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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735464/radiation-dose-reduction-in-thoracic-and-lumbar-spine-instrumentation-using-navigation-based-on-an-intraoperative-cone-beam-ct-imaging-system-a-prospective-randomized-clinical-trial
#1
Nathalie Pireau, Virginie Cordemans, Xavier Banse, Nadia Irda, Sébastien Lichtherte, Ludovic Kaminski
PURPOSE: Spine surgery still remains a challenge for every spine surgeon, aware of the potential serious outcomes of misplaced instrumentation. Though many studies have highlighted that using intraoperative cone beam CT imaging and navigation systems provides higher accuracy than conventional freehand methods for placement of pedicle screws in spine surgery, few studies are concerned about how to reduce radiation exposure for patients with the use of such technology. One of the main focuses of this study is based on the ALARA principle (as low as reasonably achievable)...
July 22, 2017: European Spine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719979/prevalence-of-protective-shielding-utilization-for-radiation-dose-reduction-in-adult-patients-undergoing-body-scanning-using-computed-tomography
#2
Shoaib Safiullah, Roshan M Patel, Brittany Uribe, Kyle Spradling, Chandana Lall, Lishi Zhang, Zhamshid Okhunov, Ralph Clayman, Jaime Landman
PURPOSE: Ionizing radiation is implicated in nearly 2% of malignancies in the United States; radiation shields prevent unnecessary radiation exposure during medical imaging. Contemporary radiation shield utilization for adult patients in the United States is poorly defined. Therefore, we evaluated the prevalence of protective shielding utilization in adult patients undergoing computed tomography scans in United States' hospitals. METHODS: An online survey was sent to established radiology departments randomly selected from the 2015 American Hospital Association Guide...
July 18, 2017: Journal of Endourology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28677509/therapy-of-cardiac-arrhythmias-in-children-an-emerging-role-of-electroanatomical-mapping-systems
#3
Casale Matteo, Mezzetti Maurizio, Tulino Viviana, Michele Scarano, Busacca Paolo, Dattilo Giuseppe
INTRODUCTION: Cardiac arrhythmias are challenging diseases in childhood. Most of them in pediatric subjects (90.2%) are atrioventricular reentrant tachycardias and atrioventricular nodal reentrant tachycardias. The standard 12-lead ECG is a highly accurate diagnostic tool but an invasive electrophysiological study is often required. The main concern about this kind of procedures is their invasive nature and the need of radiations, so antiarrhythmic agents are currently the first line therapy...
July 5, 2017: Current Vascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675867/the-lambert-beer-law-in-time-domain-form-and-its-application
#4
Volodymyr Mosorov
The majority of current radioisotope gauges utilize measurements of intensity for a chosen sampling time interval using a detector. Such an approach has several disadvantages: temporal resolution of the gauge is fixed and the accuracy of the measurements is not the same for different count rate. The solution can be the use of a stronger radioactive source, but it will be conflicted with ALARA (As Low As Reasonably Achievable) principle. Therefore, the article presents an alternative approach which is based on modified Lambert-Beer law...
June 27, 2017: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674910/diagnostic-imaging-in-pediatric-thoracic-trauma
#5
Claudia Lucia Piccolo, Stefania Ianniello, Margherita Trinci, Michele Galluzzo, Michele Tonerini, Massimo Zeccolini, Giuseppe Guglielmi, Vittorio Miele
Thoracic trauma accounts for approximately 14% of blunt force traumatic deaths, second only to head injuries. Chest trauma can be blunt (90% of cases) or penetrating. In young patients, between 60 and 80% of chest injuries result from blunt trauma, with over half as a consequence of impact with motor vehicles, whereas in adolescents and adults, penetrating trauma has a statistically more prominent role. Pulmonary contusions and rib fractures are the most frequent injuries occurring. Chest X-ray is the first imaging modality of choice to identify patients presenting with life-threatening conditions (i...
