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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101760/a-cad-of-fully-automated-colonic-polyp-detection-for-contrasted-and-non-contrasted-ct-scans
#1
Gökalp Tulum, Bülent Bolat, Onur Osman
PURPOSE: Computer-aided detection (CAD) systems are developed to help radiologists detect colonic polyps over CT scans. It is possible to reduce the detection time and increase the detection accuracy rates by using CAD systems. In this paper, we aimed to develop a fully integrated CAD system for automated detection of polyps that yields a high polyp detection rate with a reasonable number of false positives. METHODS: The proposed CAD system is a multistage implementation whose main components are: automatic colon segmentation, candidate detection, feature extraction and classification...
January 18, 2017: International Journal of Computer Assisted Radiology and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101700/predicting-brain-metastases-for-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-based-on-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#2
Gang Yin, Churong Li, Heng Chen, Yangkun Luo, Lucia Clara Orlandini, Pei Wang, Jinyi Lang
In this study the relationship between brain structure and brain metastases (BM) occurrence was analyzed. A model for predicting the time of BM onset in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) was proposed. Twenty patients were used to develop the model, whereas the remaining 69 were used for independent validation and verification of the model. Magnetic resonance images were segmented into cerebrospinal fluid, gray matter (GM), and white matter using voxel-based morphometry. Automatic anatomic labeling template was used to extract 116 brain regions from the GM volume...
January 18, 2017: Clinical & Experimental Metastasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096427/influence-of-fatiguing-noise-on-auditory-evoked-responses-to-stimuli-of-various-levels-in-a-beluga-whale-delphinapterus-leucas
#3
Vladimir V Popov, Evgeniya V Sysueva, Dmitry I Nechaev, Viatcheslav V Rozhnov, Alexander Ya Supin
The negative impact of man-made noise on the hearing of odontocetes attracts considerable recent attention. Mostly permanent or temporary reductions in sensitivity are known as permanent or temporary threshold shift (PTS or TTS, respectively) were investigated. In the present study, the effects of a fatiguing sound on the hearing of a beluga whale Delphinapterus leucas within a wide range of levels of test signals was investigated. The fatiguing noise was half-octave band-limited noise centered at 32 kHz. Post-exposure effects of this noise on the evoked responses to test stimuli (rhythmic pip trains with a 45-kHz center frequency) at various levels (from threshold to 60 dB above threshold) was measured...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095878/black-blood-thrombus-imaging-bti-a-contrast-free-cardiovascular-magnetic-resonance-approach-for-the-diagnosis-of-non-acute-deep-vein-thrombosis
#4
Guoxi Xie, Hanwei Chen, Xueping He, Jianke Liang, Wei Deng, Zhuonan He, Yufeng Ye, Qi Yang, Xiaoming Bi, Xin Liu, Debiao Li, Zhaoyang Fan
BACKGROUND: Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is a common but elusive illness that can result in long-term disability or death. Accurate detection of thrombosis and assessment of its size and distribution are critical for treatment decision-making. In the present study, we sought to develop and evaluate a cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) black-blood thrombus imaging (BTI) technique, based on delay alternating with nutation for tailored excitation black-blood preparation and variable flip angle turbo-spin-echo readout, for the diagnosis of non-acute DVT...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093881/a-case-of-anaplastic-lymphoma-kinase-alk-positive-ciliated-muconodular-papillary-tumor-cmpt-of-the-lung
#5
Ryo Taguchi, Kayoko Higuchi, Motohiro Sudo, Kenji Misawa, Takashi Miyamoto, Osamu Mishima, Morihisa Kitano, Koji Azuhata, Nobuo Ito
Ciliated muconodular papillary tumor (CMPT) is a rare papillary tumor that arises in the peripheral lung fields and is associated with the proliferation of ciliate d and goblet cells and increased mucin production. We report a case of CMPT involving the rearrangement of the anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) gene. The patient was an 84-year-old Japanese female who had exhibited a small nodular shadow on chest computed tomography during a regular checkup 10 years ago. She underwent a partial resection of segment S10 of the right lung...
