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research in infertility

Erin M Mobley, Kristin J Foster, William W Terry
PURPOSE: In an effort to counteract the differences in improvement in survival rates of adolescents and young adults (AYA), compared to other age groups with cancer, the University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics established an AYA cancer program. This study was conducted to gather feedback from AYAs in an effort to generate actionable data for program development. METHODS: The target population included patients aged 13-31 treated for malignancy in one of the following disease sites: central nervous system, leukemia, lymphoma, neuroendocrine, sarcoma, and thyroid...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Adolescent and Young Adult Oncology
Maria C Fernandez, Cristian O'Flaherty
STUDY QUESTION: Are all components of the peroxiredoxins (PRDXs) system important to control the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) to maintain viability and DNA integrity in spermatozoa? SUMMARY ANSWER: PRDX6 is the primary player of the PRDXs system for maintaining viability and DNA integrity in human spermatozoa. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Mammalian spermatozoa are sensitive to high levels of ROS and PRDXs are antioxidant enzymes proven to control the levels of ROS generated during sperm capacitation to avoid oxidative damage in the spermatozoon...
June 15, 2018: Human Reproduction
C Chen, X Xu, L Kong, P Li, F Zhou, S Zhao, X Xin, J Tan, X Zhang
Empty follicle syndrome (EFS) is a disorder associated with female infertility and presents as a complete failure to retrieve oocytes during ART cycles despite normal follicle development and careful aspiration. To date, only two EFS cases have been reported with homozygous missense mutations in the luteinizing hormone/chorionic gonadotropin receptor (LHCGR) gene, and both cases showed normal estradiol (E2) production during ovulation induction. The molecular genetic mechanisms of EFS remain unknown. Herein, we report two novel homozygous inactivating LHCGR mutations, c...
June 15, 2018: Human Reproduction
Bufang Xu, Mingjuan Zhou, Jingwen Wang, Dan Zhang, Feng Guo, Chenchen Si, Peter C K Leung, Aijun Zhang
STUDY QUESTION: Is allograft inflammatory factor-1 (AIF-1), a cytokine associated with inflammation and allograft rejection, aberrantly elevated in in vitro fertilization (IVF) cycles with gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) antagonist protocol with potential effects on endometrial receptivity? SUMMARY ANSWER: Our findings indicated AIF-1 is increased in IVF cycles with GnRH antagonist protocol and mediates greater TNF-α expression during implantation phase, which may be unfavorable for embryo implantation...
June 12, 2018: Human Reproduction
Sahar Moghbelinejad, Reza Najafipour, Abdolmabood Momeni
Since genes involved in microRNA biogenesis pathways have a main role in impaired spermatogenesis, in this research, we evaluated different genotypes frequency of seven single-nucleotide polymorphisms in DICER1 and DROSHA genes. Different genotypes frequency of DICER1 (rs12323635, rs1057035, rs13078 and rs3742330) and DROSHA (rs10719, rs642321 and rs2291102) were determined by sequencing method in 385 infertile men and 120 fertile controls. It was found that CC genotype (P = 0.000) and C allele (P = 0...
January 2018: Genes & Genomics
Grigory A Demyashkin
Inhibin B is one of the most significant serum markers of spermatogenesis, but its testicular expression has been poorly studied. Inhibin B sensitivity as well as the ability to reflect the level and condition of spermatogenesis and forecast certain changes in reproductive homeostasis in males is still a subject of active discussion. The purpose of this study is to examine the level of expression of inhibin B in cells of human seminiferous tubules in normal and in pathological spermatogenesis (idiopathic infertility) by revealing the proportion of immunostaining cells for inhibin B...
June 9, 2018: Systems Biology in Reproductive Medicine
Engin Oral, Ovgu Aydin, Banu Aygun Kumbak, Sennur İlvan, Handan Yilmaz, Esra Tustas, Tugan Bese, Fuat Demirkiran, Macit Arvas
The aim of the study was to reveal the prevalence of concomitant endometriosis in malignant and borderline ovarian tumours. A retrospective analysis was performed of 530 patients with malignant ovarian tumours and 131 with borderline ovarian tumours, who underwent surgery in our hospital between 1995 and 2011. Forty-eight (7.3%) of 661 patients with malignant and borderline ovarian tumours were associated with endometriosis. Of the 48 endometriosis cases, 73% of those were atypical. Infertility was noted in 38% of patients with endometriosis-associated ovarian tumours...
