek, Leigh MacConell, Mark Pruzanski, David Shapiro
BACKGROUND: Primary biliary cholangitis (formerly called primary biliary cirrhosis) can progress to cirrhosis and death despite ursodiol therapy. Alkaline phosphatase and bilirubin levels correlate with the risk of liver transplantation or death. Obeticholic acid, a farnesoid X receptor agonist, has shown potential benefit in patients with this disease. METHODS: In this 12-month, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial, we randomly assigned 217 patients who had an inadequate response to ursodiol or who found the side effects of ursodiol unacceptable to receive obeticholic acid at a dose of 10 mg (the 10-mg group), obeticholic acid at a dose of 5 mg with adjustment to 10 mg if applicable (the 5-10-mg group), or placebo...
August 18, 2016: New England Journal of Medicine
David Wojciechowski, Flavio Vincenti
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The review will focus on the impact and current status of costimulatory blockade in renal transplantation. RECENT FINDINGS: The mainstay of immunosuppression in kidney transplantation is calcineurin inhibitors (CNIs) which have reduced acute rejection rates but failed to improve long-term allograft survival. Their cardiometabolic side-effects and nephrotoxicity have shifted the focus of investigation to CNI-free regimens. Costimulation blockade with belatacept, a second generation, higher avidity variant of cytotoxic T-lymphocyte associated protein 4 has emerged as part of a CNI-free regimen...
November 2016: Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension
Vinod S Hegade, Amardeep Khanna, Lucy J Walker, Lin-Lee Wong, Jessica K Dyson, David E J Jones
BACKGROUND: Fenofibrate (FF) has been suggested as a second-line agent in primary biliary cholangitis (PBC) patients who do not achieve adequate biochemical response to ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) monotherapy. Limited data exist on FF use beyond 12 months, and its long-term effects are unclear. AIM: To study the biochemical outcome of long-term (>12 months) FF treatment in combination with UDCA (FF + UDCA) in PBC patients and to determine the effect on predicted prognosis using the UK-PBC Risk Score...
October 2016: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
Zuzanna Pieniak, Sylwia Żakowska-Biemans, Eliza Kostyra, Monique Raats
BACKGROUND: Food, nutrition and health policy makers are poised with two pertinent issues more than any other: obesity and climate change. Consumer research has focused primarily on specific areas of sustainable food, such as organic food, local or traditional food, meat substitution and/or reduction. More holistic view of sustainable healthy eating behaviour has received less attention, albeit that more research is emerging in this area. METHODS/DESIGN: This study protocol that aims to investigate young consumers' attitudes and behaviour towards sustainable and healthy eating by applying a multidisciplinary approach, taking into account economical, marketing, public health and environmental related issues...
2016: BMC Public Health
Michael G Fehlings, Branko Kopjar, Robert G Grossman
INTRODUCTION: There is convincing evidence from the preclinical realm that the pharmacologic agent riluzole attenuates certain aspects of the secondary injury cascade leading to diminished neurological tissue destruction in animal spinal cord injury (SCI) models. The safety and pharmacokinetic profile of riluzole have been studied in a multicenter pilot study in 36 patients. Efficacy of riluzole in acute human SCI has not been established. METHODS: This ongoing multi-center, international double-blinded phase III randomized controlled trial will enroll 351 patients with acute C4 C8 SCI and ASIA Impairment Grade A, B, or C randomly assigned 1:1 to riluzole and placebo...
August 2016: Neurosurgery
Ruth McLaren, Frances Joseph, Craig Baguley, Denise Taylor
Textiles able to perform electronic functions are known as e-textiles, and are poised to revolutionise the manner in which rehabilitation and assistive technology is provided. With numerous reports in mainstream media of the possibilities and promise of e-textiles it is timely to review research work in this area related to neurological rehabilitation.This paper provides a review based on a systematic search conducted using EBSCO- Health, Scopus, AMED, PEDro and ProQuest databases, complemented by articles sourced from reference lists...
2016: Journal of Neuroengineering and Rehabilitation
Eric Karran, Bart De Strooper
The first description of Alzheimer's disease (AD) was made in 1907 by Alois Alzheimer (Allgemeine Zeitschrift fur Psyciatrie und Psychisch-Gerichtliche Medizin 64, 3, 1907), although other contemporary physicians had made similar, and rather more complete, assessments of the neuropathological changes present in the AD brain (Fischer, Monatsschr Psychiat Neurol 22, 17, 1907). Our knowledge of AD has increased dramatically and continues to accelerate. This year is 25 years after the publication of a series of papers that, in various ways, articulated the amyloid cascade hypothesis (ACH) for AD (Beyreuther and Masters, Brain Pathol 1, 241-251, 1991; Hardy and Allsop, Trends Pharmacol Sci 12, 383-388, 1991; Selkoe, Neuron 6, 487-498, 1991; Hardy and Higgins, Science 256, 184-185, 1992)...
