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Joseph E Marine
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 9, 2017: Heart Rhythm: the Official Journal of the Heart Rhythm Society
Blandine Maurel, Adrien Hertault, Lucie Salomon du Mont, Sébastien Cazaban, Simon Rinckenbach
AIM: To evaluate radiation exposure, endovascular theatre equipment and practices in France during iliac angioplasty. METHODS: A prospective observational study was performed among vascular surgeons who attended a half day of radiation safety training in 2012 and 2015 and had to collect data on 3 patients undergoing iliac procedure. In 2012, 330 surgeons performed 899 procedures, compared to 114 surgeons and 338 procedures in 2015. Due to exclusions, 653 and 306 procedures were analysed in 2012 and 2015, respectively...
January 31, 2017: Annals of Vascular Surgery
Michio Murakami
Although public interest on safety standards is increasing, the evidence and protocols associated with the standards are not known well to the public and even experts. Discussing the evidence of standards is essential for risk communication, and interdisciplinary and systematical understanding on how to establish standards are also beneficial for considering the set-up of new standards. In this article, on the basis of examples in environmental science, industrial health and safety, and radiological protection, I overview and systemize the establishment of the standards from the perspectives of three principles of risk management: 1) "zero-risk-like" standards, 2) "acceptable-risk-based" standards, and 3) "cost-balanced" standards...
2017: Nihon Eiseigaku Zasshi. Japanese Journal of Hygiene
C Carranza, I Lipnharski, N Quails, N Correa, L Rill, M Arreola
PURPOSE: This retrospective study analyzes the exposure history of emergency department (ED) patients undergoing head and cervical spine trauma computed tomography (CT) studies. This study investigated dose levels received by trauma patients and addressed any potential concerns regarding radiation dose issues. METHODS: Under proper IRB approval, a cohort of 300 trauma cases of head and cervical spine trauma CT scans received in the ED was studied. The radiological image viewing software of the hospital was used to view patient images and image data...
June 2016: Medical Physics
Y Zhou, A Scott
PURPOSE: Resolution is vital in elbow CT in order to examine the details of fractures. However, it is significantly compromised when the elbow is at the lateral position due to the body attenuation and off-center position. We attempted to find the parameters to minimize the resolution loss while keeping the dose ALARA. METHODS: To simulate the medium and large patient respectively, an abdomen phantom (CIRS TE07) was used and then a fat-ring was added. A small tissue-equivalent phantom (CIRS TE02) simulating the elbow was connected to another smaller phantom (CIRS TE01)...
June 2016: Medical Physics
E Gershkevitsh, D Zolotuhhin
PURPOSE: IGRT has become an indispensable tool in modern radiotherapy with kV imaging used in many departments due to superior image quality and lower dose when compared to MV imaging. Many departments use manufacturer supplied protocols for imaging which are not always optimised between image quality and radiation dose (ALARA). METHODS: Whole body phantom PBU-50 (Kyoto Kagaku ltd., Japan) for imaging in radiology has been imaged on Varian iX accelerator (Varian Medical Systems, USA) with OBI 1...
June 2016: Medical Physics
Q Liang, P Shah, S Li, C Miyamoto
PURPOSE: To investigate the feasibility of applying ALARA principles to current treatment planning CT scans. The study aims to quantitatively verify lower dose scans does not alter treatment planning. METHOD: Gammex 467 tissue characterization phantom with inserts of 14 different materials was scanned at seven different mA levels (30∼300 mA). CT numbers of different inserts were measured. Auto contouring for bone and lung in treatment planning system (Pinnacle) was used to evaluate the effect of CT number accuracy from treatment planning aspect, on the 30 and 300 mA-scanned images...
June 2016: Medical Physics
Daniel J Kaplan, Jay N Patel, Frank A Liporace, Richard S Yoon
The use of fluoroscopy has become commonplace in many orthopaedic surgery procedures. The benefits of fluoroscopy are not without risk of radiation to patient, surgeon, and operating room staff. There is a paucity of knowledge by the average orthopaedic resident in terms proper usage and safety. Personal protective equipment, proper positioning, effective communication with the radiology technician are just of few of the ways outlined in this article to decrease the amount of radiation exposure in the operating room...
2016: Patient Safety in Surgery
Gérald Dumont, Fernando Baltasar Dos Santos Pedrosa, Pierre Carbonez, Doris Forkel-Wirth, Pierre Ninin, Eloy Reguero Fuentes, Stefan Roesler, Joachim Vollaire
CERN, the European Organization for Nuclear Research, upgraded its operational dosimetry system in March 2013 to be prepared for the first Long Shutdown of CERN's facilities. The new system allows the immediate and automatic checking and recording of the dosimetry data before and after interventions in radiation areas. To facilitate the analysis of the data in context of CERN's approach to As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA), this new system is interfaced to the Intervention Management Planning and Coordination Tool (IMPACT)...
November 24, 2016: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
Jason P Van Batavia, Gregory E Tasian
The incidence of pediatric nephrolithiasis has risen over the past few decades leading to a growing public health burden. Children and adolescents represent a unique patient population secondary to their higher risks from radiation exposure as compared to adults, high risk of recurrence, and longer follow up time given their longer life expectancies. Ultrasound imaging is the first-line modality for diagnosing suspected nephrolithiasis in children. Although data is limited, the best evidence based medicine supports the use of alpha-blockers as first-line MET in children, especially when stones are small and in a more distal ureteral location...
