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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150813/a-social-cichlid-fish-failed-to-pass-the-mark-test
#1
Takashi Hotta, Shiho Komiyama, Masanori Kohda
Since the pioneering work in chimpanzees, mirror self-recognition (MSR), the ability to recognise oneself in a mirror, has been reported in great apes, Asian elephants, dolphins, and some social birds using the mark test, in which animals that possess MSR touch an imperceptible mark on their own bodies only when a mirror is present. However, giant pandas, which are solitary, failed to pass the mark test, suggesting that MSR evolved solely in highly social animals. In contrast to the increasing evidence of MSR in mammals and birds, little is known about MSR in fish...
November 17, 2017: Animal Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150150/biocompatible-hollow-polymeric-particles-produced-by-a-mild-solvent-and-template-free-strategy
#2
Eustolia Rodríguez-Velázquez, Pablo Taboada, Manuel Alatorre-Meda
Macroscopic hollow polymeric particles are attractive materials for various applications such as surgery, food industry, agriculture, etc. However, protocols reporting their synthesis have hitherto made use of organic solvents and/or sacrificial templates, compromising the encapsulation of different bioactive compounds and the process yield. Here, millimeter-size, hollow polymeric particles were synthesized, for the first time, in a solvent- and template free manner onto superhydrophobic surfaces (SHS). The particles were produced upon assembly and double superficial crosslinking of liquid droplets of DNA and methacrylamide chitosan aqueous solutions (CH:MA), leading to liquid-core particles with a hardened hydrogel shell...
November 14, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149576/scholarly-merit-in-a-global-context-the-nation-gap-in-psychological-science
#3
Nathan N Cheek
Psychologists from the United States are extremely prominent in psychological science, publishing more articles and receiving more citations than researchers from other nations. In this brief article, I review some previous research on this "nation gap" in psychology and highlight relevant data from journals published by the Association for Psychological Science. I then discuss some possible explanations for the nation gap and touch on some of its implications for thinking about scholarly merit and scientific eminence...
November 2017: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147553/crafting-of-functional-biomaterials-by-directed-molecular-self-assembly-of-triple-helical-peptide-building-blocks
#4
REVIEW
Jayati Banerjee, Helena S Azevedo
Collagen is the most abundant extracellular matrix protein in the body and has widespread use in biomedical research, as well as in clinics. In addition to difficulties in the production of recombinant collagen due to its high non-natural imino acid content, animal-derived collagen imposes several major drawbacks-variability in composition, immunogenicity, pathogenicity and difficulty in sequence modification-that may limit its use in the practical scenario. However, in recent years, scientists have shifted their attention towards developing synthetic collagen-like materials from simple collagen model triple helical peptides to eliminate the potential drawbacks...
December 6, 2017: Interface Focus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145447/from-bead-to-rod-comparison-of-theories-by-measuring-translational-drag-coefficients-of-micron-sized-magnetic-bead-chains-in-stokes-flow
#5
Kaiyuan Yang, Chen Lu, Xiaodan Zhao, Ryo Kawamura
Frictional drag force on an object in Stokes flow follows a linear relationship with the velocity of translation and a translational drag coefficient. This drag coefficient is related to the size, shape, and orientation of the object. For rod-like objects, analytical solutions of the drag coefficients have been proposed based on three rough approximations of the rod geometry, namely the bead model, ellipsoid model, and cylinder model. These theories all agree that translational drag coefficients of rod-like objects are functions of the rod length and aspect ratio, but differ among one another on the correction factor terms in the equations...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144223/no-touch-disinfection-methods-to-decrease-multidrug-resistant-organism-infections-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#6
Alexandre R Marra, Marin L Schweizer, Michael B Edmond
BACKGROUND Recent studies have shown that using no-touch disinfection technologies (ie, ultraviolet light [UVL] or hydrogen peroxide vapor [HPV] systems) can limit the transmission of nosocomial pathogens and prevent healthcare-associated infections (HAIs). To investigate these findings further, we performed a systematic literature review and meta-analysis on the impact of no-touch disinfection methods to decrease HAIs. METHODS We searched PubMed, CINAHL, CDSR, DARE and EMBASE through April 2017 for studies evaluating no-touch disinfection technology and the nosocomial infection rates for Clostridium difficile, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE), and other multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs)...
