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Statin and dementia

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095900/post-stroke-dementia-a-comprehensive-review
#1
REVIEW
Milija D Mijajlović, Aleksandra Pavlović, Michael Brainin, Wolf-Dieter Heiss, Terence J Quinn, Hege B Ihle-Hansen, Dirk M Hermann, Einor Ben Assayag, Edo Richard, Alexander Thiel, Efrat Kliper, Yong-Il Shin, Yun-Hee Kim, SeongHye Choi, San Jung, Yeong-Bae Lee, Osman Sinanović, Deborah A Levine, Ilana Schlesinger, Gillian Mead, Vuk Milošević, Didier Leys, Guri Hagberg, Marie Helene Ursin, Yvonne Teuschl, Semyon Prokopenko, Elena Mozheyko, Anna Bezdenezhnykh, Karl Matz, Vuk Aleksić, DafinFior Muresanu, Amos D Korczyn, Natan M Bornstein
Post-stroke dementia (PSD) or post-stroke cognitive impairment (PSCI) may affect up to one third of stroke survivors. Various definitions of PSCI and PSD have been described. We propose PSD as a label for any dementia following stroke in temporal relation. Various tools are available to screen and assess cognition, with few PSD-specific instruments. Choice will depend on purpose of assessment, with differing instruments needed for brief screening (e.g., Montreal Cognitive Assessment) or diagnostic formulation (e...
January 18, 2017: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062146/intensive-statin-regimens-for-reducing-risk-of-cardiovascular-diseases-among-human-immunodeficiency-virus-infected-population-a-nation-wide-longitudinal-cohort-study-2000-2011
#2
Huang-Tz Ou, Kai-Cheng Chang, Chung-Yi Li, Chen-Yi Yang, Nai-Ying Ko
OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated the risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) in a statin-treated HIV-infected population and the effects of intensive statin regimens (i.e., high-dose or potency) on CVD risks. METHODS: 945 HIV-infected patients newly on statin treatment (144, 15.7% with CVD history) were identified from Taiwan's national HIV cohort. Using the median of the first year cumulative statin dosage as a cut-off point, patients were classified into either a high-dose or low-dose group...
December 21, 2016: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28013304/benzodiazepine-use-and-risk-of-dementia-in-the-elderly-population-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#3
Md Mohaimenul Islam, Usman Iqbal, Bruno Walther, Suleman Atique, Navneet Kumar Dubey, Phung-Anh Nguyen, Tahmina Nasrin Poly, Jakir Hossain Bhuiyan Masud, Yu-Chuan Jack Li, Syed-Abdul Shabbir
BACKGROUND: Benzodiazepines are a widely used medication in developed countries, particularly among elderly patients. However, benzodiazepines are known to affect memory and cognition and might thus enhance the risk of dementia. The objective of this review is to synthesize evidence from observational studies that evaluated the association between benzodiazepines use and dementia risk. SUMMARY: We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of controlled observational studies to evaluate the risk of benzodiazepines use on dementia outcome...
December 24, 2016: Neuroepidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935151/patient-related-characteristics-associated-with-non-persistence-with-statin-therapy-in-elderly-patients-following-an-ischemic-stroke
#4
Martin Wawruch, Dusan Zatko, Gejza Wimmer, Jan Luha, Vasil Hricak, Jan Murin, Peter Kukumberg, Tomas Tesar, Adam Hloska, Rashmi Shah
PURPOSE: This study was aimed at evaluating the extent of non-persistence with statin therapy in elderly patients after an ischemic stroke and identifying patient-related characteristics that are risk factors for non-persistence. METHODS: The evaluable study cohort (n = 2748) was derived from the database of the largest health insurance provider in the Slovak Republic. Patients aged ≥65 years who were initiated on statin therapy following the diagnosis of an ischemic stroke during one full year (1 January 2010 to 31 December 2010) constituted this cohort...
December 9, 2016: Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935150/trends-in-potentially-inappropriate-medication-prescribing-to-nursing-home-patients-comparison-of-three-cross-sectional-studies
#5
Kjell H Halvorsen, Geir Selbaek, Sabine Ruths
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to examine trends in potentially inappropriate medication (PIM) prescribing in Norwegian nursing homes. METHODS: Patients aged ≥70 years were included from three cross-sectional studies conducted in 1997, 2005 and 2011. PIMs were analyzed according to the Norwegian General Practice-Nursing Home criteria (NORGEP-NH), use of single substances to avoid, combinations to avoid, and deprescribing items. Associations between sample and use of PIMs were examined by logistic regression, adjusted for age, gender, and ward...
December 9, 2016: Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909476/atrial-fibrillation-and-risk-of-dementia-cognitive-decline
#6
REVIEW
Anand D Shah Md, Faisal M Merchant Md, David B Delurgio Md
Emerging evidence suggests a link between atrial fibrillation and subsequent development of dementia. While a majority of risk can be attributed to cardioembolic stroke secondary to atrial fibrillation, additional risk is apparent, and may be driven by vascular inflammation and changes in cerebral perfusion. Medical therapies including anticoagulation, statin therapy, and angiotensin-renin-aldosterone axis antagonists may reduce dementia risk. Procedural therapies such as atrial fibrillation catheter ablation and left atrial appendage closure may also prove to be important mediators of acute and long-term risk...
