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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429301/ethical-issues-related-to-the-promotion-of-a-100-msv-threshold-assumption-in-japan-after-the-fukushima-nuclear-accident-in-2011-background-and-consequences
#1
REVIEW
Toshihide Tsuda, Lena Lindahl, Akiko Tokinobu
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article describes the debates in Japan regarding the 100 mSv threshold assumption and ethical issues related to it, and explores the background to distorted risk information and absence of risk communication in Japan. Then we seek proper risk communication based on scientific evidence. RECENT FINDINGS: On March 11, 2011 an accident occurred at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant due to the Great East Japan Earthquake. Since then a number of misunderstandings have become common in Japan as a result of public statements by the Japanese and local governments that have no basis in medical science or are contradictory to medical science...
April 20, 2017: Current Environmental Health Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408700/contamination-a-major-problem-in-nuclear-medicine-imaging-how-to-investigate-handle-and-avoid-it
#2
Narvesh Kumar, Shashwat Verma, Rani Kunti Randhir Singh, Deepanksha Datta, Subhash Chand Kheruka, Sanjay Gambhir
We submitted this study to describe the pattern of contamination of the collimator and motion artifact, and measures needed for its identification and confirmation, to emphasise the importance of detection of potential sources of false positive results associated with the nuclear scans. It is important for the nuclear medicine technologist and physicians to recognize the various patterns of sources of error associated in a specific study in order to avoid the unnecessary radiation exposure to the patients (according to the ALARA)...
April 13, 2017: Journal of Nuclear Medicine Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323979/thyroid-cancer-following-childhood-low-dose-radiation-exposure-a-pooled-analysis-of-nine-cohorts
#3
Jay H Lubin, M Jacob Adams, Roy Shore, Erik Holmberg, Arthur B Schneider, Michael M Hawkins, Leslie L Robison, Peter D Inskip, Marie Lundell, Robert Johansson, Ruth A Kleinerman, Florent de Vathaire, Lena Damber, Siegal Sadetzki, Margaret Tucker, Ritsu Sakata, Lene H S Veiga
Context: The increased use of diagnostic and therapeutic procedures that involve radiation raises concerns about radiation effects, particularly in children and to the radio-sensitive thyroid gland. Objectives: Evaluation of relative risk (RR) trends for thyroid radiation doses <0.2 gray; evidence of a threshold dose; and possible modifiers of the dose-response, e.g., sex, age at exposure, time since exposure. Design and setting: Pooled data from nine cohort studies of childhood external radiation exposure and thyroid cancer with individualized dose estimates, ≥1,000 irradiated subjects or ≥10 thyroid cancer cases, with data limited to individuals receiving doses <0...
March 8, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321175/evidence-that-lifelong-low-dose-rates-of-ionizing-radiation-increase-lifespan-in-long-and-short-lived-dogs
#4
Jerry M Cuttler, Ludwig E Feinendegen, Yehoshua Socol
After the 1956 radiation scare to stop weapons testing, studies focused on cancer induction by low-level radiation. Concern has shifted to protecting "radiation-sensitive individuals." Since longevity is a measure of health impact, this analysis reexamined data to compare the effect of dose rate on the lifespans of short-lived (5% and 10% mortality) dogs and on the lifespans of dogs at 50% mortality. The data came from 2 large-scale studies. One exposed 10 groups to different γ dose rates; the other exposed 8 groups to different lung burdens of plutonium...
January 2017: Dose-response: a Publication of International Hormesis Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296320/a-comparative-study-based-on-image-quality-and-clinical-task-performance-for-ct-reconstruction-algorithms-in-radiotherapy
#5
Hua Li, Steven Dolly, Hsin-Chen Chen, Mark A Anastasio, Daniel A Low, Harold H Li, Jeff M Michalski, Wade L Thorstad, Hiram Gay, Sasa Mutic
CT image reconstruction is typically evaluated based on the ability to reduce the radiation dose to as-low-as-reasonably-achievable (ALARA) while maintaining acceptable image quality. However, the determination of common image quality metrics, such as noise, contrast, and contrast-to-noise ratio, is often insufficient for describing clinical radiotherapy task performance. In this study we designed and implemented a new comparative analysis method associating image quality, radiation dose, and patient size with radiotherapy task performance, with the purpose of guiding the clinical radiotherapy usage of CT reconstruction algorithms...
July 2016: Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28244582/radiological-examinations-in-pediatric-age
#6
R Siciliano
Diagnostic radiology imaging is an essential tool for adequate clinical investigation of pathological processes and the drafting of a personalized therapy plan. However, in recent years, there has been a substantial increase of requests, mainly due to technological advances but also to social and cultural reasons, not always based on the principle of the diagnostic justification. The progress of recent years in the field of diagnostic radiology has made available to the physician a variety of sophisticated radiological examinations, which are not always used rationally and appropriately...
