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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812648/fungus-like-mycelial-fossils-in-2-4-billion-year-old-vesicular-basalt
#1
Stefan Bengtson, Birger Rasmussen, Magnus Ivarsson, Janet Muhling, Curt Broman, Federica Marone, Marco Stampanoni, Andrey Bekker
Fungi have recently been found to comprise a significant part of the deep biosphere in oceanic sediments and crustal rocks. Fossils occupying fractures and pores in Phanerozoic volcanics indicate that this habitat is at least 400 million years old, but its origin may be considerably older. A 2.4-billion-year-old basalt from the Palaeoproterozoic Ongeluk Formation in South Africa contains filamentous fossils in vesicles and fractures. The filaments form mycelium-like structures growing from a basal film attached to the internal rock surfaces...
April 24, 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812421/right-hemispatial-ipsilesional-neglect-with-chronic-right-hemisphere-strokes
#2
John B Williamson, Damon G Lamb, D Brandon Burtis, Salsabil Haque, Eduardo M Zilli, Tigran Kesayan, Michal Harciarek, Kenneth M Heilman
BACKGROUND: Patients who present with spatial neglect after stroke often perform normally on tests for neglect after a few weeks. Whereas tests for neglect are often performed directly in front of a patient, in their actual environments many important stimuli may be present within their left or right hemispace. The presence and severity of neglect often depends on the hemisphere injured. It is possible, in chronic stroke, for spatial judgments to be influenced by an interaction of stroke laterality and the spatial location of stimuli...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812271/oxytocin-and-interpersonal-relationships
#3
Alexandra Patin, Dirk Scheele, Rene Hurlemann
The neuropeptide oxytocin (OT) has emerged as a potent modulator of diverse aspects of interpersonal relationships. OT appears to work in close interaction with several other neurotransmitter networks, including the dopaminergic reward circuit, and to be dependent on sex-specific hormonal influences. In this chapter, we focus on four main domains of OT and interpersonal relationships, including (1) the protective effect of OT on an individual's ability to withstand stress (i.e., stress buffering), (2) the effect of OT on emotion recognition and empathy, (3) OT's ability to enhance social synchrony and cooperation among individuals, and (4) the effect of OT on an individual's perception of social touch...
August 16, 2017: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812042/visual-outcomes-24%C3%A2-months-after-laserace
#4
AnnMarie Hipsley, David Hui-Kang Ma, Chi-Chin Sun, Mitchell A Jackson, Daniel Goldberg, Brad Hall
BACKGROUND: To evaluate the effects on near and intermediate visual performance after bilateral Laser Anterior Ciliary Excision (LaserACE) procedure. METHODS: LaserACE surgery was performed using the VisioLite 2.94 μm erbium: yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Er:YAG) ophthalmic laser system in 4 oblique quadrants on the sclera over the ciliary muscle in 3 critical zones of physiological importance (over the ciliary muscles and posterior zonules) with the aim to improve natural dynamic accommodative forces...
2017: Eye and Vision (London, England)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810928/gait-characteristics-and-their-discriminative-power-in-geriatric-patients-with-and-without-cognitive-impairment
#5
Lisette H J C Kikkert, Nicolas Vuillerme, Jos P van Campen, Bregje A Appels, Tibor Hortobágyi, Claudine J Lamoth
BACKGROUND: A detailed gait analysis (e.g., measures related to speed, self-affinity, stability, and variability) can help to unravel the underlying causes of gait dysfunction, and identify cognitive impairment. However, because geriatric patients present with multiple conditions that also affect gait, results from healthy old adults cannot easily be extrapolated to geriatric patients. Hence, we (1) quantified gait outcomes based on dynamical systems theory, and (2) determined their discriminative power in three groups: healthy old adults, geriatric patients with- and geriatric patients without cognitive impairment...
August 15, 2017: Journal of Neuroengineering and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809699/ar-feels-softer-than-vr-haptic-perception-of-stiffness-in-augmented-versus-virtual-reality
#6
Yoren Gaffary, Benoit Le Gouis, Maud Marchal, Ferran Argelaguet, Bruno Arnaldi, Anatole Lecuyer
Does it feel the same when you touch an object in Augmented Reality (AR) or in Virtual Reality (VR)? In this paper we study and compare the haptic perception of stiffness of a virtual object in two situations: (1) a purely virtual environment versus (2) a real and augmented environment. We have designed an experimental setup based on a Microsoft HoloLens and a haptic force-feedback device, enabling to press a virtual piston, and compare its stiffness successively in either Augmented Reality (the virtual piston is surrounded by several real objects all located inside a cardboard box) or in Virtual Reality (the same virtual piston is displayed in a fully virtual scene composed of the same other objects)...
