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Statin in dementia

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401726/the-genomic-potential-of-the-aspirin-in-reducing-events-in-the-elderly-and-statins-in-reducing-events-in-the-elderly-studies
#1
Paul Lacaze, Robyn Woods, Sophia Zoungas, John McNeil
Human genetic studies are continuing to increase in size and scale, but the availability of well-phenotyped longitudinal cohorts remains rare. Significant infrastructure, investment and effort are required to establish and maintain high-quality cohorts with biobanking, genetic consent and repeated clinical data measurements. Australia currently has two such cohorts established by Monash University as part of community-based clinical trials in the elderly. Both studies involve capture of demographic, mood, cognitive performance, physical function, neuroimaging, audiometry and various clinical data types over an average of 5 years...
April 2017: Internal Medicine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395917/-compliance-with-recommendations-in-secondary-prevention-of-stroke-in-primary-care
#2
Carmen Tamayo-Ojeda, Neus Parellada-Esquius, Betlem Salvador-González, Pilar Ángeles Oriol-Torón, M Dolores Rodríguez-Garrido, Dolores Muñoz-Segura
OBJECTIVE: Knowing compliance with secondary prevention recommendations of stroke in primary care and to identify factors associated with compliance. DESIGN: Multi-centre cross-sectional. SETTING: Health primary care centres in a metropolitan area (944,280 inhabitants). PARTICIPANTS: Patients aged 18years and over with ischemic brain disease diagnosis prior to 6months before the study. MAIN MEASUREMENTS: Clinical history records of demographic variables, risk factors and cardiovascular comorbidity, drugs, blood pressure values (BP), LDL-cholesterol and medical visits by doctor and nurses after the event...
April 7, 2017: Atencion Primaria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28363508/risk-factors-associated-with-the-onset-and-progression-of-alzheimer-s-disease-a-systematic-review-of-the-evidence
#3
Mona Hersi, Brittany Irvine, Pallavi Gupta, James Gomes, Nicholas Birkett, Daniel Krewski
A systematic review was conducted to identify risk factors associated with the onset and progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Moderate and high quality systematic reviews were eligible for inclusion. Primary studies reporting on non-genetic risk factors associated with neuropathologically or clinically confirmed AD were considered. Eighty one systematic reviews reporting on AD onset and 12 reporting on progression satisfied the eligibility criteria. Four hundred and thirty-two relevant primary studies reporting on onset were identified; however, only those published between 2010 and 2012 (n=65) were included in the qualitative synthesis...
March 28, 2017: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274859/longitudinal-lipid-profile-variations-and-clinical-change-in-alzheimer-s-disease-dementia
#4
Fabricio Ferreira de Oliveira, Elizabeth Suchi Chen, Marilia Cardoso Smith, Paulo Henrique Ferreira Bertolucci
Hypercholesterolemia and statin use have been unevenly associated with clinical change in Alzheimer's disease dementia. In this longitudinal study, 192 consecutive outpatients with late-onset Alzheimer's disease dementia were stratified according to APOE haplotypes, and followed for one year to investigate associations of lipid profile variations and lipophilic statin therapy with changes in cognition, caregiver burden, basic and instrumental functionality. Overall, 102 patients (53.1%) carried APOE4+ haplotypes and 90 (46...
April 12, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273786/influence-of-statin-therapy-at-time-of-stroke-onset-on-functional-outcome-among-patients-with-atrial-fibrillation
#5
Darae Ko, Jonathan L Thigpen, James A Otis, Kristen Forster, Lori Henault, Emily Quinn, Yorghos Tripodis, Peter B Berger, Nita Limdi, Elaine M Hylek
BACKGROUND: Statin pretreatment has been associated with reduced infarct volume in nonlacunar strokes. The effect of statins on functional outcomes of strokes related to atrial fibrillation (AF) is unknown. We aimed to define the influence of prestroke statin use on functional outcome in AF. METHODS: We assembled a cohort of consecutive ischemic stroke patients from 2006 to 2010. All patients underwent CT or MRI and were adjudicated by site investigators. AF was confirmed by electrocardiogram in 100% of patients...
