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Quentin T Moore
PURPOSE: To determine improvement approaches that can be routinely incorporated in digital radiography to ensure that radiation protection practices are based on current equipment capabilities. METHODS: A literature review was conducted on digital radiography as it pertains to radiation protection, quality improvement, evidence-based practice, and interdisciplinary approaches. RESULTS: Transitioning from film-screen radiography to digital radiography has resulted in confusion in applying appropriate techniques and abiding by the as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) concept...
September 2016: Radiologic Technology
Tamader Y Al-Rammah
BACKGROUND: The radiation dose delivered from computed tomography (CT) scanning and the risks associated with ionising radiation are major concerns in paediatric imaging. Compared to adults, children have increased organ sensitivity and a longer expected lifetime in which cancer may develop. Therefore, it is important to investigate the awareness of paediatricians (referring physicians) regarding radiation doses and the associated risks. METHODS: A multiple-choice survey was distributed among paediatricians in 8 hospitals in Riyadh, the capital of Saudi Arabia...
2016: Italian Journal of Pediatrics
Jeffry A Siegel, Charles W Pennington, Bill Sacks
Radiological imaging is claimed to carry iatrogenic risk of cancer, based upon an uninformed commitment to the 70-year old linear no-threshold hypothesis (LNTH). Credible evidence of imaging-related low-dose (<100 mGy) carcinogenic risk is nonexistent; it is a hypothetical risk derived from the demonstrably false LNTH. On the contrary, low-dose radiation does not cause, but more likely helps prevent, cancer. The LNTH and its offspring ALARA (as low as reasonably achievable) are fatally flawed, focusing only on molecular damage, while ignoring protective, organismal biological responses...
August 4, 2016: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
Hua Li, Steven Dolly, Hsin-Chen Chen, Mark A Anastasio, Daniel A Low, Harold H Li, Jeff M Michalski, Wade L Thorstad, Hiram Gay, Sasa Mutic
CT image reconstruction is typically evaluated based on the ability to reduce the radiation dose to as-low-as-reasonably-achievable (ALARA) while maintaining acceptable image quality. However, the determination of common image quality metrics, such as noise, contrast, and contrast-to-noise ratio, is often insufficient for describing clinical radiotherapy task performance. In this study we designed and implemented a new comparative analysis method associating image quality, radiation dose, and patient size with radiotherapy task performance, with the purpose of guiding the clinical radiotherapy usage of CT reconstruction algorithms...
2016: Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics
Mervyn D Cohen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 15, 2016: Journal of the American College of Radiology: JACR
Ying Liu, Jian Li, Hongliang Zhao, Yan Jia, Jing Ren, Jian Xu, Yuewen Hao, Minwen Zheng
BACKGROUND: All studies involving use of ionizing radiation should be performed in accordance with the ALARA (As Low As Reasonably Achievable) principle, especially in children. In this study, the prospective ECG triggering technique with low voltage was used in dual-source computed tomography (DSCT) angiography to investigate if image quality with low radiation dose could be satisfactory in pediatric patients with congenital heart disease. METHODS: Sixty pediatric patients with suspected congenital cardiovascular anomalies were enrolled prospectively in the study...
2016: Journal of Cardiothoracic Surgery
Frank A Osei, Joshua Hayman, Nicole J Sutton, Robert H Pass
BACKGROUND: Cardiac catheterizations expose both the patient and staff to the risks of ionizing radiation. Studies using the "air gap" technique (AGT) in various radiological procedures indicate that its use leads to reduction in radiation exposure but there are no data on its use for pediatric cardiac catheterization. The aim of this study was to retrospectively review the radiation exposure data for children weighing <20 kg during cardiac catheterizations using AGT and an "as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA)" radiation reduction protocol...
January 2016: Annals of Pediatric Cardiology
David A Beach
Endodontic diagnosis and treatment planning has taken a giant leap forward due to introduction of CBCT in dentistry. While conventional 2-D radiographs remain the most cost-effective and routine method to evaluate a patient’s dentition, their diagnostic potential is limited. The 3-D manipulation of images that CBCT offers provides better insight into diagnostic dilemmas and complicate treatment decisions. Despite the advantages of CBCT imaging, it should be used complimentary to 2-D radiography, not as a replacement...