December 2016: International Journal of Surgery
Caroline D Robson, Robert D MacDougall, Joseph R Madsen, Benjamin C Warf, Richard L Robertson
OBJECTIVE: Children with surgically treated hydrocephalus commonly undergo multiple neuroimaging studies. The purpose of this article is to share an experience with use of the as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) principle to guide the imaging approach to these patients. CONCLUSION: A reasonably achievable strategy for minimizing ionizing radiation in patients with surgically treated hydrocephalus includes rapid-sequence MRI and judicious use of dose-optimized head CT...
February 2017: AJR. American Journal of Roentgenology
Quentin T Moore
PURPOSE: To determine improvement approaches that can be routinely incorporated in digital radiography to ensure that radiation protection practices are based on current equipment capabilities. METHODS: A literature review was conducted on digital radiography as it pertains to radiation protection, quality improvement, evidence-based practice, and interdisciplinary approaches. RESULTS: Transitioning from film-screen radiography to digital radiography has resulted in confusion in applying appropriate techniques and abiding by the as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) concept...
September 2016: Radiologic Technology
Tamader Y Al-Rammah
BACKGROUND: The radiation dose delivered from computed tomography (CT) scanning and the risks associated with ionising radiation are major concerns in paediatric imaging. Compared to adults, children have increased organ sensitivity and a longer expected lifetime in which cancer may develop. Therefore, it is important to investigate the awareness of paediatricians (referring physicians) regarding radiation doses and the associated risks. METHODS: A multiple-choice survey was distributed among paediatricians in 8 hospitals in Riyadh, the capital of Saudi Arabia...
August 31, 2016: Italian Journal of Pediatrics
Jeffry A Siegel, Charles W Pennington, Bill Sacks
Radiologic imaging is claimed to carry an iatrogenic risk of cancer, based on an uninformed commitment to the 70-y-old linear no-threshold hypothesis (LNTH). Credible evidence of imaging-related low-dose (<100 mGy) carcinogenic risk is nonexistent; it is a hypothetical risk derived from the demonstrably false LNTH. On the contrary, low-dose radiation does not cause, but more likely helps prevent, cancer. The LNTH and its offspring, ALARA (as low as reasonably achievable), are fatally flawed, focusing only on molecular damage while ignoring protective, organismal biologic responses...
January 2017: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
Hua Li, Steven Dolly, Hsin-Chen Chen, Mark A Anastasio, Daniel A Low, Harold H Li, Jeff M Michalski, Wade L Thorstad, Hiram Gay, Sasa Mutic
CT image reconstruction is typically evaluated based on the ability to reduce the radiation dose to as-low-as-reasonably-achievable (ALARA) while maintaining acceptable image quality. However, the determination of common image quality metrics, such as noise, contrast, and contrast-to-noise ratio, is often insufficient for describing clinical radiotherapy task performance. In this study we designed and implemented a new comparative analysis method associating image quality, radiation dose, and patient size with radiotherapy task performance, with the purpose of guiding the clinical radiotherapy usage of CT reconstruction algorithms...
July 8, 2016: Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics
Mervyn D Cohen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: Journal of the American College of Radiology: JACR
Ying Liu, Jian Li, Hongliang Zhao, Yan Jia, Jing Ren, Jian Xu, Yuewen Hao, Minwen Zheng
BACKGROUND: All studies involving use of ionizing radiation should be performed in accordance with the ALARA (As Low As Reasonably Achievable) principle, especially in children. In this study, the prospective ECG triggering technique with low voltage was used in dual-source computed tomography (DSCT) angiography to investigate if image quality with low radiation dose could be satisfactory in pediatric patients with congenital heart disease. METHODS: Sixty pediatric patients with suspected congenital cardiovascular anomalies were enrolled prospectively in the study...
April 9, 2016: Journal of Cardiothoracic Surgery
Frank A Osei, Joshua Hayman, Nicole J Sutton, Robert H Pass
BACKGROUND: Cardiac catheterizations expose both the patient and staff to the risks of ionizing radiation. Studies using the "air gap" technique (AGT) in various radiological procedures indicate that its use leads to reduction in radiation exposure but there are no data on its use for pediatric cardiac catheterization. The aim of this study was to retrospectively review the radiation exposure data for children weighing <20 kg during cardiac catheterizations using AGT and an "as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA)" radiation reduction protocol...
January 2016: Annals of Pediatric Cardiology
David A Beach
Endodontic diagnosis and treatment planning has taken a giant leap forward due to introduction of CBCT in dentistry. While conventional 2-D radiographs remain the most cost-effective and routine method to evaluate a patient’s dentition, their diagnostic potential is limited. The 3-D manipulation of images that CBCT offers provides better insight into diagnostic dilemmas and complicate treatment decisions. Despite the advantages of CBCT imaging, it should be used complimentary to 2-D radiography, not as a replacement...
February 2016: Dentistry Today
Mehmet Emre Ozpelit, Ertugrul Ercan, Ebru Ozpelit, Nihat Pekel, Istemihan Tengiz, Ferhat Ozyurtlu, Akar Yilmaz
INTRODUCTION: Mean radiation exposure in invasive cardiology varies greatly between different centres and interventionists. The International Commission on Radiological Protection and the EURATOM Council stipulate that, despite reference values, 'All medical exposure for radiodiagnostic purposes shall be kept as low as reasonably achievable' (ALARA). The purpose of this study is to establish the effects of the routine application of ALARA principles and to determine operator and procedure impact on radiation exposure in interventional cardiology...
March 2, 2016: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
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