March 2017: Annali di Igiene: Medicina Preventiva e di Comunità
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192209/a-new-alara-keeping-leadless-pacing-thresholds-as-low-as-reasonably-achievable
#7
EDITORIAL
Joseph E Marine
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2017: Heart Rhythm: the Official Journal of the Heart Rhythm Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159651/a-multicenter-survey-of-endovascular-theatre-equipment-and-radiation-exposure-in-france-during-iliac-procedures
#8
Blandine Maurel, Adrien Hertault, Lucie Salomon du Mont, Sébastien Cazaban, Simon Rinckenbach
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study is to evaluate radiation exposure, endovascular theatre equipment, and practices in France during iliac angioplasty. METHODS: A prospective observational study was performed among vascular surgeons who attended a half day of radiation safety training in 2012 and 2015 and had to collect data on 3 patients undergoing iliac procedure. In 2012, 330 surgeons performed 899 procedures, compared with 114 surgeons and 338 procedures in 2015...
February 1, 2017: Annals of Vascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28154358/systemization-of-the-establishment-of-standards-and-future-prospects-toward-the-establishment-of-standards-in-nonstationary-states
#9
REVIEW
Michio Murakami
Although public interest on safety standards is increasing, the evidence and protocols associated with the standards are not known well to the public and even experts. Discussing the evidence of standards is essential for risk communication, and interdisciplinary and systematical understanding on how to establish standards are also beneficial for considering the set-up of new standards. In this article, on the basis of examples in environmental science, industrial health and safety, and radiological protection, I overview and systemize the establishment of the standards from the perspectives of three principles of risk management: 1) "zero-risk-like" standards, 2) "acceptable-risk-based" standards, and 3) "cost-balanced" standards...
2017: Nihon Eiseigaku Zasshi. Japanese Journal of Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28048491/su-f-sps-03-direct-measurement-of-organ-doses-resulting-from-head-and-cervical-spine-trauma-ct-protocols
#10
C Carranza, I Lipnharski, N Quails, N Correa, L Rill, M Arreola
PURPOSE: This retrospective study analyzes the exposure history of emergency department (ED) patients undergoing head and cervical spine trauma computed tomography (CT) studies. This study investigated dose levels received by trauma patients and addressed any potential concerns regarding radiation dose issues. METHODS: Under proper IRB approval, a cohort of 300 trauma cases of head and cervical spine trauma CT scans received in the ED was studied. The radiological image viewing software of the hospital was used to view patient images and image data...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28048267/su-f-i-30-minimization-of-resolution-loss-for-ct-scans-of-the-elbow-at-lateral-position
#11
Y Zhou, A Scott
PURPOSE: Resolution is vital in elbow CT in order to examine the details of fractures. However, it is significantly compromised when the elbow is at the lateral position due to the body attenuation and off-center position. We attempted to find the parameters to minimize the resolution loss while keeping the dose ALARA. METHODS: To simulate the medium and large patient respectively, an abdomen phantom (CIRS TE07) was used and then a fat-ring was added. A small tissue-equivalent phantom (CIRS TE02) simulating the elbow was connected to another smaller phantom (CIRS TE01)...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28048073/su-f-j-16-planar-kv-imaging-dose-reduction-study
#12
E Gershkevitsh, D Zolotuhhin
PURPOSE: IGRT has become an indispensable tool in modern radiotherapy with kV imaging used in many departments due to superior image quality and lower dose when compared to MV imaging. Many departments use manufacturer supplied protocols for imaging which are not always optimised between image quality and radiation dose (ALARA). METHODS: Whole body phantom PBU-50 (Kyoto Kagaku ltd., Japan) for imaging in radiology has been imaged on Varian iX accelerator (Varian Medical Systems, USA) with OBI 1...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28046590/su-f-t-403-impact-of-dose-reduction-for-simulation-ct-on-radiation-therapy-treatment-planning
#13
Q Liang, P Shah, S Li, C Miyamoto
PURPOSE: To investigate the feasibility of applying ALARA principles to current treatment planning CT scans. The study aims to quantitatively verify lower dose scans does not alter treatment planning. METHOD: Gammex 467 tissue characterization phantom with inserts of 14 different materials was scanned at seven different mA levels (30∼300 mA). CT numbers of different inserts were measured. Auto contouring for bone and lung in treatment planning system (Pinnacle) was used to evaluate the effect of CT number accuracy from treatment planning aspect, on the 30 and 300 mA-scanned images...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999617/intraoperative-radiation-safety-in-orthopaedics-a-review-of-the-alara-as-low-as-reasonably-achievable-principle
#14
REVIEW
Daniel J Kaplan, Jay N Patel, Frank A Liporace, Richard S Yoon
The use of fluoroscopy has become commonplace in many orthopaedic surgery procedures. The benefits of fluoroscopy are not without risk of radiation to patient, surgeon, and operating room staff. There is a paucity of knowledge by the average orthopaedic resident in terms proper usage and safety. Personal protective equipment, proper positioning, effective communication with the radiology technician are just of few of the ways outlined in this article to decrease the amount of radiation exposure in the operating room...