June 8, 2018: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology: the Journal of the Institute of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
Ayman Shehata Dawood, Adel Elshahat Elgergawy
This cross-sectional study was designed to evaluate the incidences and sites of pelvic adhesions in women with post-caesarean unexplained infertility. This study was conducted at the Tanta University Hospitals in the period from August 1 2015 to July 31 2016. The enrolled patients were assessed by a diagnostic laparoscopy for the presence and sites of abdominal and pelvic adhesions. Pelvic adhesions were found in 98 cases (73.13%) and the remaining 36 cases (26.87%) were free of adhesions. Adhesions were tubal in 55...
June 8, 2018: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology: the Journal of the Institute of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
Barbara Advena-Regnery, Hans-Georg Dederer, Franziska Enghofer, Tobias Cantz, Thomas Heinemann
Recent results from studies on animals suggest that functional germ cells may be generated from human pluripotent stem cells, giving rise to three possibilities: research with these so-called artificial gametes, including fertilization experiments in vitro; their use in vivo for therapy for the treatment of human infertility; and their use in assisted reproductive technologies in vitro. While the legal, philosophical, and ethical questions associated with these possibilities have been already discussed intensively in other countries, the debate in Germany is still at its beginning...
June 2018: Bioethics
Emily Richardson, John Bedson, Ying Chen, Rosemary Lacey, Kate M Dunn
BACKGROUND: One fifth of primary care attendees suffer chronic non-cancer pain, with musculoskeletal conditions the leading cause. 12% of patients with chronic non-cancer pain are prescribed strong opioids. Evidence suggests long-term opioid use is related to hypogonadism in men, but the relationship in women is unclear. Our aim was to investigate reproductive dysfunction in women prescribed long-term opioids for musculoskeletal pain. METHODS: We undertook a matched (matched 1:1; for year of birth, year of start of follow-up and practice) cohort study of women aged 18-55 years old, with musculoskeletal pain and an opioid prescription in the Clinical Practice Research Datalink (a primary care database) between 2002 and 2013...
June 6, 2018: European Journal of Pain: EJP
Robert Klitzman
BACKGROUND: Infertility patients generally see provider-patient communication and relationships as important, but as often insufficient, raising critical questions regarding why these gaps persist, and how they might best be addressed. METHODS: Semi-structured interviews of approximately one hour each were conducted with 37 ART providers and patients (17 physicians, 10 other health providers, and 10 patients) and were thematically analyzed. RESULTS: Patients see clinicians' interactions as ranging widely from good to bad, related to several specific barriers and factors...
June 5, 2018: BMC Women's Health
Norbert Gleicher
BACKGROUND: Due to rapid research progress in reproductive biology and reproductive clinical endocrinology, many human infertility treatments are close to potential breakthroughs and translational applications. We here review current barriers, where such breakthroughs will likely come from, what they will entail, and their potential clinical applications. MAIN TEXT: The radical nature of change will primarily benefit older women, reduce fertility treatment costs and thereby expand access to treatment...
June 4, 2018: Journal of Translational Medicine
Helena Volgsten, Caroline Jansson, Agneta Skoog Svanberg, Elisabeth Darj, Anneli Stavreus-Evers
OBJECTIVE: Although miscarriage is common and affects up to 20% of pregnant women, little is known about these couples' short term and long term experiences after miscarriage. The aim of the present study was to study emotional experience, grief and depressive symptoms in women and men, one week and four months after miscarriage. RESEARCH DESIGN /SETTING: Women, (n = 103), and their male partner (n = 78), were recruited at the gynecological clinic after miscarriage...
June 1, 2018: Midwifery
Allison Werner-Lin, Anne L Ersig, Rebecca Mueller, Jennifer L Young, Lindsey M Hoskins, Ria Desai, Mark H Greene
Deleterious mutations in BRCA1 or BRCA2 genes increase a woman's lifetime risk of breast and ovarian cancer. Risk management guidelines endorse early detection and prevention behaviors. Despite expressed intent, uptake of these measures remains low. This longitudinal, qualitative study integrated retrospective and prospective data to distinguish factors shaping intent to act from those that are catalysts to taking action to reduce cancer risk. Twelve BRCA1/2 mutation-positive women participating in the National Cancer Institute's Breast Imaging Study aged 18-35 completed two semi-structured interviews three years apart...
