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Laurent Kamel, Michelle Keller-Pearson, Christophe Roux, Jean-Michel Ané
I. II. III. IV. V. References SUMMARY: Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi associate with the vast majority of land plants, providing mutual nutritional benefits and protecting hosts against biotic and abiotic stresses. Significant progress was made recently in our understanding of the genomic organization, the obligate requirements, and the sexual nature of these fungi through the release and subsequent mining of genome sequences. Genomic and genetic approaches also improved our understanding of the signal repertoire used by AM fungi and their plant hosts to recognize each other for the initiation and maintenance of this association...
October 25, 2016: New Phytologist
A Tiril M Pedersen, Michael D Nowak, Anne K Brysting, Reidar Elven, Charlotte S Bjorå
Hybridization is frequent in the large and ecologically significant genus Carex (Cyperaceae). In four important sections of the northern regions (Ceratocystis, Glareosae, Phacocystis and Vesicariae), the frequent occurrence of hybrids often renders the identification of "pure" species and hybrids difficult. In this study we address the origins and taxonomic rank of two taxa of section Vesicariae: Carex rostrata var. borealis and C. stenolepis. The origin and taxonomic status of C. stenolepis has been the subject of substantial debate over the years, whereas C...
2016: PloS One
Chris Beyrer, Keletso Makofane, Ifeanyi Orazulike, Daouda Diouf, Stefan D Baral
Chris Beyrer and colleagues reflect on an underappreciated trend in multiple African, Asian, and Caribbean settings, in which the provision of HIV and other essential health services for sexual and gender minorities is expanding despite challenging legal and social environments.
October 2016: PLoS Medicine
Christian L Althaus, Nicola Low
Christian Althaus and Nicola Low reflect on the contribution of sexual transmission to the spread of Zika virus.
October 2016: PLoS Medicine
Emma Dargie, Ronald R Holden, Caroline F Pukall
Millions suffer from chronic vulvar pain (ie, vulvodynia). Vulvodynia represents the intersection of 2 difficult subjects for health care professionals to tackle: sexuality and chronic pain. Those with chronic vulvar pain are often uncomfortable seeking help, and many who do so fail to receive proper diagnoses. The current research developed a multidimensional assessment questionnaire, the Vulvar Pain Assessment Questionnaire (VPAQ) inventory, to assist in the assessment and diagnosis of those with vulvar pain...
August 1, 2016: Pain
Ruby Charak, Brianna M Byllesby, Michelle E Roley, Meredith A Claycomb, Tory A Durham, Jana Ross, Cherie Armour, Jon D Elhai
The aims of the present study were first to identify discrete patterns of childhood victimization experiences including crime, child maltreatment, peer/sibling victimization, sexual violence, and witnessing violence among adult trauma victims using latent class analysis; second, to examine the association between class-membership and suicidal behavior, and third to investigate the differential role of dispositional anger on the association between class-membership and suicidal behavior. We hypothesized that those classes with accumulating exposure to different types of childhood victimization (e...
October 22, 2016: Child Abuse & Neglect
Darryl T Gwynne
In a role-reversed beetle, in which sexual selection acts primarily on females, females evolved to more rapidly court and copulate after many generations of experimentally increased female sexual competition.
October 24, 2016: Current Biology: CB
Alexei A Maklakov, Urban Friberg
Male nematodes secrete pheromones that accelerate the somatic senescence of potential mates. A new study shows that this harm most likely is an unintended by-product of the males' aim to speed up sexual maturation and delay reproductive senescence of future partners.
October 24, 2016: Current Biology: CB
Kelly B Filipkowski, Kristin E Heron, Joshua M Smyth
OBJECTIVE: This study cross-sectionally and prospectively examined the impact of adversity experienced prior to college on the health and well-being of students adjusting to their first college semester. METHODS: Two-hundred sixteen (216) first-year students completed measures of adverse life experiences, perceived stress, physical symptoms, and health-related behaviors during the first 2 weeks of college entry and again at the end of the first semester. RESULTS: Reported adversity prior to college predicted greater perceived stress and physical symptoms at college entry and an increase in physical symptoms over the semester; perceived stress mediated the prospective changes...
November 2016: American Journal of Health Behavior
Oliver R Oakley, Kee Jun Kim, Po-Ching Lin, Radwa Barakat, Joseph A Cacioppo, Zhong Li, Alex Whitaker, Kwang Chul Chung, Wenyan Mei, CheMyong Ko
17β-estradiol is a potent sex hormone synthesized primarily by gonads in females and males that regulates development and function of the reproductive system. Recent studies show that 17β-estradiol is locally synthesized in non-reproductive tissues and regulates a myriad of events, including local inflammatory responses. In this study, we report that mesenteric lymph nodes and Peyer's patches are novel sites of de novo synthesis of 17β-estradiol. These secondary lymphoid organs are located within or close to the gastrointestinal tract, contain leukocytes, and function at the forefront of immune surveillance...
October 25, 2016: Endocrinology
H Bayram, A Sayadi, J Goenaga, E Immonen, G Arnqvist
The seed beetle Callosobruchus maculatus is a significant agricultural pest and increasingly studied model of sexual conflict. Males possess genital spines that increase the transfer of seminal fluid proteins (SFPs) into the female body. As SFPs alter female behaviour and physiology, they are likely to modulate reproduction and sexual conflict in this species. Here, we identified SFPs using proteomics combined with a de novo transcriptome. A prior 2D-sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis identified male accessory gland protein spots that were probably transferred to the female at mating...