July 4, 2017: La Radiologia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640075/maximum-voltage-gradient-technique-for-optimization-of-ablation-for-typical-atrial-flutter-with-zero-fluoroscopy-approach
#6
MULTICENTER STUDY
Karol Deutsch, Janusz Śledź, Mariusz Mazij, Bartosz Ludwik, Michał Labus, Dariusz Karbarz, Bernadetta Pasicka, Michał Chrabąszcz, Arkadiusz Śledź, Monika Klank-Szafran, Laura Vitali-Sendoz, Tomasz Kameczura, Jerzy Śpikowski, Piotr Stec, Marek Ujda, Sebastian Stec
Radiofrequency catheter ablation (RFCA) is an established effective method for the treatment of typical cavo-tricuspid isthmus (CTI)-dependent atrial flutter (AFL). The introduction of 3-dimensional electro-anatomic systems enables RFCA without fluoroscopy (No-X-Ray [NXR]). The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility and effectiveness of CTI RFCA during implementation of the NXR approach and the maximum voltage-guided (MVG) technique for ablation of AFL.Data were obtained from prospective standardized multicenter ablation registry...
June 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28571827/effect-on-overall-survival-of-locoregional-treatment-in-a-cohort-of-de-novo-metastatic-prostate-cancer-patients-a-single-institution-retrospective-analysis-from-the-royal-marsden-hospital
#7
Diletta Bianchini, David Lorente, Pasquale Rescigno, Zafeiris Zafeiriou, Elena Psychopaida, Hazel O'Sullivan, Mervyn Alaras, Michael Kolinsky, Semini Sumanasuriya, Mariane Sousa Fontes, Joaquin Mateo, Raquel Perez Lopez, Nina Tunariu, Nikolaos Fotiadis, Pardeep Kumar, Alison Tree, Nicholas Van As, Vincent Khoo, Chris Parker, Rosalind Eeles, Alan Thompson, David Dearnaley, Johann S de Bono
BACKGROUND: The optimal management of the primary tumor in metastatic at diagnosis (M1) prostate cancer (PCa) patients is not yet established. We retrospectively evaluated the effect of locoregional treatment (LRT) on overall survival (OS) hypothesizing that this could improve outcome through better local disease control and the induction of an antitumor immune response (abscopal effect). PATIENTS AND METHODS: M1 at diagnosis PCa patients referred to the Prostate Targeted Therapy Group at the Royal Marsden between June 2003 and December 2013 were identified...
April 26, 2017: Clinical Genitourinary Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28567503/planning-benchmark-study-for-sbrt-of-early-stage-nsclc-results-of-the-degro-working-group-stereotactic-radiotherapy
#8
Christos Moustakis, Oliver Blanck, Fatemeh Ebrahimi Tazehmahalleh, Mark Ka Heng Chan, Iris Ernst, Thomas Krieger, Marciana-Nona Duma, Markus Oechsner, Ute Ganswindt, Christian Heinz, Horst Alheit, Hilbert Blank, Ursula Nestle, Rolf Wiehle, Christine Kornhuber, Christian Ostheimer, Cordula Petersen, Gerhard Pollul, Wolfgang Baus, Georg Altenstein, Eric Beckers, Katrin Jurianz, Florian Sterzing, Matthias Kretschmer, Heinrich Seegenschmiedt, Torsten Maass, Stefan Droege, Ulrich Wolf, Juergen Schoeffler, Uwe Haverkamp, Hans Theodor Eich, Matthias Guckenberger
PURPOSE: The aim was to evaluate stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) treatment planning variability for early stage nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with respect to the published guidelines of the Stereotactic Radiotherapy Working Group of the German Society for Radiation Oncology (DEGRO). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Planning computed tomography (CT) scan and the structure sets (planning target volume, PTV; organs at risk, OARs) of 3 patients with early stage NSCLC were sent to 22 radiotherapy departments with SBRT experience: each department was asked to prepare a treatment plan according to the DEGRO guidelines...
May 31, 2017: Strahlentherapie und Onkologie: Organ der Deutschen Röntgengesellschaft ... [et Al]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506649/dose-optimization-in-cardiac-ct
#9
REVIEW
Sandeep Hedgire, Brian Ghoshhajra, Mannudeep Kalra
Rapid progress in the field of Cardiac CT is fostered by the advances in CT scanner technology as well as multiple clinical trials demonstrating its role in coronary artery disease and other indications like congenital heart disease, pulmonary vein assessment and pre transcatheter aortic valve replacement. The cardiovascular imager today is responsible for delivering diagnostic image quality while striking a balance with optimized radiation dose. Radiation dose is the result of multiple scanner and patient related factors...