August 10, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809688/live-user-guided-intrinsic-video-for-static-scenes
#7
Abhimitra Meka, Gereon Fox, Michael Zollhofer, Christian Richardt, Christian Theobalt
We present a novel real-time approach for user-guided intrinsic decomposition of static scenes captured by an RGB-D sensor. In the first step, we acquire a three-dimensional representation of the scene using a dense volumetric reconstruction framework. The obtained reconstruction serves as a proxy to densely fuse reflectance estimates and to store user-provided constraints in three-dimensional space. User constraints, in the form of constant shading and reflectance strokes, can be placed directly on the real-world geometry using an intuitive touch-based interaction metaphor, or using interactive mouse strokes...
August 11, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809457/inherently-chiral-calixarenes-synthesis-and-applications
#8
Gareth Edward Arnott
This article looks at the chemistry surrounding the concept of inherently chiral calixarenes (ICCs), whose synthesis and application have only recently being realised. One challenge in the area of ICC chemistry is the sheer breadth and scope for installing different aspects of inherent chirality. The aim of this article is not to cover every known method, but rather to give the reader an overview of the main themes that have emerged in this area, including more recent additions to the literature. This overview will also touch on the very limited reports on the applications of ICCs which give a glimpse into the potential these compounds may have in future studies...
August 15, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809011/some-thoughts-on-experimental-design
#9
Claudio D Stern
Perhaps even more important than the techniques themselves are the quality of the biological questions asked and the design of the experiments devised to answer them. This chapter summarizes some of the key issues and also touches on how the same principles affect scholarly use of the scientific literature and good peer-reviewing practices.
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808498/functional-cellular-and-molecular-remodeling-of-the-heart-under-influence-of-oxidative-cigarette-tobacco-smoke
#10
REVIEW
Abdullah Kaplan, Emna Abidi, Rana Ghali, George W Booz, Firas Kobeissy, Fouad A Zouein
Passive and active chronic cigarette smoking (CS) remains an international epidemic and a key risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD) development. CS-induced cardiac damage is divided into two major and interchangeable mechanisms: (1) direct adverse effects on the myocardium causing smoking cardiomyopathy and (2) indirect effects on the myocardium by fueling comorbidities such as atherosclerotic syndromes and hypertension that eventually damage and remodel the heart. To date, our understanding of cardiac remodeling following acute and chronic smoking exposure is not well elucidated...
2017: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808010/voltage-gated-calcium-flux-mediates-escherichia-coli-mechanosensation
#11
Giancarlo N Bruni, R Andrew Weekley, Benjamin J T Dodd, Joel M Kralj
Electrically excitable cells harness voltage-coupled calcium influx to transmit intracellular signals, typically studied in neurons and cardiomyocytes. Despite intense study in higher organisms, investigations of voltage and calcium signaling in bacteria have lagged due to their small size and a lack of sensitive tools. Only recently were bacteria shown to modulate their membrane potential on the timescale of seconds, and little is known about the downstream effects from this modulation. In this paper, we report on the effects of electrophysiology in individual bacteria...
August 14, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807480/opportunities-and-challenges-in-screening-for-childhood-sexual-abuse
#12
Deepa L Sekhar, Jennifer L Kraschnewski, Heather L Stuckey, Pamela D Witt, Erica B Francis, Ginger A Moore, Paul L Morgan, Jennie G Noll
Retrospective studies suggest 1 in 4 girls and 1 in 6 boys will experience sexual abuse before 18 years of age, resulting in future morbidity. Successful interventions exist, however, victims are reluctant to disclose. Screening for childhood sexual abuse (CSA) may provide an opportunity to overcome this barrier, yet no current model for universal CSA screening exists. We sought to understand the perspective of key stakeholders on CSA screening through qualitative research. Eight focus groups of 7-10 participants each (n=62) were conducted from April-September 2016...
August 11, 2017: Child Abuse & Neglect
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807140/acute-psychological-trauma-in-the-critically-ill-patient-and-family-perspectives
#13
Volha Dziadzko, Mikhail A Dziadzko, Margaret M Johnson, Ognjen Gajic, Lioudmila V Karnatovskaia
OBJECTIVE: Post-intensive care syndrome (PICS), which encompasses profound psychological morbidity, affects many survivors of critical illness. We hypothesize that acute psychological stress during the intensive care unit (ICU) confinement likely contributes to PICS. In order to develop strategies that mitigate PICS associated psychological morbidity, it is paramount to first characterize acute ICU psychological stress and begin to understand its causative and protective factors. METHODS: A structured interview study was administered to adult critical illness survivors who received ≥48h of mechanical ventilation in medical and surgical ICUs of a tertiary care center, and their families...