February 2016: Journal of Atrial Fibrillation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899849/statin-therapy-review-of-safety-and-potential-side-effects
#7
REVIEW
Satish Ramkumar, Ajay Raghunath, Sudhakshini Raghunath
BACKGROUND: Hydroxymethyl glutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors, commonly called statins, are some of the most commonly prescribed medications worldwide. Evidence suggests that statin therapy has significant mortality and morbidity benefit for both primary and secondary prevention from cardiovascular disease. Nonetheless, concern has been expressed regarding the adverse effects of long term statin use. The purpose of this article was to review the current medical literature regarding the safety of statins...
November 2016: Acta Cardiologica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865998/intensive-ldl-cholesterol-lowering-therapy-and-neurocognitive-function
#8
REVIEW
Maciej Banach, Manfredi Rizzo, Dragana Nikolic, George Howard, VirginiaJ Howard, DimitriP Mikhailidis
The key lipid-lowering target is to achieve guideline-recommended low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels, usually by using statins. The new treatment strategies for lipid-lowering therapy include using proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) inhibitors as an exciting approach to reduce residual risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD). However, concerns about possible adverse effects, including neurocognitive disorders, were issued by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). The current disputable evidence does not allow definite conclusions as to whether statins contribute to, or cause, clinically meaningful cognitive impairment...
November 16, 2016: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27610945/statin-withdrawal-in-people-with-dementia
#9
Bernadette McGuinness, Chris R Cardwell, Peter Passmore
BACKGROUND: There are approximately 24 million people worldwide with dementia; this is likely to increase to 81 million by 2040. Dementia is a progressive condition, and usually leads to death eight to ten years after first symptoms. End-of-life care should emphasise treatments that optimise quality of life and physicians should minimise unnecessary or non-beneficial interventions. Statins are 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitors; they have become the cornerstone of pharmacotherapy for the management of hypercholesterolaemia but their ability to provide benefit is unclear in the last weeks or months of life...
September 9, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27473843/towards-onset-prevention-of-cognition-decline-in-adults-with-down-syndrome-the-top-cog-study-a-pilot-randomised-controlled-trial
#10
Sally-Ann Cooper, Temitope Ademola, Muriel Caslake, Elizabeth Douglas, Jonathan Evans, Nicola Greenlaw, Caroline Haig, Angela Hassiotis, Andrew Jahoda, Alex McConnachie, Jill Morrison, Howard Ring, John Starr, Ciara Stiles, Chammy Sirisena, Frank Sullivan
BACKGROUND: Dementia is very common in Down syndrome (trisomy 21) adults. Statins may slow brain amyloid β (Aβ, coded on chromosome 21) deposition and, therefore, delay Alzheimer disease onset. One prospective cohort study with Down syndrome adults found participants on statins had reduced risk of incident dementia, but there are no randomised controlled trials (RCTs) on this issue. Evidence is sparse on the best instruments to detect longitudinal cognitive decline in older Down syndrome adults...
July 29, 2016: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27395458/-dyslipidemia-and-dementia
#11
Akira Tamaoka
Several lines of evidences support a possible involvement of serum cholesterol in the development of dementia/Alzheimer's disease (AD), with hypercholesterolemia as one of the risk factors that can be targeted by therapeutic interventions. It has also been suggested that statins, prescribed as lipid-lowering drugs to patients at risk for cardiovascular conditions, may be useful in both the prevention and treatment of AD. Currently, conflicting evidences from epidemiological studies indicate a controversial association between dyslipidemia and dementia/AD risk...
July 2016: Brain and Nerve, Shinkei Kenkyū No Shinpo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27338066/therapeutic-approaches-to-alzheimer-s-disease-through-stimulating-of-non-amyloidogenic-processing-of-amyloid-precursor-protein
#12
Y-Q Wang, D-H Qu, K Wang
Amyloid beta (Aβ) plaques are pathological hallmarks of neurodegenerative Alzheimer's disease (AD) that is predominantly characterized by clinical symptoms of dementia. Therapies targeting Aβ are essential for preventing and treating AD. This review focuses on the non-amyloidogenic pathways that prevent the generation of Aβ peptide and thereby plaque formation in AD. An a-secretase-dependent cleavage of Amyloid Precursor Protein (APP) precludes the amyloidogenic pathway of Aβ generation. This non-amyloidogenic a-secretase activation thereby secretes sAPPa with prominent neurotrophic and memory-enhancing properties...