June 3, 2016: Journal of Neurochemistry
Kerry S Courneya, Janette L Vardy, Christopher J O'Callaghan, Christine M Friedenreich, Kristin L Campbell, Harry Prapavessis, Jennifer J Crawford, Patti O'Brien, Haryana M Dhillon, Derek J Jonker, Neil S Chua, Sasha Lupichuk, Michael S Sanatani, Sharlene Gill, Ralph M Meyer, Stephen Begbie, Tony Bonaventura, Matthew E Burge, Jane Turner, Dongsheng Tu, Christopher M Booth
BACKGROUND: There is strong interest in testing lifestyle interventions to improve cancer outcomes; however, the optimal methods for achieving behavior change in large-scale pragmatic trials are unknown. Here, we report the 1-year feasibility results for exercise behavior change in the Canadian Cancer Trials Group CO.21 (CHALLENGE) Trial. METHODS: Between 2009 and 2014, 273 high-risk stage II and III colon cancer survivors from 42 centers in Canada and Australia were randomized to a structured exercise program (SEP; n = 136) or health education materials (HEM; n = 137)...
June 2016: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
L M Ward, V N Konji, J Ma
This article reviews the manifestations and risk factors associated with osteoporosis in childhood, the definition of osteoporosis and recommendations for monitoring and prevention. As well, this article discusses when a child should be considered a candidate for osteoporosis therapy, which agents should be prescribed, duration of therapy and side effects. There has been significant progress in our understanding of risk factors and the natural history of osteoporosis in children over the past number of years...
July 2016: Osteoporosis International
Nitin K Ahuja, Ashish Nimgaonkar
The prevalence and complexity of obesity and its associated metabolic complications highlight the importance of building a rigorous investigative framework for the development of novel weight loss therapies. Device-based interventions in particular constitute a market poised for rapid expansion in the coming years. Optimizing outcomes for this new class of therapies requires attention to an evolving taxonomy of subdivisions within the broader obesity phenotype and a means for stratifying patients toward maximally effective interventions...
July 2016: Obesity Surgery
Sungwook Yu, Janani Muhunthan, Richard Lindley, Nick Glozier, Stephen Jan, Craig Anderson, Qiang Li, Maree L Hackett
BACKGROUND: There is limited information regarding return to driving after stroke. AIMS: To determine the frequency and predictors of return to driving within 1 month of acute stroke in younger (age 18-65 years) adults. METHODS: POISE (Psychosocial Outcomes In StrokE) was a cohort study conducted in Australia between October 2008 and June 2010. Consecutive patients (age 18-65 years) with a recent (≤28 days) acute stroke were recruited. Validated demographic, clinical, mental health, cognitive, and disability measures including return to driving were obtained...
October 2016: International Journal of Stroke: Official Journal of the International Stroke Society
Rahul A Sheth, Pedram Heidari, Kevin Woods, Daniel Chung, Andrew T Chan, Umar Mahmood
White light colonoscopy is the current gold standard for early detection and treatment of colorectal cancer, but emerging data suggest that this approach is inherently limited. Even the most experienced colonoscopists, under optimal conditions, miss at least 15-25% of adenomas. There is an unmet clinical need for an adjunctive modality to white light colonoscopy with improved lesion detection and characterization. Optical molecular imaging with exogenously administered organic fluorochromes is a burgeoning imaging modality poised to advance the capabilities of colonoscopy...
2016: Gastroenterology Research and Practice
Raphael J Landovitz, Thuy Tien T Tran, Susan E Cohn, Ighovwhera Ofotokun, Catherine Godfrey, Daniel R Kuritzkes, Jeffrey L Lennox, Judith S Currier, Heather J Ribaudo
Antiretroviral therapy (ART) can minimize HIV transmission. Prevention benefits may be compromised by barriers to virologic suppression, and by increased condomless sex among those initiating ART. We evaluated condomless sex in a cohort of HIVinfected US individuals poised to initiate ART in a clinical trial. We assessed partner and sex act type, condom use, and perception of infectiousness. Six percent of participants reported as not infectious; men who have sex with men were more likely to perceive high infectivity...
March 16, 2016: AIDS and Behavior
Colin Ligon, Laura K Hummers
Scleroderma is a heterogenous disease characterized by autoimmunity, a characteristic vasculopathy, and often widely varying extents of deep organ fibrosis. Recent advances in the understanding of scleroderma's evolution have improved the ability to identify subgroups of patients with similar prognosis in order to improve risk stratification, enrich clinical trials for patients likely to benefit from specific therapies, and identify promising therapeutic targets for intervention. High-throughput technologies have recently identified fibrotic and inflammatory effectors in scleroderma that exhibit strong prognostic ability and may be tied to disease evolution...
March 2016: Current Rheumatology Reports
Ivayla I Geneva
Photobiomodulation (PBM), also known as low level laser therapy, has recently risen to the attention of the ophthalmology community as a promising new approach to treat a variety of retinal conditions including age-related macular degeneration, retinopathy of prematurity, diabetic retinopathy, Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy, amblyopia, methanol-induced retinal damage, and possibly others. This review evaluates the existing research pertaining to PBM applications in the retina, with a focus on the mechanisms of action and clinical outcomes...
2016: International Journal of Ophthalmology
Victor Rodriguez-Freixinos, Helen J Mackay, Katherine Karakasis, Amit M Oza
INTRODUCTION: Epithelial ovarian cancer is the most lethal gynecologic malignancy. Recent advances in understanding the biology and its molecular and histological diversity have led to mechanism based therapeutic strategies such as poly-ADP-ribose polymerase inhibitors (PARP) targeting homologous recombination deficient tumor cells and anti-angiogenic therapies. Clinical trial designs in ovarian cancer have to evolve to incorporate assessment of the genomic complexity and identify predictive biomarkers to improve precision of treatment and outcome...
June 2016: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
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