January 15, 2017: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212683/evidence-for-benefit-of-statins-to-modify-cognitive-decline-and-risk-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#6
Nophar Geifman, Roberta Diaz Brinton, Richard E Kennedy, Lon S Schneider, Atul J Butte
BACKGROUND: Despite substantial research and development investment in Alzheimer's disease (AD), effective therapeutics remain elusive. Significant emerging evidence has linked cholesterol, β-amyloid and AD, and several studies have shown a reduced risk for AD and dementia in populations treated with statins. However, while some clinical trials evaluating statins in general AD populations have been conducted, these resulted in no significant therapeutic benefit. By focusing on subgroups of the AD population, it may be possible to detect endotypes responsive to statin therapy...
February 17, 2017: Alzheimer's Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207168/design-and-rationale-of-the-ebbinghaus-trial-a-phase-3-double-blind-placebo-controlled-multicenter-study-to-assess-the-effect-of-evolocumab-on-cognitive-function-in-patients-with-clinically-evident-cardiovascular-disease-and-receiving-statin-background-lipid
#7
Robert P Giugliano, Francois Mach, Kenton Zavitz, Christopher Kurtz, Jingjing Schneider, Huei Wang, Anthony Keech, Terje R Pedersen, Marc S Sabatine, Peter S Sever, Narimon Honarpour, Scott M Wasserman, Brian R Ott
Some observational studies raised concern that statins may cause memory impairment, leading to a US Food and Drug Administration warning. Similar questions were raised regarding proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin-type 9 inhibitors (PCSK9i) and neurocognitive function. No prospectively designed study has evaluated the relationship between long-term PCSK9i use and cognition changes. Patients with prior cardiovascular disease treated with maximally tolerated statin enrolled in FOURIER (the randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled cardiovascular outcome study of the PCSK9i evolocumab) could participate in this prospective assessment of cognitive function (EBBINGHAUS)...
February 16, 2017: Clinical Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192226/use-of-preventive-medication-in-patients-with-limited-life-expectancy-a-systematic-review
#8
REVIEW
Arjun Poudel, Patsy Yates, Debra Rowett, Lisa M Nissen
CONTEXT: Optimal prescribing in patients with limited life expectancy (LLE) remains unclear. OBJECTIVES: This study systematically reviews the published literature regarding the use of preventive medication in patients with reduced life expectancy. METHODS: A systematic literature search was conducted using three databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, and CINAHL). Articles published in English from January 1995 to December 2015 were retrieved for analysis to identify peer-reviewed, observational studies assessing use of preventive medications in patients with LLE...
February 9, 2017: Journal of Pain and Symptom Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103749/clinical-practice-with-anti-dementia-drugs-a-revised-third-consensus-statement-from-the-british-association-for-psychopharmacology
#9
John T O'Brien, Clive Holmes, Matthew Jones, Roy Jones, Gill Livingston, Ian McKeith, Peter Mittler, Peter Passmore, Craig Ritchie, Louise Robinson, Elizabeth L Sampson, John-Paul Taylor, Alan Thomas, Alistair Burns
The British Association for Psychopharmacology coordinated a meeting of experts to review and revise its previous 2011 guidelines for clinical practice with anti-dementia drugs. As before, levels of evidence were rated using accepted standards which were then translated into grades of recommendation A-D, with A having the strongest evidence base (from randomised controlled trials) and D the weakest (case studies or expert opinion). Current clinical diagnostic criteria for dementia have sufficient accuracy to be applied in clinical practice (B) and both structural (computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging) and functional (positron emission tomography and single photon emission computerised tomography) brain imaging can improve diagnostic accuracy in particular situations (B)...
