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Statin in dementia

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909476/atrial-fibrillation-and-risk-of-dementia-cognitive-decline
#1
REVIEW
Anand D Shah Md, Faisal M Merchant Md, David B Delurgio Md
Emerging evidence suggests a link between atrial fibrillation and subsequent development of dementia. While a majority of risk can be attributed to cardioembolic stroke secondary to atrial fibrillation, additional risk is apparent, and may be driven by vascular inflammation and changes in cerebral perfusion. Medical therapies including anticoagulation, statin therapy, and angiotensin-renin-aldosterone axis antagonists may reduce dementia risk. Procedural therapies such as atrial fibrillation catheter ablation and left atrial appendage closure may also prove to be important mediators of acute and long-term risk...
February 2016: Journal of Atrial Fibrillation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899849/statin-therapy-review-of-safety-and-potential-side-effects
#2
REVIEW
Satish Ramkumar, Ajay Raghunath, Sudhakshini Raghunath
BACKGROUND: Hydroxymethyl glutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors, commonly called statins, are some of the most commonly prescribed medications worldwide. Evidence suggests that statin therapy has significant mortality and morbidity benefit for both primary and secondary prevention from cardiovascular disease. Nonetheless, concern has been expressed regarding the adverse effects of long term statin use. The purpose of this article was to review the current medical literature regarding the safety of statins...
November 2016: Acta Cardiologica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865998/intensive-ldl-cholesterol-lowering-therapy-and-neurocognitive-function
#3
REVIEW
Maciej Banach, Manfredi Rizzo, Dragana Nikolic, George Howard, VirginiaJ Howard, DimitriP Mikhailidis
The key lipid-lowering target is to achieve guideline-recommended low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels, usually by using statins. The new treatment strategies for lipid-lowering therapy include using proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) inhibitors as an exciting approach to reduce residual risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD). However, concerns about possible adverse effects, including neurocognitive disorders, were issued by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). The current disputable evidence does not allow definite conclusions as to whether statins contribute to, or cause, clinically meaningful cognitive impairment...
November 16, 2016: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27610945/statin-withdrawal-in-people-with-dementia
#4
Bernadette McGuinness, Chris R Cardwell, Peter Passmore
BACKGROUND: There are approximately 24 million people worldwide with dementia; this is likely to increase to 81 million by 2040. Dementia is a progressive condition, and usually leads to death eight to ten years after first symptoms. End-of-life care should emphasise treatments that optimise quality of life and physicians should minimise unnecessary or non-beneficial interventions. Statins are 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitors; they have become the cornerstone of pharmacotherapy for the management of hypercholesterolaemia but their ability to provide benefit is unclear in the last weeks or months of life...
September 9, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27473843/towards-onset-prevention-of-cognition-decline-in-adults-with-down-syndrome-the-top-cog-study-a-pilot-randomised-controlled-trial
#5
Sally-Ann Cooper, Temitope Ademola, Muriel Caslake, Elizabeth Douglas, Jonathan Evans, Nicola Greenlaw, Caroline Haig, Angela Hassiotis, Andrew Jahoda, Alex McConnachie, Jill Morrison, Howard Ring, John Starr, Ciara Stiles, Chammy Sirisena, Frank Sullivan
BACKGROUND: Dementia is very common in Down syndrome (trisomy 21) adults. Statins may slow brain amyloid β (Aβ, coded on chromosome 21) deposition and, therefore, delay Alzheimer disease onset. One prospective cohort study with Down syndrome adults found participants on statins had reduced risk of incident dementia, but there are no randomised controlled trials (RCTs) on this issue. Evidence is sparse on the best instruments to detect longitudinal cognitive decline in older Down syndrome adults...
2016: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27395458/-dyslipidemia-and-dementia
#6
Akira Tamaoka
Several lines of evidences support a possible involvement of serum cholesterol in the development of dementia/Alzheimer's disease (AD), with hypercholesterolemia as one of the risk factors that can be targeted by therapeutic interventions. It has also been suggested that statins, prescribed as lipid-lowering drugs to patients at risk for cardiovascular conditions, may be useful in both the prevention and treatment of AD. Currently, conflicting evidences from epidemiological studies indicate a controversial association between dyslipidemia and dementia/AD risk...
July 2016: Brain and Nerve, Shinkei Kenkyū No Shinpo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27338066/therapeutic-approaches-to-alzheimer-s-disease-through-stimulating-of-non-amyloidogenic-processing-of-amyloid-precursor-protein
#7
Y-Q Wang, D-H Qu, K Wang
Amyloid beta (Aβ) plaques are pathological hallmarks of neurodegenerative Alzheimer's disease (AD) that is predominantly characterized by clinical symptoms of dementia. Therapies targeting Aβ are essential for preventing and treating AD. This review focuses on the non-amyloidogenic pathways that prevent the generation of Aβ peptide and thereby plaque formation in AD. An a-secretase-dependent cleavage of Amyloid Precursor Protein (APP) precludes the amyloidogenic pathway of Aβ generation. This non-amyloidogenic a-secretase activation thereby secretes sAPPa with prominent neurotrophic and memory-enhancing properties...