June 4, 2018: Journal of Psychosocial Oncology
Susann Karlberg, Aila Tiitinen, Henrik Alfthan, Marita Lipsanen-Nyman
STUDY QUESTION: What is the timing of onset and clinical course of premature ovarian insufficiency (POI) in patients with Mulibrey nanism (MUL), a monogenic disorder caused by mutations of the peroxisomal TRIM37 gene? SUMMARY ANSWER: The number of ovarian follicles is highly reduced already in infant and young MUL girls and the majority of them will have early depletion of follicles resulting in clinical and biochemical signs of POI. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Both female and male patients with MUL show failure of sexual maturation, signs of hypogonadism and infertility...
June 1, 2018: Human Reproduction
Massimo Alfano, Roberto Ferrarese, Irene Locatelli, Eugenio Ventimiglia, Silvia Ippolito, Pierangela Gallina, Daniela Cesana, Filippo Canducci, Luca Pagliardini, Paola Viganò, Massimo Clementi, Manuela Nebuloni, Francesco Montorsi, Andrea Salonia
STUDY QUESTION: Given the relevant role of the extracellular microenvironment in regulating tissue homeostasis, is testicular bacterial microbiome (BM) associated with germ cell aplasia in idiopathic non-obstructive azoospermia (iNOA)? SUMMARY ANSWER: A steady increase of dysbiosis was observed among testis with normal spermatogenesis vs. iNOA with positive sperm retrieval and iNOA with complete germ cell aplasia. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Tissue-associated BM has been reported to be a biologically important extracellular microenvironment component for numerous body habitats, but not yet for the human testis...
May 30, 2018: Human Reproduction
Emiko Nishioka
In this paper, we describe the trends in research on adolescent sexuality education in Japan and other countries and on fertility awareness, as well as the possibility of life planning based on sex and reproductive health education. Mason-Jones AJ et al. reviewed the results of school-based intervention studies on the prevention of human immunodeficiency virus infection, sexually transmitted diseases, and pregnancy. There is little evidence supporting the idea that educational curriculum-based programs alone are effective in improving sex and reproductive health outcomes in adolescents...
2018: Nihon Eiseigaku Zasshi. Japanese Journal of Hygiene
Jong-Yi Wang, Jen-De Chen, Chun-Chi Huang, Chiu-Shong Liu, Tsai-Fang Chung, Ming-Hong Hsieh, Chia-Woei Wang
OBJECTIVES: Infertile patients are vulnerable to mental disorders. However, a time-dependent model predicting the onset of mental disorders specific to infertile patients is lacking. This study examined the risk factors for the development of mental disorders in infertile patients and measured the duration until the occurrence of mental disorders after a diagnosis of infertility. METHODS: A total of 13,317 infertile patients in the 2002-2013 Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database were observed...
May 31, 2018: European Journal of Contraception & Reproductive Health Care
Laura Smy, Joely Straseski
The measurement of estrogens is important for diagnosing and monitoring the health of women, men, and children. For example, for postmenopausal women or women undergoing treatment for breast cancer with aromatase inhibitors, the measurement of extremely low concentrations of estrogens in serum, especially estradiol, is problematic but essential for proper medical care. Achieving superb analytical sensitivity and specificity has been and continues to be a challenge for the clinical laboratory, but is a challenge that is being taken seriously...
May 22, 2018: Clinical Biochemistry
J Boivin, E Koert, T Harris, L O'Shea, A Perryman, K Parker, C Harrison
STUDY QUESTION: Does the provision of fertility (compared to control) information affect fertility-related knowledge, perceived threat of infertility, anxiety, physical stress and fertility plans in adolescents and emerging adults? SUMMARY ANSWER: The provision of fertility information was associated with increased fertility knowledge (emerging adults) and greater infertility threat (adolescents and emerging adults). WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: According to fertility education research, adolescents and emerging adults know less than they should know about fertility topics...
May 17, 2018: Human Reproduction
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