May 12, 2017: Physica Medica: PM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490467/dose-optimization-to-minimize-radiation-risk-for-children-undergoing-ct-and-nuclear-medicine-imaging-is-misguided-and-detrimental
#10
Jeffry A Siegel, Bill Sacks, Charles W Pennington, James S Welsh
A debate exists within the medical community on whether the linear no-threshold model of ionizing radiation exposure accurately predicts the subsequent incidence of radiogenic cancer. In this article, we evaluate evidence refuting the linear no-threshold model and corollary efforts to reduce radiation exposure from CT and nuclear medicine imaging in accord with the as-low-as-reasonably-achievable principle, particularly for children. Further, we review studies demonstrating that children are not, in fact, more radiosensitive than adults in the radiologic imaging dose range, rendering dose reduction for children unjustifiable and counterproductive...
June 2017: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483219/laryngotracheal-anomalies-and-airway-fluoroscopy-in-infants
#11
Amal Isaiah, Kevin D Pereira
OBJECTIVES: The role of airway fluoroscopy in the diagnosis of laryngotracheal anomalies in infants is controversial. We aimed to (i) compare airway fluoroscopic characteristics with endoscopic findings in infants presenting for evaluation of upper airway obstruction and (ii) assess the as low as is reasonably achievable (ALARA) status for airway fluoroscopy as an initial diagnostic test in suspected laryngotracheal anomalies. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed a retrospective review of children who underwent fluoroscopy and endoscopic evaluation of the airway in the operating room for suspected laryngotracheal anatomic abnormalities...
June 2017: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479456/contrast-induced-nephropathy-a-fact-or-fiction-in-lower-limb-revascularization
#12
Carlos Martínez-Rico, Xavier Martí-Mestre, Antonio Romera-Villegas, Emma Espinar-Garcia, Elena Iborra-Ortega, Ramón Vila-Coll
INTRODUCTION: Contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) is defined as an increase >25% of serum creatinine from baseline, occurring in 24-48 hours after exposure to contrast, while alternative explanations for renal impairment have been excluded. The volume administered directly relates to risk, increasing by 12% per 100 mL of contrast. According to the series, its incidence varies between 3.3% and 8% in patients without renal damage and 12-50% in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and/or diabetes mellitus (DM)...
May 4, 2017: Annals of Vascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449852/radiation-exposure-during-intramedullary-nailing
#13
David J Hak
Surgeons should aim to keep radiation exposure "As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA)" during intramedullary nailing and other minimally invasive surgical procedures. This requires understanding the principles of ionizing radiation and methods for minimizing exposure risk. The main source of radiation exposure to surgical personnel during fluoroscopy is from scattered radiation. Since radiation scatter is mainly directed towards the fluoroscopy source, the best configuration during surgery to reduce radiation dose to the surgeon is to position the fluoroscopic source below the operating room table and the image collector above the table...
April 24, 2017: Injury
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429301/ethical-issues-related-to-the-promotion-of-a-100-msv-threshold-assumption-in-japan-after-the-fukushima-nuclear-accident-in-2011-background-and-consequences
#14
REVIEW
Toshihide Tsuda, Lena Lindahl, Akiko Tokinobu
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article describes the debates in Japan regarding the 100 mSv threshold assumption and ethical issues related to it, and explores the background to distorted risk information and absence of risk communication in Japan. Then we seek proper risk communication based on scientific evidence. RECENT FINDINGS: On March 11, 2011 an accident occurred at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant due to the Great East Japan Earthquake. Since then a number of misunderstandings have become common in Japan as a result of public statements by the Japanese and local governments that have no basis in medical science or are contradictory to medical science...