2016: Patient Safety in Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886987/integrated-operational-dosimetry-system-at-cern
#15
Gérald Dumont, Fernando Baltasar Dos Santos Pedrosa, Pierre Carbonez, Doris Forkel-Wirth, Pierre Ninin, Eloy Reguero Fuentes, Stefan Roesler, Joachim Vollaire
CERN, the European Organization for Nuclear Research, upgraded its operational dosimetry system in March 2013 to be prepared for the first Long Shutdown of CERN's facilities. The new system allows the immediate and automatic checking and recording of the dosimetry data before and after interventions in radiation areas. To facilitate the analysis of the data in context of CERN's approach to As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA), this new system is interfaced to the Intervention Management Planning and Coordination Tool (IMPACT)...
April 1, 2017: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856357/clinical-effectiveness-in-the-diagnosis-and-acute-management-of-pediatric-nephrolithiasis
#16
REVIEW
Jason P Van Batavia, Gregory E Tasian
The incidence of pediatric nephrolithiasis has risen over the past few decades leading to a growing public health burden. Children and adolescents represent a unique patient population secondary to their higher risks from radiation exposure as compared to adults, high risk of recurrence, and longer follow up time given their longer life expectancies. Ultrasound imaging is the first-line modality for diagnosing suspected nephrolithiasis in children. Although data is limited, the best evidence based medicine supports the use of alpha-blockers as first-line MET in children, especially when stones are small and in a more distal ureteral location...
December 2016: International Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845838/neuroimaging-of-children-with-surgically-treated-hydrocephalus-a-practical-approach
#17
Caroline D Robson, Robert D MacDougall, Joseph R Madsen, Benjamin C Warf, Richard L Robertson
OBJECTIVE: Children with surgically treated hydrocephalus commonly undergo multiple neuroimaging studies. The purpose of this article is to share an experience with use of the as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) principle to guide the imaging approach to these patients. CONCLUSION: A reasonably achievable strategy for minimizing ionizing radiation in patients with surgically treated hydrocephalus includes rapid-sequence MRI and judicious use of dose-optimized head CT...
February 2017: AJR. American Journal of Roentgenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27601688/an-interdisciplinary-approach-to-improving-radiation-protection-in-digital-radiography
#18
Quentin T Moore
PURPOSE: To determine improvement approaches that can be routinely incorporated in digital radiography to ensure that radiation protection practices are based on current equipment capabilities. METHODS: A literature review was conducted on digital radiography as it pertains to radiation protection, quality improvement, evidence-based practice, and interdisciplinary approaches. RESULTS: Transitioning from film-screen radiography to digital radiography has resulted in confusion in applying appropriate techniques and abiding by the as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) concept...
September 2016: Radiologic Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27576692/ct-radiation-dose-awareness-among-paediatricians
#19
Tamader Y Al-Rammah
BACKGROUND: The radiation dose delivered from computed tomography (CT) scanning and the risks associated with ionising radiation are major concerns in paediatric imaging. Compared to adults, children have increased organ sensitivity and a longer expected lifetime in which cancer may develop. Therefore, it is important to investigate the awareness of paediatricians (referring physicians) regarding radiation doses and the associated risks. METHODS: A multiple-choice survey was distributed among paediatricians in 8 hospitals in Riyadh, the capital of Saudi Arabia...
August 31, 2016: Italian Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27493264/subjecting-radiologic-imaging-to-the-linear-no-threshold-hypothesis-a-non-sequitur-of-non-trivial-proportion
#20
Jeffry A Siegel, Charles W Pennington, Bill Sacks
Radiologic imaging is claimed to carry an iatrogenic risk of cancer, based on an uninformed commitment to the 70-y-old linear no-threshold hypothesis (LNTH). Credible evidence of imaging-related low-dose (<100 mGy) carcinogenic risk is nonexistent; it is a hypothetical risk derived from the demonstrably false LNTH. On the contrary, low-dose radiation does not cause, but more likely helps prevent, cancer. The LNTH and its offspring, ALARA (as low as reasonably achievable), are fatally flawed, focusing only on molecular damage while ignoring protective, organismal biologic responses...
January 2017: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
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