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research in infertility

Andrea C Johnson, Darren Mays, Kathryn Rehberg, Aziza Shad, Kenneth P Tercyak
PURPOSE: Adolescent and young adult (AYA) cancer survivors experience fertility and childrearing challenges in adulthood, but there is limited evidence on awareness, beliefs, and concerns about oncofertility in this population, needs for supportive resources, and associations with quality of life (QoL). METHODS: Participants were 69 AYAs aged 12-25 who were diagnosed with cancer at age 18 years or younger and ≥1 year cancer free, recruited from childhood cancer clinical records and support organizations...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Adolescent and Young Adult Oncology
Roshan Dadachanji, Nuzhat Shaikh, Srabani Mukherjee
Polycystic ovary syndrome is a multifactorial endocrine disorder whose pathophysiology baffles many researchers till today. This syndrome is typically characterized by anovulatory cycles and infertility, altered gonadotropin levels, obesity, and bulky multifollicular ovaries on ultrasound. Hyperandrogenism and insulin resistance are hallmark features of its complex pathophysiology. Hyperandrogenemia is a salient feature of PCOS and a major contributor to cosmetic anomalies including hirsutism, acne, and male pattern alopecia in affected women...
2018: Genetics Research International
Chunkit Fung, Paul Dinh, Shirin Ardeshir-Rouhani-Fard, Kerry Schaffer, Sophie D Fossa, Lois B Travis
Testicular cancer has become the paradigm of adult-onset cancer survivorship, due to the young age at diagnosis and 10-year relative survival of 95%. This clinical review presents the current status of various treatment-related complications experienced by long-term testicular cancer survivors (TCS) free of disease for 5 or more years after primary treatment. Cardiovascular disease and second malignant neoplasms represent the most common potentially life-threatening late effects. Other long-term adverse outcomes include neuro- and ototoxicity, pulmonary complications, nephrotoxicity, hypogonadism, infertility, and avascular necrosis...
2018: Advances in Urology
Griffith A Bell, Rajeshwari Sundaram, Sunni L Mumford, Hyojun Park, James Mills, Erin M Bell, Miranda Broadney, Edwina H Yeung
STUDY QUESTION: Is maternal polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) associated with developmental delays in offspring? SUMMARY ANSWER: Offspring of mothers with PCOS were at higher risk of failure on the Ages and Stages Questionnaire (ASQ). WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: There is growing evidence that offspring of mothers with PCOS may be at higher risk for developmental disorders due to potential exposure to hyperandrogenism and insulin resistance. Few studies exist regarding maternal PCOS and early childhood development in the USA...
April 13, 2018: Human Reproduction
Zahra Pourmoghadam, Leili Aghebati-Maleki, Morteza Motalebnezhad, Bahman Yousefi, Mehdi Yousefi
Infertility is the inability to conceive after having regular unprotected sexual intercourse for more than 12 months and it can be caused by reproductive problems of men, women, or both, but sometimes the cause of infertility is unknown. At least 30 million men around the world suffer from infertility, most of whom are in Africa and Eastern Europe. Since infertility problems can have devastating emotional effects on couples as well as negative effects on the society, treatment of infertility is very important, as a result of which many studies have been carried out in this field and many treatments have been proposed...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Magdalena Frej-Mądrzak, Anna Gryboś, Marian Gryboś, Dorota Teryks-Wołyniec, Agnieszka Jama-Kmiecik, Jolanta Sarowska, Irena Choroszy-Król
OBJECTIVES: Chlamydial infection is often asymptomatic. The lack of symptoms may result in the infection developing into a chronic. Chlamydial infections of the genitourinary system in women can lead to serious complications like PID, fallopian tubes infertility, ectopic pregnancy, and chronic pelvic pain. An infection of the genitourinary system does not cause any lasting immune resistance and does not protect against re-infection. The aim of this research was to conduct tests for Chlamydia trachomatis on healthy women without any genital system symptoms and to estimate the frequency of asymptomatic infections...