January 17, 2017: Pathology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091873/prediction-of-left-ventricular-contractile-recovery-using-tissue-doppler-strain-and-strain-rate-measurements-at-rest-in-patients-undergoing-percutaneous-coronary-intervention
#6
Ihab M Abdelgawwad, Ahmed A Al Hawary, Hanan M Kamal, Layla M Al Maghawry
The aim of the study was to assess the ability of tissue Doppler (TD) deformation analysis at rest to predict left ventricular contractile recovery in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). This prospective cohort enrolled 67 patients with segmental wall motion abnormality. Assessment of each segment was performed at rest and during low dose Dobutamine stress echocardiography (DSE) using a 4 point scoring system, TD peak systolic strain (PSS) and peak systolic strain rate (PSSR). The study followed up the patients for contractile improvement after 6 months of successful PCI by echocardiography...
January 13, 2017: International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091735/comprehensive-assessment-of-peripheral-blood-tcr%C3%AE-repertoire-in-infectious-mononucleosis-and-chronic-active-ebv-infection-patients
#7
Shenglin Liu, Qian Zhang, Dongli Huang, Wenli Zhang, Fengluan Zhong, Jia Feng, Xueru Chen, Qingxiang Meng, Xiaofan Chen, Wei Zhang, Hongyu Zhang
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) primary infection is usually asymptomatic, but it sometimes progresses to infectious mononucleosis (IM). Occasionally, some people develop chronic active EBV infection (CAEBV) with underlying immunodeficiency, which belongs to a continuous spectrum of EBV-associated lymphoproliferative disorders (EBV(+) LPD) with heterogeneous clinical presentations and high mortality. It has been well established that T cell-mediated immune response plays a critical role in the disease evolution of EBV infection...
January 14, 2017: Annals of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091724/automatic-ct-based-finite-element-model-generation-for-temperature-based-death-time-estimation-feasibility-study-and-sensitivity-analysis
#8
Sebastian Schenkl, Holger Muggenthaler, Michael Hubig, Bodo Erdmann, Martin Weiser, Stefan Zachow, Andreas Heinrich, Felix Victor Güttler, Ulf Teichgräber, Gita Mall
Temperature-based death time estimation is based either on simple phenomenological models of corpse cooling or on detailed physical heat transfer models. The latter are much more complex but allow a higher accuracy of death time estimation, as in principle, all relevant cooling mechanisms can be taken into account.Here, a complete workflow for finite element-based cooling simulation is presented. The following steps are demonstrated on a CT phantom: Computer tomography (CT) scan Segmentation of the CT images for thermodynamically relevant features of individual geometries and compilation in a geometric computer-aided design (CAD) model Conversion of the segmentation result into a finite element (FE) simulation model Computation of the model cooling curve (MOD) Calculation of the cooling time (CTE) For the first time in FE-based cooling time estimation, the steps from the CT image over segmentation to FE model generation are performed semi-automatically...
January 14, 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087804/clinical-selection-strategies-to-identify-ischemic-stroke-patients-with-large-anterior-vessel-occlusion-results-from-sits-istr-safe-implementation-of-thrombolysis-in-stroke-international-stroke-thrombolysis-registry
#9
Jan F Scheitz, Azmil H Abdul-Rahim, Rachael L MacIsaac, Charith Cooray, Heidi Sucharew, Dawn Kleindorfer, Pooja Khatri, Joseph P Broderick, Heinrich J Audebert, Niaz Ahmed, Nils Wahlgren, Matthias Endres, Christian H Nolte, Kennedy R Lees
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) correlates with presence of large anterior vessel occlusion (LAVO). However, the application of the full NIHSS in the prehospital setting to select patients eligible for treatment with thrombectomy is limited. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the prognostic value of simple clinical selection strategies. METHODS: Data from the Safe Implementation of Thrombolysis in Stroke International Stroke Thrombolysis Registry (January 2012-May 2014) were analyzed retrospectively...