February 2017: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095900/post-stroke-dementia-a-comprehensive-review
#10
REVIEW
Milija D Mijajlović, Aleksandra Pavlović, Michael Brainin, Wolf-Dieter Heiss, Terence J Quinn, Hege B Ihle-Hansen, Dirk M Hermann, Einor Ben Assayag, Edo Richard, Alexander Thiel, Efrat Kliper, Yong-Il Shin, Yun-Hee Kim, SeongHye Choi, San Jung, Yeong-Bae Lee, Osman Sinanović, Deborah A Levine, Ilana Schlesinger, Gillian Mead, Vuk Milošević, Didier Leys, Guri Hagberg, Marie Helene Ursin, Yvonne Teuschl, Semyon Prokopenko, Elena Mozheyko, Anna Bezdenezhnykh, Karl Matz, Vuk Aleksić, DafinFior Muresanu, Amos D Korczyn, Natan M Bornstein
Post-stroke dementia (PSD) or post-stroke cognitive impairment (PSCI) may affect up to one third of stroke survivors. Various definitions of PSCI and PSD have been described. We propose PSD as a label for any dementia following stroke in temporal relation. Various tools are available to screen and assess cognition, with few PSD-specific instruments. Choice will depend on purpose of assessment, with differing instruments needed for brief screening (e.g., Montreal Cognitive Assessment) or diagnostic formulation (e...
January 18, 2017: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062146/intensive-statin-regimens-for-reducing-risk-of-cardiovascular-diseases-among-human-immunodeficiency-virus-infected-population-a-nation-wide-longitudinal-cohort-study-2000-2011
#11
Huang-Tz Ou, Kai-Cheng Chang, Chung-Yi Li, Chen-Yi Yang, Nai-Ying Ko
OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated the risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) in a statin-treated HIV-infected population and the effects of intensive statin regimens (i.e., high-dose or potency) on CVD risks. METHODS: 945 HIV-infected patients newly on statin treatment (144, 15.7% with CVD history) were identified from Taiwan's national HIV cohort. Using the median of the first year cumulative statin dosage as a cut-off point, patients were classified into either a high-dose or low-dose group...
March 1, 2017: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28013304/benzodiazepine-use-and-risk-of-dementia-in-the-elderly-population-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#12
Md Mohaimenul Islam, Usman Iqbal, Bruno Walther, Suleman Atique, Navneet Kumar Dubey, Phung-Anh Nguyen, Tahmina Nasrin Poly, Jakir Hossain Bhuiyan Masud, Yu-Chuan Jack Li, Syed-Abdul Shabbir
BACKGROUND: Benzodiazepines are a widely used medication in developed countries, particularly among elderly patients. However, benzodiazepines are known to affect memory and cognition and might thus enhance the risk of dementia. The objective of this review is to synthesize evidence from observational studies that evaluated the association between benzodiazepines use and dementia risk. SUMMARY: We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of controlled observational studies to evaluate the risk of benzodiazepines use on dementia outcome...
2016: Neuroepidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935151/patient-related-characteristics-associated-with-non-persistence-with-statin-therapy-in-elderly-patients-following-an-ischemic-stroke
#13
Martin Wawruch, Dusan Zatko, Gejza Wimmer, Jan Luha, Vasil Hricak, Jan Murin, Peter Kukumberg, Tomas Tesar, Adam Hloska, Rashmi Shah
PURPOSE: This study was aimed at evaluating the extent of non-persistence with statin therapy in elderly patients after an ischemic stroke and identifying patient-related characteristics that are risk factors for non-persistence. METHODS: The evaluable study cohort (n = 2748) was derived from the database of the largest health insurance provider in the Slovak Republic. Patients aged ≥65 years who were initiated on statin therapy following the diagnosis of an ischemic stroke during one full year (1 January 2010 to 31 December 2010) constituted this cohort...
December 9, 2016: Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935150/trends-in-potentially-inappropriate-medication-prescribing-to-nursing-home-patients-comparison-of-three-cross-sectional-studies
#14
Kjell H Halvorsen, Geir Selbaek, Sabine Ruths
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to examine trends in potentially inappropriate medication (PIM) prescribing in Norwegian nursing homes. METHODS: Patients aged ≥70 years were included from three cross-sectional studies conducted in 1997, 2005 and 2011. PIMs were analyzed according to the Norwegian General Practice-Nursing Home criteria (NORGEP-NH), use of single substances to avoid, combinations to avoid, and deprescribing items. Associations between sample and use of PIMs were examined by logistic regression, adjusted for age, gender, and ward...