2018: Ginekologia Polska
Federica Sammali, Nienke Pertronella Maria Kuijsters, Benedictus Christiaan Schoot, Massimo Mischi, Chiara Rabotti
PURPOSE: Uterine activity plays a key role in reproduction, and altered patterns of uterine contractility have been associated with important physiopathological conditions, such as subfertility, dysmenorrhea, and endometriosis. However, there is currently no method to objectively quantify uterine contractility outside pregnancy without interfering with the spontaneous contraction pattern. Transabdominal electrohysterography has great potential as a clinical tool to characterize noninvasively uterine activity, but results of this technique in nonpregnant women are poorly documented...
January 1, 2018: Reproductive Sciences
D Vaamonde, J M Garcia-Manso, A C Hackney
Male athletes in general are subjected to the same causes of infertility as the general population, but sports practice itself may be possibly an additional infertility factor or, at least an aggravating factor for a previously existing fertility condition; on the contrary, being physically active has been hypothesized to favor hormonal and seminological processes and could be beneficial for fertility. In this relationship, the different inherent parameters of physical activity-exercise (training volume, intensity, objective, organization and frequency) are of paramount importance...
June 2017: Revista andaluza de medicina del deporte
George Patounakis, Micah J Hill
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of the current review is to describe the common pitfalls in design and statistical analysis of reproductive medicine studies. It serves to guide both authors and reviewers toward reducing the incidence of spurious statistical results and erroneous conclusions. RECENT FINDINGS: The large amount of data gathered in IVF cycles leads to problems with multiplicity, multicollinearity, and over fitting of regression models. Furthermore, the use of the word 'trend' to describe nonsignificant results has increased in recent years...
April 12, 2018: Current Opinion in Obstetrics & Gynecology
Esmée Hanna, Brendan Gough, Nicky Hudson
The reproductive realm is routinely viewed as a feminised space requiring women's commitment and labour. By contrast, men's procreative contributions and 'reproductive masculinity' is represented as unproblematic, with men assumed to be fertile across the lifespan. Recent scientific research has, however, cast doubt over these longstanding assumptions, suggesting that a link does exist between 'lifestyle' factors and male fertility. The notion that fertility can be improved with effort (for both women and men) can be located within wider cultural and political shifts which construct individuals as increasingly responsible for acting on health messages and engaging in self-disciplining body projects...
April 6, 2018: Sociology of Health & Illness
Meng Ji, Shuang Tang, Wenhua Pei, Mingming Ning, Yuehui Ma, Xiangchen Li, Weijun Guan
In vitro production of functional spermatids has special significance in the research of spermatogenesis and the treatment of male infertility. Primordial germ cells (PGCs) are the precursors of oocyte and sperm, which generate the totipotent cells. Studies have shown that PGCs have the potential ability to develop meiotic spermatids in vitro. Here we have shown that retinoic acid (RA) leads to PGC differentiation, and SCF can improve the efficiency of induction. We indicate an efficient approach to produce haploid spermatids from chicken PGCs in the presence of RA and stem cell factor (SCF)...
March 30, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
Kristiina Rull, Marina Grigorova, Aivar Ehrenberg, Pille Vaas, Aire Sekavin, Diana Nõmmemees, Mart Adler, Ele Hanson, Peeter Juhanson, Maris Laan
STUDY QUESTION: Are the genetic variants FSHB -211 G>T (rs10835638), FSHR c.2039 A>G (Asn680Ser, rs6166) and FSHR -29 G>A (rs1394205) associated with serum FSH, LH and anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) levels in reproductive age women, their menstrual cycle parameters and risk of infertility? SUMMARY ANSWER: Only the FSHB -211 G>T variant was a major genetic determinant of serum gonadotropin levels in both, eumenorrheic healthy women and female infertility patients, and the T-allele carrier status was enriched among idiopathic infertility cases...
March 30, 2018: Human Reproduction
Feng Guo, Chenchen Si, Mingjuan Zhou, Jingwen Wang, Dan Zhang, Peter C K Leung, Bufang Xu, Aijun Zhang
STUDY QUESTION: Is recurrent implantation failure (RIF) associated with decreased expression of platelet and endothelial cell adhesion molecule 1 (PECAM1) and transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) in the endometrium during the implantation window? SUMMARY ANSWER: The present study demonstrates that the expression of PECAM1 and TGF-β1 is significantly decreased in the mid-secretory endometrium in women with RIF, which may account for embryo implantation failure...