January 13, 2017: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087124/the-acoustic-breathiness-index-abi-a-multivariate-acoustic-model-for-breathiness
#10
Ben Barsties V Latoszek, Youri Maryn, Ellen Gerrits, Marc De Bodt
OBJECTIVE: The evaluation of voice quality is a major component of voice assessment. The aim of the present study was to develop a new multivariate acoustic model for the evaluation of breathiness. METHOD: Concatenated voice samples of continuous speech and the sustained vowel [a:] from 970 subjects with dysphonia and 88 vocally healthy subjects were perceptually judged for breathiness severity. Acoustic analyses were conducted on the same concatenated voice samples after removal of the non-voiced segments of the continuous speech sample...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Voice: Official Journal of the Voice Foundation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080120/a-goal-bias-in-action-the-boundaries-adults-perceive-in-events-align-with-sites-of-actor-intent
#11
Dani Levine, Kathy Hirsh-Pasek, Amy Pace, Roberta Michnick Golinkoff
We live in a dynamic world comprised of continuous events. Remembering our past and predicting future events, however, requires that we segment these ongoing streams of information in a consistent manner. How is this segmentation achieved? This research examines whether the boundaries adults perceive in events, such as the Olympic figure skating routine used in these studies, align with the beginnings (sources) and endings (goals) of human goal-directed actions. Study 1 showed that a group of experts, given an explicit task with unlimited time to rewatch the event, identified the same subevents as one another, but with greater agreement as to the timing of goals than sources...
January 12, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078716/incorporating-food-web-dynamics-into-ecological-restoration-a-modeling-approach-for-river-ecosystems
#12
J Ryan Bellmore, Joseph R Benjamin, Michael Newsom, Jennifer A Bountry, Daniel Dombroski
Restoration is frequently aimed at the recovery of target species, but also influences the larger food web in which these species participate. Effects of restoration on this broader network of organisms can influence target species both directly and indirectly via changes in energy flow through food webs. To help incorporate these complexities into river restoration planning we constructed a model that links river food web dynamics to in-stream physical habitat and riparian vegetation conditions. We present an application of the model to the Methow River, Washington (USA), a location of on-going restoration aimed at recovering salmon...
January 12, 2017: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078511/intra-individual-comparison-of-different-gadolinium-based-contrast-agents-in-the-quantitative-evaluation-of-c6-glioma-with-dynamic-contrast-enhanced-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#13
Ying Li, Gang Liu, Xin Lou, Zhiye Chen, Lin Ma
This experiment aimed to compare the ionic (Gadodiamide, Gd-DTPA-BMA) and non-ionic (Gadopentetate dimeglumine, Gd-DTPA) gadolinium-based contrast agents (GBCA) in the quantitative evaluation of C6 glioma with dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI). A C6 glioma model was established in 12 Wistar rats, and magnetic resonance (MR) scans were performed six days after tumor implantation. Imaging was performed using a 3.0-T MR scanner with a 7-inch handmade circular coil. Pre-contrast T1 mapping and dynamic contrast-enhanced T1WI after a bolus injection (0...
January 4, 2017: Science China. Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070651/inferior-vena-cava-involvement-in-children-with-wilms-tumor
#14
Abeer Al Diab, Nader Hirmas, Abdellatif Almousa, Ramiz Abu-Hijlih, Fatinah Aljlouni, Iyad Sultan, Khalil Ghandour
OBJECTIVES: Retrospective review of children with WT thrombus involving the IVC. METHODS: We reviewed the charts of 123 patients with WT diagnosed between January 2006 and December 2015. Patients with caval tumor thrombus were identified, demographic data, radiological images, extent of thrombus, chemo- and radiotherapy, surgical approach, pathology reports and outcomes were analyzed. RESULTS: IVC involvement was identified in 11 patients (9%)...
January 9, 2017: Pediatric Surgery International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069828/lpa1-receptor-mediated-thromboxane-a2-release-is-responsible-for-lysophosphatidic-acid-induced-vascular-smooth-muscle-contraction
#15
Péter Tibor Dancs, Éva Ruisanchez, Andrea Balogh, Cecília Rita Panta, Zsuzsanna Miklós, Rolf M Nüsing, Junken Aoki, Jerold Chun, Stefan Offermanns, Gábor Tigyi, Zoltán Benyó
Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) has been recognized recently as an endothelium-dependent vasodilator, but several lines of evidence indicate that it may also stimulate vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), thereby contributing to vasoregulation and remodeling. In the present study, mRNA expression of all 6 LPA receptor genes was detected in murine aortic VSMCs, with the highest levels of LPA1, LPA2, LPA4, and LPA6 In endothelium-denuded thoracic aorta (TA) and abdominal aorta (AA) segments, 1-oleoyl-LPA and the LPA1-3 agonist VPC31143 induced dose-dependent vasoconstriction...