June 2016: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27263034/design-and-rationale-for-a-cognitive-outcome-substudy-in-ischemic-stroke-patients-with-high-risk-of-cerebral-hemorrhage
#8
Kyung-Ho Yu, Keun-Sik Hong, Mi-Sun Oh, Juneyoung Lee, Ji Sung Lee, Sun U Kwon
GOAL: Cognitive impairment and dementia are common disabilities after stroke and are associated with increased risks of mortality and recurrent stroke. The prevention of dementia and preserving cognitive function are also important in stroke patients, but its strategy is not established yet. This PICASSO-COG (PreventIon of CArdiovascular events in iSchemic Stroke patients with high risk of cerebral hemOrrhage for reducing COGnitive decline) substudy aims to assess the effects of cilostazol and/or probucol on cognitive function...
August 2016: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27239540/effects-of-vascular-risk-factors-statins-and-antihypertensive-drugs-on-pib-deposition-in-cognitively-normal-subjects
#9
Lidia Glodzik, Henry Rusinek, Angela Kamer, Elizabeth Pirraglia, Wai Tsui, Lisa Mosconi, Yi Li, Pauline McHugh, John Murray, Schantel Williams, Ricardo S Osorio, Catherine Randall, Tracy Butler, Anup Deshpande, Shankar Vallabhajolusa, Mony de Leon
INTRODUCTION: Hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, and obesity increase the risk of dementia. Although their detection is commonly followed by an introduction of treatment, little is known about how medications frequently used to treat vascular risk affect amyloid deposition. METHODS: A cross-sectional study of 156 subjects who underwent positron emission tomography with PiB. Using linear regression, we tested whether blood pressure, cholesterol, overweight/obese status, angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs), beta-blockers, diuretics, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors, and statins predicted amyloid deposition...
2016: Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27189469/targeting-new-pharmacological-approaches-for-alzheimer-s-disease-potential-for-statins-and-phosphodiesterase-inhibitors
#10
Fabrizio Sallustio, Valeria Studer
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common cause of dementia among the elderly. It is pathologically characterized by diffused extracellular deposits, senile plaques, and intracellular neurofibrillary tangles in the brain, responsible for neuronal dysfunction and cell death. Memory, language and other cognitive functions can be affected to a limited extent in the initial stage called mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or in a more severe and daily life interfering manner in the later stage called dementia. Currently no effective disease-modifying treatment exists for the majority of neurodegenerative diseases...
2016: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27177529/does-statin-use-cause-memory-decline-in-the-elderly
#11
REVIEW
Katherine Samaras, Henry Brodaty, Perminder S Sachdev
Statin therapy has strong evidence supporting health benefits and mortality reduction in cardiovascular disease, stroke, diabetes, renal disease, and genetic lipid disorders. Further, reports that statin therapy might be protective against Alzheimer's disease have subsequently been refuted in randomized trials. Low-level evidence based on case reports suggests that statins may adversely affect memory, a significant consumer concern. In this review, the published evidence on statins and memory in the elderly in randomized controlled trials and prospective observational cohort studies was examined in detail...
August 2016: Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27158324/an-overview-on-therapeutics-attenuating-amyloid-%C3%AE-level-in-alzheimer-s-disease-targeting-neurotransmission-inflammation-oxidative-stress-and-enhanced-cholesterol-levels
#12
REVIEW
Xiaoling Zhou, Yifei Li, Xiaozhe Shi, Chun Ma
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common underlying cause of dementia, and novel drugs for its treatment are needed. Of the different theories explaining the development and progression of AD, "amyloid hypothesis" is the most supported by experimental data. This hypothesis states that the cleavage of amyloid precursor protein (APP) leads to the formation of amyloid beta (Aβ) peptides that congregate with formation and deposition of Aβ plaques in the frontal cortex and hippocampus. Risk factors including neurotransmitter modulation, chronic inflammation, metal-induced oxidative stress and elevated cholesterol levels are key contributors to the disease progress...
2016: American Journal of Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27146371/safety-and-effectiveness-of-statins-for-prevention-of-recurrent-myocardial-infarction-in-12-156-typical-older-patients-a-quasi-experimental-study
#13
Alessandro Ble, Peter M Hughes, Joao Delgado, Jane A Masoli, Kirsty Bowman, Jan Zirk-Sadowski, Ruben E Mujica Mota, William E Henley, David Melzer
BACKGROUND: There is limited evidence on statin risk and effectiveness for patients aged 80+. We estimated risk of recurrent myocardial infarction, muscle-related and other adverse events, and statin-related incremental costs in "real-world" older patients treated with statins versus no statins. METHODS: We used primary care electronic medical records from the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink. Subhazard ratios (competing risk of death) for myocardial infarction recurrence (primary end point), falls, fractures, ischemic stroke, and dementia, and hazard ratios (Cox) for all-cause mortality were used to compare older (60+) statin users and 1:1 propensity-score-matched controls (n = 12,156)...