June 2017: Current Environmental Health Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408700/contamination-a-major-problem-in-nuclear-medicine-imaging-how-to-investigate-handle-and-avoid-it
#15
Narvesh Kumar, Shashwat Verma, Rani Kunti Randhir Singh, Deepanksha Datta, Subhash Chand Kheruka, Sanjay Gambhir
We submitted this study to describe the pattern of contamination of the collimator and motion artifact, and measures needed for its identification and confirmation, to emphasise the importance of detection of potential sources of false positive results associated with the nuclear scans. It is important for the nuclear medicine technologist and physicians to recognize the various patterns of sources of error associated in a specific study in order to avoid the unnecessary radiation exposure to the patients (according to the ALARA)...
April 13, 2017: Journal of Nuclear Medicine Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323979/thyroid-cancer-following-childhood-low-dose-radiation-exposure-a-pooled-analysis-of-nine-cohorts
#16
Jay H Lubin, M Jacob Adams, Roy Shore, Erik Holmberg, Arthur B Schneider, Michael M Hawkins, Leslie L Robison, Peter D Inskip, Marie Lundell, Robert Johansson, Ruth A Kleinerman, Florent de Vathaire, Lena Damber, Siegal Sadetzki, Margaret Tucker, Ritsu Sakata, Lene H S Veiga
Context: The increased use of diagnostic and therapeutic procedures that involve radiation raises concerns about radiation effects, particularly in children and to the radio-sensitive thyroid gland. Objectives: Evaluation of relative risk (RR) trends for thyroid radiation doses <0.2 gray; evidence of a threshold dose; and possible modifiers of the dose-response, e.g., sex, age at exposure, time since exposure. Design and setting: Pooled data from nine cohort studies of childhood external radiation exposure and thyroid cancer with individualized dose estimates, ≥1,000 irradiated subjects or ≥10 thyroid cancer cases, with data limited to individuals receiving doses <0...
March 8, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321175/evidence-that-lifelong-low-dose-rates-of-ionizing-radiation-increase-lifespan-in-long-and-short-lived-dogs
#17
Jerry M Cuttler, Ludwig E Feinendegen, Yehoshua Socol
After the 1956 radiation scare to stop weapons testing, studies focused on cancer induction by low-level radiation. Concern has shifted to protecting "radiation-sensitive individuals." Since longevity is a measure of health impact, this analysis reexamined data to compare the effect of dose rate on the lifespans of short-lived (5% and 10% mortality) dogs and on the lifespans of dogs at 50% mortality. The data came from 2 large-scale studies. One exposed 10 groups to different γ dose rates; the other exposed 8 groups to different lung burdens of plutonium...
January 2017: Dose-response: a Publication of International Hormesis Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296320/a-comparative-study-based-on-image-quality-and-clinical-task-performance-for-ct-reconstruction-algorithms-in-radiotherapy
#18
Hua Li, Steven Dolly, Hsin-Chen Chen, Mark A Anastasio, Daniel A Low, Harold H Li, Jeff M Michalski, Wade L Thorstad, Hiram Gay, Sasa Mutic
CT image reconstruction is typically evaluated based on the ability to reduce the radiation dose to as-low-as-reasonably-achievable (ALARA) while maintaining acceptable image quality. However, the determination of common image quality metrics, such as noise, contrast, and contrast-to-noise ratio, is often insufficient for describing clinical radiotherapy task performance. In this study we designed and implemented a new comparative analysis method associating image quality, radiation dose, and patient size with radiotherapy task performance, with the purpose of guiding the clinical radiotherapy usage of CT reconstruction algorithms...
July 2016: Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28244582/radiological-examinations-in-pediatric-age
#19
R Siciliano
Diagnostic radiology imaging is an essential tool for adequate clinical investigation of pathological processes and the drafting of a personalized therapy plan. However, in recent years, there has been a substantial increase of requests, mainly due to technological advances but also to social and cultural reasons, not always based on the principle of the diagnostic justification. The progress of recent years in the field of diagnostic radiology has made available to the physician a variety of sophisticated radiological examinations, which are not always used rationally and appropriately...
March 2017: Annali di Igiene: Medicina Preventiva e di Comunità
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192209/a-new-alara-keeping-leadless-pacing-thresholds-as-low-as-reasonably-achievable
#20
EDITORIAL
Joseph E Marine
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2017: Heart Rhythm: the Official Journal of the Heart Rhythm Society
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