January 9, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28066145/effects-of-high-glucose-with-or-without-other-metabolic-substrates-on-alpha-adrenergic-contractions-in-rat-mesenteric-and-femoral-arteries
#16
Rany Vorn, Hae Young Yoo
Hyperglycemia is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular diseases. It has been demonstrated that chronic exposure to high glucose impaired endothelial functions. However, specific effects of short-term exposure to high glucose on vascular reactivity are controversial. Moreover, the combined effects of other metabolic substrates such as free fatty acids (FFA) on vascular reactivity remain poorly understood. Here we investigate the effects of short-term exposure to high glucose with or without other metabolic substrates including FFAs termed "nutrition full" (NF) solution, on mesenteric (MA) and deep femoral arteries (DFA) of rats...
January 2017: Korean Journal of Physiology & Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065448/left-ventricular-dyssynchrony-and-2d-and-3d-global-longitudinal-strain-for-differentiating-physiological-and-pathological-left-ventricular-hypertrophy
#17
Julien Ternacle, Camille Bremont, Thomas d'Humieres, Laureline Faivre, Huy Long Doan, Romain Gallet, Leopold Oliver, Jean-Luc Dubois-Randé, Pascal Lim
BACKGROUND: Diagnosis of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) in athletes can be challenging. AIMS: To ascertain parameters that differentiate patients with HCM from athletes with moderate left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy (LVH 13-15mm). METHODS: We retrospectively included 100 men: 50 elite rugby players (25 with moderate LVH and 25 with no LVH), 25 patients with HCM and moderate LVH and 25 controls. LV dyssynchrony was defined as the standard deviation of time to peak 2D longitudinal strain (16-segment model) and global strain components were computed from two- (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) speckle tracking...
January 3, 2017: Archives of Cardiovascular Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063492/interfacial-enzymes-membrane-binding-orientation-membrane-insertion-and-activity
#18
S A Tatulian
Most interfacial enzymes undergo activation upon membrane binding. Interfacial activation is determined not only by the binding strength but also by the specific mode of protein-membrane interactions, including the angular orientation and membrane insertion of the enzymes. This chapter describes biophysical techniques to quantitatively evaluate membrane binding, orientation, membrane insertion, and activity of secreted phospholipase A2 (PLA2) and lipoxygenase (LO) enzymes. Procedures for recombinant production and purification of human pancreatic PLA2 and human 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO) are also presented...
2017: Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063376/a-comprehensive-non-invasive-framework-for-diagnosing-prostate-cancer
#19
Islam Reda, Ahmed Shalaby, Mohammed Elmogy, Ahmed Abou Elfotouh, Fahmi Khalifa, Mohamed Abou El-Ghar, Ehsan Hosseini-Asl, Georgy Gimel'farb, Naoufel Werghi, Ayman El-Baz
Early detection of prostate cancer increases chances of patients' survival. Our automated non-invasive system for computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) of prostate cancer segments the prostate on diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance images (DW-MRI) acquired at different b-values, estimates its apparent diffusion coefficients (ADC), and classifies their descriptors - empirical cumulative distribution functions (CDF) - with a trained deep learning network. To segment the prostate, an evolving geometric (level-set-based) deformable model is guided by a speed function depending on intensity attributes extracted from the DW-MRI with nonnegative matrix factorization (NMF)...
December 23, 2016: Computers in Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062565/the-biology-of-ciliary-dynamics
#20
Kuo-Shun Hsu, Jen-Zen Chuang, Ching-Hwa Sung
The cilium is an evolutionally conserved apical membrane protrusion that senses and transduces diverse signals to regulate a wide range of cellular activities. The cilium is dynamic in length, structure, and protein composition. Dysregulation of ciliary dynamics has been linked with ciliopathies and other human diseases. The cilium undergoes cell-cycle-dependent assembly and disassembly, with ciliary resorption linked with G1-S transition and cell-fate choice. In the resting cell, the cilium remains sensitive to environmental cues for remodeling during tissue homeostasis and repair...
January 6, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
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