May 4, 2016: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27089091/acp-journal-club-review-in-older-persons-at-vascular-risk-statins-do-not-prevent-dementia-or-cognitive-decline-at-3-5-to-5-years
#14
COMMENT
Eric B Larson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 19, 2016: Annals of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27085816/an-up-to-date-review-on-cerebral-microbleeds
#15
REVIEW
Yan Wu, Tao Chen
BACKGROUND: Cerebral microbleeds (CMBs) are small cerebrovascular lesions. More and more CMBs have been found in patients with ischemic stroke, dementia, and cerebral amyloid angiopathy, as well as some normal elderly populations. The objective of this study is to summarize the main risk factor, impairment, and therapy of CMBs. METHODS: We searched and scanned all the literature with the keyword "cerebral microbleeds" or "CMBs" in the database of PubMed and Elsevier...
June 2016: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27048383/simvastatin-induced-cognitive-dysfunction-two-case-reports
#16
Chathurie Suraweera, Varuni de Silva, Raveen Hanwella
BACKGROUND: Simvastatin is commonly prescribed for hypercholesterolemia to reduce vascular risk in patients. Some of these patients have dementia with cognitive defects of several domains. Although protective effects seem to be present, there is emerging evidence that statins cause cognitive impairment. The role of cholesterol in cognitive function is complex. This is reflected in the effects that statins show on cognition functions. The reduction in cholesterol levels seen with statins is effective in improving learning and memory in some patients...
2016: Journal of Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26945371/influenza-vaccination-reduces-dementia-risk-in-chronic-kidney-disease-patients-a-population-based-cohort-study
#17
Ju-Chi Liu, Yi-Ping Hsu, Pai-Feng Kao, Wen-Rui Hao, Shing-Hwa Liu, Chao-Feng Lin, Li-Chin Sung, Szu-Yuan Wu
Taiwan has the highest prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) worldwide. CKD, a manifestation of vascular diseases, is associated with a high risk of dementia. Here, we estimated the association between influenza vaccination and dementia risk in patients with CKD. Data from the National Health Insurance Research Database of Taiwan were used in this study. The study cohort included all patients diagnosed with CKD (according to International Classification of Disease, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification codes) at healthcare facilities in Taiwan (n = 32,844) from January 1, 2000, to December 31, 2007...
March 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26744954/risk-factors-for-dementia-diagnosis-in-german-primary-care-practices
#18
Anke Booker, Louis Ec Jacob, Michael Rapp, Jens Bohlken, Karel Kostev
BACKGROUND: Dementia is a psychiatric condition the development of which is associated with numerous aspects of life. Our aim was to estimate dementia risk factors in German primary care patients. METHODS: The case-control study included primary care patients (70-90 years) with first diagnosis of dementia (all-cause) during the index period (01/2010-12/2014) (Disease Analyzer, Germany), and controls without dementia matched (1:1) to cases on the basis of age, sex, type of health insurance, and physician...
July 2016: International Psychogeriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26727124/statins-for-the-prevention-of-dementia
#19
REVIEW
Bernadette McGuinness, David Craig, Roger Bullock, Peter Passmore
BACKGROUND: This is an update of a Cochrane review first published in 2001 and then updated in 2009. Vascular risk factors including high cholesterol levels increase the risk of dementia due to Alzheimer's disease and of vascular dementia. Some observational studies have suggested an association between statin use and lowered incidence of dementia. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of statins for the prevention of dementia in people at risk of dementia due to their age and to determine whether the efficacy and safety of statins for this purpose depends on cholesterol level, apolipoprotein E (ApoE) genotype or cognitive level...
January 4, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26673814/statin-use-incident-dementia-and-alzheimer-disease-in-elderly-african-americans
#20
Hugh C Hendrie, Ann Hake, Kathleen Lane, Christianna Purnell, Frederick Unverzagt, Valerie Smith-Gamble, Jill Murrell, Adesola Ogunniyi, Olusegun Baiyewu, Chris Callahan, Andrew Saykin, Stanley Taylor, Kathleen Hall, Su Gao
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between statin use, incident dementia, and Alzheimer disease (AD) in a prospective elderly African American cohort. DESIGN: Two stage design with a screening interview followed by a comprehensive in-home assessment conducted over an eight-year period. Diagnoses of incident AD and dementia were made by consensus. Statin use was collected at each evaluation. Measurements of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL), C-reactive protein (CRP) and APOE genotype were obtained from baseline blood samples...
2015: Ethnicity & Disease
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