June 2016: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27263034/design-and-rationale-for-a-cognitive-outcome-substudy-in-ischemic-stroke-patients-with-high-risk-of-cerebral-hemorrhage
#13
Kyung-Ho Yu, Keun-Sik Hong, Mi-Sun Oh, Juneyoung Lee, Ji Sung Lee, Sun U Kwon
GOAL: Cognitive impairment and dementia are common disabilities after stroke and are associated with increased risks of mortality and recurrent stroke. The prevention of dementia and preserving cognitive function are also important in stroke patients, but its strategy is not established yet. This PICASSO-COG (PreventIon of CArdiovascular events in iSchemic Stroke patients with high risk of cerebral hemOrrhage for reducing COGnitive decline) substudy aims to assess the effects of cilostazol and/or probucol on cognitive function...
August 2016: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27239540/effects-of-vascular-risk-factors-statins-and-antihypertensive-drugs-on-pib-deposition-in-cognitively-normal-subjects
#14
Lidia Glodzik, Henry Rusinek, Angela Kamer, Elizabeth Pirraglia, Wai Tsui, Lisa Mosconi, Yi Li, Pauline McHugh, John Murray, Schantel Williams, Ricardo S Osorio, Catherine Randall, Tracy Butler, Anup Deshpande, Shankar Vallabhajolusa, Mony de Leon
INTRODUCTION: Hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, and obesity increase the risk of dementia. Although their detection is commonly followed by an introduction of treatment, little is known about how medications frequently used to treat vascular risk affect amyloid deposition. METHODS: A cross-sectional study of 156 subjects who underwent positron emission tomography with PiB. Using linear regression, we tested whether blood pressure, cholesterol, overweight/obese status, angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs), beta-blockers, diuretics, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors, and statins predicted amyloid deposition...
2016: Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27234351/editorial-commentary-are-statins-a-solution-to-reduce-the-risk-of-cognitive-decline-or-lower-the-risk-of-dementia
#15
EDITORIAL
Anjani Golive, Thomas Jared Bunch
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2016: Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27189469/targeting-new-pharmacological-approaches-for-alzheimer-s-disease-potential-for-statins-and-phosphodiesterase-inhibitors
#16
Fabrizio Sallustio, Valeria Studer
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common cause of dementia among the elderly. It is pathologically characterized by diffused extracellular deposits, senile plaques, and intracellular neurofibrillary tangles in the brain, responsible for neuronal dysfunction and cell death. Memory, language and other cognitive functions can be affected to a limited extent in the initial stage called mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or in a more severe and daily life interfering manner in the later stage called dementia. Currently no effective disease-modifying treatment exists for the majority of neurodegenerative diseases...
2016: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27177529/does-statin-use-cause-memory-decline-in-the-elderly
#17
REVIEW
Katherine Samaras, Henry Brodaty, Perminder S Sachdev
Statin therapy has strong evidence supporting health benefits and mortality reduction in cardiovascular disease, stroke, diabetes, renal disease, and genetic lipid disorders. Further, reports that statin therapy might be protective against Alzheimer's disease have subsequently been refuted in randomized trials. Low-level evidence based on case reports suggests that statins may adversely affect memory, a significant consumer concern. In this review, the published evidence on statins and memory in the elderly in randomized controlled trials and prospective observational cohort studies was examined in detail...
August 2016: Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27158324/an-overview-on-therapeutics-attenuating-amyloid-%C3%AE-level-in-alzheimer-s-disease-targeting-neurotransmission-inflammation-oxidative-stress-and-enhanced-cholesterol-levels
#18
REVIEW
Xiaoling Zhou, Yifei Li, Xiaozhe Shi, Chun Ma
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common underlying cause of dementia, and novel drugs for its treatment are needed. Of the different theories explaining the development and progression of AD, "amyloid hypothesis" is the most supported by experimental data. This hypothesis states that the cleavage of amyloid precursor protein (APP) leads to the formation of amyloid beta (Aβ) peptides that congregate with formation and deposition of Aβ plaques in the frontal cortex and hippocampus. Risk factors including neurotransmitter modulation, chronic inflammation, metal-induced oxidative stress and elevated cholesterol levels are key contributors to the disease progress...
2016: American Journal of Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27146371/safety-and-effectiveness-of-statins-for-prevention-of-recurrent-myocardial-infarction-in-12-156-typical-older-patients-a-quasi-experimental-study
#19
Alessandro Ble, Peter M Hughes, Joao Delgado, Jane A Masoli, Kirsty Bowman, Jan Zirk-Sadowski, Ruben E Mujica Mota, William E Henley, David Melzer
BACKGROUND: There is limited evidence on statin risk and effectiveness for patients aged 80+. We estimated risk of recurrent myocardial infarction, muscle-related and other adverse events, and statin-related incremental costs in "real-world" older patients treated with statins versus no statins. METHODS: We used primary care electronic medical records from the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink. Subhazard ratios (competing risk of death) for myocardial infarction recurrence (primary end point), falls, fractures, ischemic stroke, and dementia, and hazard ratios (Cox) for all-cause mortality were used to compare older (60+) statin users and 1:1 propensity-score-matched controls (n = 12,156)...
May 4, 2016: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27089091/acp-journal-club-review-in-older-persons-at-vascular-risk-statins-do-not-prevent-dementia-or-cognitive-decline-at-3-5-to-5-years
#20
COMMENT
Eric B Larson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 19, 2016: Annals of Internal Medicine
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