October 24, 2016: Insect Molecular Biology
P Speetjens, F Thielen, M Ten Have, R de Graaf, F Smit
Child maltreatment occurs frequently. This has detrimental effects later in life on mental health and is linked to considerable costs due to health care use and sick leave. Self-mastery, however, is a factor that may well mitigated the effects of child maltreatment . <br/> AIM: To quantify the long-term costs of child abuse and to test the hypothesis that self-mastery can modify the after-effects of maltreatment .<br/> METHOD: Data were obtained from a psychiatric cohort study (n=5618). The risk factors were emotional neglect and mental, physical and sexual abuse before the age of 16...
2016: Tijdschrift Voor Psychiatrie
Ting-Ting Cao, Xiu-Li Sun, Shi-Yan Wang, Xin Yang, Jian-Liu Wang
BACKGROUND: Pelvic organ prolapse (POP) is a major health concern that affects women. Surgeons have increasingly used prosthetic meshes to correct POP. However, the most common used is synthetic mesh, and absorbable mesh is less reported. This research aimed to evaluate the clinical effectiveness of porcine small intestinal submucosa (SIS). METHODS: Consecutive forty POP patients who met the inclusion criteria underwent pelvic reconstruction surgery with SIS between March 2012 and December 2013...
2016: Chinese Medical Journal
W K Chiu, W C Lam, N H Chu, C Km Mok, W K Tung, F Yl Leung, S M Ting
INTRODUCTION: Rainlily, the first one-stop crisis centre in Hong Kong, was set up in 2000 to protect female victims of sexual violence. This study aimed to analyse the characteristics of sexual assault cases and victims who presented to two hospitals in Hong Kong. The data are invaluable for health care professionals and policymakers to improve service provision to these victims. METHODS: This retrospective analysis of hospital records was conducted in two acute hospitals under the Hospital Authority in Hong Kong...
October 24, 2016: Hong Kong Medical Journal, Xianggang Yi Xue za Zhi
Nicole H Weiss, Courtney Peasant, Tami P Sullivan
Women who experience intimate partner violence (IPV) report higher rates of HIV-risk behaviors. However, few studies have examined factors that may influence the strength of the link between IPV and HIV-risk behaviors. The goal of the current study was to extend extant research by evaluating the potential moderating role of avoidant coping in this relation. Participants were 212 women currently experiencing IPV (M age = 36.63, 70.8 % African American) who were recruited from the community. Significant positive associations were found between physical, psychological, and sexual IPV severity and both avoidant coping and HIV-risk behaviors...
October 24, 2016: AIDS and Behavior
Ajit Pai, Saleh Mohamed Eftaiha, George Melich, John J Park, Pey-Yi Kevin Lin, Leela M Prasad, Slawomir J Marecik
BACKGROUND: Today, extralevator abdominoperineal resection is the standard of care for low rectal cancers with sphincter involvement or location precluding anastomosis. This procedure, while effective from an oncologic point of view, is morbid, with a high incidence of wound complications and genitourinary, and sexual dysfunction. We present a modification of this procedure via a robotic approach, which maintains the radicality while reducing the soft tissue loss and potentially the morbidity...
October 24, 2016: World Journal of Surgery
Eungu Kang, Ja Hyang Cho, Jin-Ho Choi, Han-Wook Yoo
PURPOSE: This study was performed to investigate the etiology, clinical features, and outcomes of patients with gonadotropin-independent precocious puberty (GIPP). METHODS: The study included 16 patients (14 female and 2 male patients) who manifested secondary sexual characteristics, elevated sex hormones, or adrenal androgens with prepubertal luteinizing hormone levels after gonadotropin releasing hormone stimulation diagnosed between May 1994 and December 2015...
September 2016: Annals of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism
Richard M Hinds, Michael B Gottschalk, Eitan Melamed, John T Capo, S Steven Yang
Background An accessory slip arising from the extensor carpi ulnaris (ECU) tendon that inserts on the fifth metacarpal bone has been identified. We describe the frequency of this accessory slip arising from the ECU tendon and provide both qualitative and quantitative description of the slip via cadaveric examination. Methods Fifty (28 males and 22 females) cadaveric upper extremity specimens were examined after loupe-aided dissection of the dorsoulnar wrist and hand with identification of the ECU tendon...
November 2016: Journal of Wrist Surgery
Taejun Yoo, Byeongjin Ye, Jung-Il Kim, Siwoo Park
OBJECTIVE: The present study analyzed relationship of workplace violence and perpetrators of violence on sleep disturbance among wage workers in Korea. METHODS: The present study used data from the 4th Korean Working Conditions Survey (KWCS) of 2014 in selecting a total of 25,138wage workers as the study population, which excluded those who failed or refused to respond to questions required for the present study. The workplace violence experience group included people who satisfied at least one of six relevant criteria (verbal abuse, unwanted sexual attention, threatening or humiliating behavior, physical violence, bullying/harassment, and sexual harassment) and the group was divided according to whether the perpetrator of violence was a client or colleague...
2016: Annals of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
N Swierkowski-Blanchard, L Alter, S Salama, C Muratorio, M Bergere, M Jaoul, F Vialard, M Bailly, J Selva, F Boitrelle
BACKGROUND: According to our literature analysis, there are no data focused on spermatozoa emotional representations in childless men and data on the emotional repercussions of a diagnosis of infertility on men are still scarce. Thus, in this work, we investigated what the presence or absence of spermatozoa in the semen symbolize for men. MATERIAL AND METHODS: To answer this question, 441 childless heterosexual men participated in an anonymous, prospective, Internet-based survey...
2016: Basic and Clinical Andrology
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