July 2017: General Hospital Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806052/one-step-nanoscale-electrohydrodynamic-inkjet-three-dimensional-printing-technique-with-spontaneous-joule-heating
#14
Bin Zhang, Baekhoon Seong, Jaehyun Lee, VuDat Nguyen, DaeHyun Cho, Doyoung Byun
A one-step nanoscale electrohydrodynamic (EHD) inkjet three-dimensional (3D)-printing technique that is based on the drop-on-demand (DOD) operation for which an additional post-sintering process is not required is proposed. Both the numerical simulation and the experimental observations proved that nanoscale Joule heating occurs at the interface between the charged silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) because of the high electrical contact resistance during the printing process; this is the reason why an additional post-sintering process is not required...
August 14, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805419/creating-space-for-relationships
#15
Susan L Maataoui, Jodi S Hardwick, Tessa S Lundquist
Sexuality is a key component of personality and behavior, encompassing basic human needs for touch, intimacy, love, affection, and sexual behavior. The design of long-term care facilities makes it almost impossible for a resident to be sexually intimate, to share romantic moments, or to have a meal in a private setting. This case study describes the rationale and process used to establish a private guestroom called the Family Room at Patriots Place, the specialized dementia unit in the Veterans Affairs (VA) Maine Healthcare System Community Living Center (CLC)...
August 2017: Psychological Services
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804510/the-nonverbal-communication-of-positive-emotions-an-emotion-family-approach
#16
Disa A Sauter
This review provides an overview of the research on nonverbal expressions of positive emotions, organised into emotion families, that is, clusters sharing common characteristics. Epistemological positive emotions (amusement, relief, awe, and interest) are found to have distinct, recognisable displays via vocal or facial cues, while the agency-approach positive emotions (elation and pride) appear to be associated with recognisable visual, but not auditory, cues. Evidence is less strong for the prosocial emotions (love, compassion, gratitude, and admiration) in any modality other than touch, and there is little support for distinct recognisable signals of the savouring positive emotions (contentment, sensory pleasure, and desire)...
July 2017: Emotion Review: Journal of the International Society for Research on Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803971/otp-an-automatized-system-for-managing-and-processing-ngs-data
#17
Eva Reisinger, Lena Genthner, Jules Kerssemakers, Philip Kensche, Stefan Borufka, Alke Jugold, Andreas Kling, Manuel Prinz, Ingrid Scholz, Gideon Zipprich, Roland Eils, Christian Lawerenz, Jürgen Eils
The One Touch Pipeline (OTP) is an automation platform managing Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS) data and calling bioinformatic pipelines for processing these data. OTP handles the complete digital process from import of raw sequence data via alignment of sequencing reads to identify genomic events in an automated and scalable way. Three major goals are pursued: firstly, reduction of human resources required for data management by introducing automated processes. Secondly, reduction of time until the sequences can be analyzed by bioinformatic experts, by executing all operations more reliably and quickly...
August 10, 2017: Journal of Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803830/the-effect-of-perceptual-load-on-tactile-spatial-attention-evidence-from-event-related-potentials
#18
Elena Gherri, Fiona Berreby
To investigate whether tactile spatial attention is modulated by perceptual load, behavioural and electrophysiological measures were recorded during two spatial cuing tasks in which the difficulty of the target/non-target discrimination was varied (High and Low load tasks). Moreover, to study whether attentional modulations by load are sensitive to the availability of visual information, the High and Low load tasks were carried out under both illuminated and darkness conditions. ERPs to cued and uncued non-targets were compared as a function of task (High vs...
August 10, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803017/technical-note-use-of-an-automated-grooming-brush-by-heifers-and-potential-for-radiofrequency-identification-based-measurements-of-this-behavior
#19
Rachel L Toaff-Rosenstein, Martin Velez, Cassandra B Tucker
Healthy cattle readily use grooming brushes but this behavior subsides when animals become ill. Tracking use of a brush may provide an opportunity for health monitoring, especially if the process could be automated. We assessed how healthy heifers groom themselves on a brush and hypothesized that radiofrequency identification (RFID) could be used to accurately and automatically record this behavior. Angus and Hereford heifers (n = 16) were fitted with 2 ultra-high-frequency RFID ear tags and monitored in groups of 8 while housed in a pen with an electronic brush, video cameras, and 4 RFID antennas...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802447/development-of-a-press-and-drag-method-for-hyperlink-selection-on-smartphones
#20
Joonho Chang, Kihyo Jung
The present study developed a novel touch method for hyperlink selection on smartphones consisting of two sequential finger interactions: press and drag motions. The novel method requires a user to press a target hyperlink, and if a touch error occurs he/she can immediately correct the touch error by dragging the finger without releasing it in the middle. The method was compared with two existing methods in terms of completion time, error rate, and subjective rating. Forty college students participated in the experiments with different hyperlink sizes (4-pt, 6-pt, 8-pt, and 10-pt) on a touch-screen device...
November 2017: Applied Ergonomics
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