February 2016: Dentistry Today
Mehmet Emre Ozpelit, Ertugrul Ercan, Ebru Ozpelit, Nihat Pekel, Istemihan Tengiz, Ferhat Ozyurtlu, Akar Yilmaz
INTRODUCTION: Mean radiation exposure in invasive cardiology varies greatly between different centres and interventionists. The International Commission on Radiological Protection and the EURATOM Council stipulate that, despite reference values, 'All medical exposure for radiodiagnostic purposes shall be kept as low as reasonably achievable' (ALARA). The purpose of this study is to establish the effects of the routine application of ALARA principles and to determine operator and procedure impact on radiation exposure in interventional cardiology...
March 2, 2016: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
João V Vitola, Fernando Mut, Erick Alexánderson, Thomas N B Pascual, Mathew Mercuri, Ganesan Karthikeyan, Nathan Better, Madan M Rehani, Ravi Kashyap, Maurizio Dondi, Diana Paez, Andrew J Einstein
BACKGROUND: Comparison of Latin American (LA) nuclear cardiology (NC) practice with that in the rest of the world (RoW) will identify areas for improvement and lead to educational activities to reduce radiation exposure from NC. METHODS AND RESULTS: INCAPS collected data on all SPECT and PET procedures performed during a single week in March-April 2013 in 36 laboratories in 10 LA countries (n = 1139), and 272 laboratories in 55 countries in RoW (n = 6772). Eight "best practices" were identified a priori and a radiation-related Quality Index (QI) was devised indicating the number used...
February 22, 2016: Journal of Nuclear Cardiology: Official Publication of the American Society of Nuclear Cardiology
Ralf Anding, Phillip Smith, Tom de Jong, Christos Constantinou, Linda Cardozo, Peter Rosier
AIMS: An ICI-RS Think Tank in 2014 discussed and evaluated the evidence for adding video and EMG to urodynamics (UDS) in children and also highlighted evidence gaps, with the aim of recommending further clinical and research protocols. METHODS: A systematic analysis of the relevant literature for both X-ray (video) studies and electromyography, in combination with UDS in children with lower urinary tract dysfunction (LUTD), is summarized in this manuscript. The technical aspects are also critically reviewed...
February 2016: Neurourology and Urodynamics
Zhen-Han Deng, Chao Zeng, Yu-Sheng Li, Tuo Yang, Hui Li, Jie Wei, Guang-Hua Lei
BACKGROUND: Major reports have suggested that bone mineral density (BMD) is higher in patients with osteoarthritis (OA), while other studies do not agree. Our aim was to examine the cross-sectional association between phalangeal BMD and radiographic knee OA. METHODS: A total of 2855 participants were included in this study. Radiographic knee OA was defined as Kellgren-Lawrence (K-L) Grade ≥ 2 in at least one leg. BMD scans of the middle phalanges of the second, third and fourth digits of the nondominant hand were performed with a compact radiographic absorptiometry system (Alara MetriScan®)...
2016: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders
Mohan Doss
THERE IS considerable disagreement in the scientific community regarding the carcinogenicity of low-dose radiation (LDR), with publications supporting opposing points of view. However, major flaws have been identified in many of the publications claiming increased cancer risk from LDR. The data generally recognized as the most important for assessing radiation effects in humans, the atomic bomb survivor data, are often cited to raise LDR cancer concerns. However, these data no longer support the linear no-threshold (LNT) model after the 2012 update but are consistent with radiation hormesis...
March 2016: Health Physics
Ming-Kai Chen, David H Menard, David W Cheng
UNLABELLED: In pursuit of as-low-as-reasonably-achievable (ALARA) doses, this study investigated the minimal required radioactivity and corresponding imaging time for reliable semiquantification in PET/CT imaging. METHODS: Using a phantom containing spheres of various diameters (3.4, 2.1, 1.5, 1.2, and 1.0 cm) filled with a fixed (18)F-FDG concentration of 165 kBq/mL and a background concentration of 23.3 kBq/mL, we performed PET/CT at multiple time points over 20 h of radioactive decay...