December 9, 2016: Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909476/atrial-fibrillation-and-risk-of-dementia-cognitive-decline
#15
REVIEW
Anand D Shah, Faisal M Merchant, David B Delurgio
Emerging evidence suggests a link between atrial fibrillation and subsequent development of dementia. While a majority of risk can be attributed to cardioembolic stroke secondary to atrial fibrillation, additional risk is apparent, and may be driven by vascular inflammation and changes in cerebral perfusion. Medical therapies including anticoagulation, statin therapy, and angiotensin-renin-aldosterone axis antagonists may reduce dementia risk. Procedural therapies such as atrial fibrillation catheter ablation and left atrial appendage closure may also prove to be important mediators of acute and long-term risk...
February 2016: Journal of Atrial Fibrillation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899849/statin-therapy-review-of-safety-and-potential-side-effects
#16
REVIEW
Satish Ramkumar, Ajay Raghunath, Sudhakshini Raghunath
BACKGROUND: Hydroxymethyl glutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors, commonly called statins, are some of the most commonly prescribed medications worldwide. Evidence suggests that statin therapy has significant mortality and morbidity benefit for both primary and secondary prevention from cardiovascular disease. Nonetheless, concern has been expressed regarding the adverse effects of long term statin use. The purpose of this article was to review the current medical literature regarding the safety of statins...
November 2016: Acta Cardiologica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865998/intensive-ldl-cholesterol-lowering-therapy-and-neurocognitive-function
#17
REVIEW
Maciej Banach, Manfredi Rizzo, Dragana Nikolic, George Howard, VirginiaJ Howard, DimitriP Mikhailidis
The key lipid-lowering target is to achieve guideline-recommended low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels, usually by using statins. The new treatment strategies for lipid-lowering therapy include using proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) inhibitors as an exciting approach to reduce residual risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD). However, concerns about possible adverse effects, including neurocognitive disorders, were issued by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). The current disputable evidence does not allow definite conclusions as to whether statins contribute to, or cause, clinically meaningful cognitive impairment...
February 2017: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27610945/statin-withdrawal-in-people-with-dementia
#18
REVIEW
Bernadette McGuinness, Chris R Cardwell, Peter Passmore
BACKGROUND: There are approximately 24 million people worldwide with dementia; this is likely to increase to 81 million by 2040. Dementia is a progressive condition, and usually leads to death eight to ten years after first symptoms. End-of-life care should emphasise treatments that optimise quality of life and physicians should minimise unnecessary or non-beneficial interventions. Statins are 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitors; they have become the cornerstone of pharmacotherapy for the management of hypercholesterolaemia but their ability to provide benefit is unclear in the last weeks or months of life...
September 9, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27473843/towards-onset-prevention-of-cognition-decline-in-adults-with-down-syndrome-the-top-cog-study-a-pilot-randomised-controlled-trial
#19
Sally-Ann Cooper, Temitope Ademola, Muriel Caslake, Elizabeth Douglas, Jonathan Evans, Nicola Greenlaw, Caroline Haig, Angela Hassiotis, Andrew Jahoda, Alex McConnachie, Jill Morrison, Howard Ring, John Starr, Ciara Stiles, Chammy Sirisena, Frank Sullivan
BACKGROUND: Dementia is very common in Down syndrome (trisomy 21) adults. Statins may slow brain amyloid β (Aβ, coded on chromosome 21) deposition and, therefore, delay Alzheimer disease onset. One prospective cohort study with Down syndrome adults found participants on statins had reduced risk of incident dementia, but there are no randomised controlled trials (RCTs) on this issue. Evidence is sparse on the best instruments to detect longitudinal cognitive decline in older Down syndrome adults...
July 29, 2016: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27395458/-dyslipidemia-and-dementia
#20
Akira Tamaoka
Several lines of evidences support a possible involvement of serum cholesterol in the development of dementia/Alzheimer's disease (AD), with hypercholesterolemia as one of the risk factors that can be targeted by therapeutic interventions. It has also been suggested that statins, prescribed as lipid-lowering drugs to patients at risk for cardiovascular conditions, may be useful in both the prevention and treatment of AD. Currently, conflicting evidences from epidemiological studies indicate a controversial association between dyslipidemia and dementia/AD risk...
July 2016: Brain and Nerve, Shinkei Kenkyū No Shinpo
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