March 30, 2018: Human Reproduction
Mahlagha Dehghan, Sima Mokhtarabadi, Fatemeh Ghaedi Heidari
Background The aim of this study was to determine the status of utilizing some complementary and alternative medicine techniques in infertile couples. Methods This was a cross-sectional study conducted on 250 infertile couples referred to a hospital in Kerman using convenience sampling. A researcher-made questionnaire was used to study the prevalence and user satisfaction of complementary and alternative medicines. Results Results indicated that 49.6% of the infertile couples used at least one of the complementary and alternative medicines during the past year...
April 4, 2018: Journal of Complementary & Integrative Medicine
Rui-Hua Zhao
Endometriosis (EM) is a major cause of infertility and has a complex pathogenesis, which brings severe challenges in both clinical treatment and scientific research. Current clinical research focuses on the difficult problem of improving the pregnancy rate of EM patients. Our studies found that Chinese medicine has significant advantages in terms of improving the pregnancy rate of EM patients.
March 28, 2018: Chinese Journal of Integrative Medicine
Prateek Sihag, Anupama Tandon, Raj Pal, B K Jain, Shuchi Bhatt, Simranjeet Kaur, Arpita Sinha
Infertility affects 15-20% of the reproductive age range population; the male factor accounts for up to 40-60% of these. With female factor infertility catching most of the limelight in research, diagnosis and treatment, the other half of the problem has not been duly addressed. Imaging has an important role to play in the evaluation of male infertility, especially to identify correctible (obstructive) causes. We review the scrotal, trans-rectal sonographic and Doppler findings in infertile men to aid in the accurate diagnosis and proper management of such patients...
March 28, 2018: Journal of Ultrasound
Robin E Jensen, Nicole Martins, Melissa M Parks
Perceptions of fertility are thought to impact reproductive behaviors, yet little is known about how lay people conceptualize the female fertility timeline. In this research, public perception of the female fertility timeline was assessed via a national survey of U.S. adults (N = 990) ranging in age from 18 to 89 years. Although there is no scientific consensus on the makeup of the female fertility timeline, results from this research indicate that the U.S. public posits fertility onset at (approximately) 13 years, peak fertility at 22, ideal first pregnancy age at 23, too late for pregnancy at 46, and infertility at 49...
March 26, 2018: Archives of Sexual Behavior
S Vorilhon, F Brugnon, A Kocer, S Dollet, C Bourgne, M Berger, L Janny, B Pereira, R J Aitken, A Moazamian, P Gharagozloo, J Drevet, H Pons-Rejraji
STUDY QUESTION: Can a discriminant threshold be determined for human sperm DNA oxidation? SUMMARY ANSWER: A discriminant threshold was found with 65.8% of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG)-positive sperm cells and a mean intensity of fluorescence (MIF) of 552 arbitrary units. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Oxidative stress is known to interfere with sperm quality and fertilizing capacity. However, current practice does not include the routine determination of oxidative DNA damage in spermatozoa; optimized consensus protocols are lacking and no thresholds of normality have been established...
April 1, 2018: Human Reproduction
Erin K Willer
In this Defining Moments essay, I story the a/r/tographical practice of coming to understand who I am as a mother, artist, researcher, and teacher in the face of my experiences with infertility, pregnancy loss, and the death of my son Milo. Through living inquiry and artistically capturing the turning points that have defined me over time, I make sense of what it means to do hea/r/t work as I engage compassionate love alongside those I mother.
March 26, 2018: Health Communication
E Asanidze, J Khristesashvili, L Pkhaladze, L Barbakadze
PCOS has a leading place in women's infertility. Based on the data of recent researches, Anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH) has been considered as one of the diagnostic criteria for PCOS. The aim of study was to determine the correlation of Anti-Mullerian hormone with hormonal and ovarian morphological characteristics in patients with PCOS, with and without insulin resistance. 110 women with diagnosis of PCOS were involved in the study. Patients were divided into two groups: PCOS patients with insulin resistance (60 women) and PCOS patients without insulin resistance (50 women)...
February 2018: Georgian Medical News
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