March 2016: Journal of Nuclear Medicine Technology
Brij Bhushan Thukral
Radiological imaging is extremely valuable as a diagnostic tool in the pediatric population, but it comes with a number of distinct challenges as compared to the imaging of adults. This is because of the following: It requires dedicated imaging protocols to acquire the images, there is need for sedation or general anesthesia for longer procedures such as MRI, specific training is required for the healthcare personnel involved, thorough knowledge and expertise should be applied for evaluating the images, and most importantly, it requires consideration for radiation exposure if ionizing radiation is being used...
October 2015: Indian Journal of Radiology & Imaging
Prashant P Jaju, Sushma P Jaju
Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) is routinely recommended for dental diagnosis and treatment planning. CBCT exposes patients to less radiation than does conventional CT. Still, lack of proper education among dentists and specialists is resulting in improper referral for CBCT. In addition, aiming to generate high-quality images, operators may increase the radiation dose, which can expose the patient to unnecessary risk. This letter advocates appropriate radiation dosing during CBCT to the benefit of both patients and dentists, and supports moving from the concept of "as low as reasonably achievable" (ALARA) to "as low as diagnostically acceptable" (ALADA)...
December 2015: Imaging Science in Dentistry
Cristina Corominas-Delgado, José Espona, Marian Lorente-Gascón, Francisco Real-Voltas, Miguel Roig, Santiago Costa-Palau
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the adjustment of structures designed from a digital impression of implants obtained by cone-beam computerized tomography (CBCT). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty implants were placed in five edentulous mandibles of fresh cadaver heads, six per mandible. Special scan bodies were screwed in the implants and a CBCT was taken. DICOM images were converted to STL and digitally processed to obtain a digital model of the implants. A Cr-Co structure was designed and milled for each mandible, and the adjustment was assessed as in a real clinical situation: passivity while screwing, radiographic fitting, optical fitting, and probing...
December 30, 2015: Clinical Oral Implants Research
B Michael Moores
In 1973, International Commission on Radiological Protection Publication 22 recommended that the acceptability of radiation exposure levels for a given activity should be determined by a process of cost-benefit analysis. It was felt that this approach could be used to underpin both the principle of ALARA as well for justification purposes. The net benefit, B, of an operation involving irradiation was regarded as equal to the difference between its gross benefit, V, and the sum of three components; the basic production cost associated with the operation, P; the cost of achieving the selected level of protection, X; and the cost Y of the detriment involved in the operation: [Formula: see text] This article presents a theoretical cost-risk-benefit analysis that is applicable to the diagnostic accuracy (Levels 1 and 2) of the hierarchical efficacy model presented by National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements in 1992...
June 2016: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
Timothy A Resch, Per Törnqvist, Björn Sonesson, Nuno V Dias
Endovascular aortic repair of aortic pathologies has become widely spread among vascular surgeons. Much focus has been directed at perfecting and developing endovascular procedures to treat evermore complex issues. Much less focus has been directed at the radiation hazards to patients as well as operators and staff when such procedures are performed. Radiation exposure must be used according to the ALARA (As Low As Reasonably Achievable) principle to avoid short- and long-term negative side effects. Modern imaging technology offers many technological developments to reduce radiation such as low-dose programs, pulsed imaging, flat-panel technology and advanced intraoperative imaging techniques...
April 2016: Journal of Cardiovascular Surgery
Sophie Laffont, Yan Rolland, Valérie Ardisson, Julien Edeline, Marc Pracht, Samuel Le Sourd, Tanguy Rohou, Laurence Lenoir, Nicolas Lepareur, Etienne Garin
PURPOSE: Radioembolization of liver cancer with (90)Y-loaded microspheres is increasingly used but data regarding hospital staff exposure are scarce. We evaluated the radiation exposure of medical staff while preparing and injecting (90)Y-loaded glass and resin microspheres especially in view of the increasing use of these products. METHODS: Exposure of the chest and finger of the radiopharmacist, nuclear medicine physician and interventional radiologist during preparation and injection of 78 glass microsphere preparations and 16 resin microsphere preparations was monitored...
May 2016: European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
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