November 16, 2017: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141416/perturbation-expansions-of-stochastic-wavefunctions-for-open-quantum-systems
#7
Yaling Ke, Yi Zhao
Based on the stochastic unravelling of the reduced density operator in the Feynman path integral formalism for an open quantum system in touch with harmonic environments, a new non-Markovian stochastic Schrödinger equation (NMSSE) has been established that allows for the systematic perturbation expansion in the system-bath coupling to arbitrary order. This NMSSE can be transformed in a facile manner into the other two NMSSEs, i.e., non-Markovian quantum state diffusion and time-dependent wavepacket diffusion method...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141158/the-combined-effect-of-cold-and-moisture-on-manual-performance
#8
Matthew Ray, Elizabeth Sanli, Robert Brown, Kerri Ann Ennis, Heather Carnahan
Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the combined effect of cold and moisture on manual performance and tactile sensitivity. Background People working in the ocean environment often perform manual work in cold and wet conditions. Although the independent effects of cold and moisture on hand function are known, their combined effect has not been investigated. Method Participants completed sensory (Touch-Test, two-point discrimination) and motor (Purdue Pegboard, Grooved Pegboard, reef knot untying) tests in the following conditions: dry hand, wet hand, cold hand, and cold and wet hand...
November 1, 2017: Human Factors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140918/integrating-social-determinants-of-health-into-graduate-medical-education-a-call-for-action
#9
Jennifer Siegel, David L Coleman, Thea James
Social determinants of health (SDH) are the major drivers of health and disparate health outcomes across communities and populations. Given this, the authors assert that competency in recognizing and mitigating SDH should become a vital component of graduate medical education in all specialties. While the most effective approaches to educating trainees about SDH are uncertain, in this Invited Commentary, the authors offer several key principles for implementing curricula focusing on SDH. These include universalization of the material, integration into clinical education, identification of space for trainee introspection, clarification of specific competencies in identification and mitigation of SDH, and creation of robust faculty development programming...
November 14, 2017: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140818/drop-instillation-and-glaucoma
#10
Scott A Davis, Betsy Sleath, Delesha M Carpenter, Susan J Blalock, Kelly W Muir, Donald L Budenz
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To describe the current state of knowledge regarding glaucoma patients' eye drop technique, interventions attempting to improve eye drop technique, and methods for assessing eye drop technique. RECENT FINDINGS: In observational studies, between 18.2 and 80% of patients contaminate their eye drop bottle by touching their eye or face, 11.3-60.6% do not instill exactly one drop, and 6.8-37.3% miss the eye with the drop. Factors significantly associated with poorer technique include older age, lack of instruction on eye drop technique, female sex, arthritis, more severe visual field defect, lack of positive reinforcement to take eye drops, lower educational level, low self-efficacy, and being seen at a clinic rather than a private practice...
November 14, 2017: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140485/growth-of-integrative-medicine-at-leading-cancer-centers-between-2009-and-2016-a-systematic-analysis-of-nci-designated-comprehensive-cancer-center-websites
#11
Hyeongjun Yun, Lingyun Sun, Jun J Mao
Background: Cancer centers have increasingly offered integrative medicine therapies in response to their patients' unmet needs. We evaluated the growth of integrative medicine in leading academic cancer centers in the United States as reflected by their public-facing websites. Methods: We performed a systematic review of 45 National Cancer Institute (NCI)-designated comprehensive cancer center websites. Two researchers independently evaluated whether the websites provided information regarding integrative medicine modalities and, if so, whether the services were provided in the same health system...
November 1, 2017: Journal of the National Cancer Institute. Monographs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140294/a-human-body-pressure-distribution-imaging-system-based-on-wavelet-analysis-and-resistance-tomography
#12
Shuanfeng Zhao, Wenbo Wang, Wei Guo, Chuanwei Zhang
In this paper, a pressure distribution sensing system based on wavelet analysis and resistance tomography is proposed to overcome the shortcomings of a traditional electrode type pressure distribution sensor, which needs to be arranged with many electrodes and has a high production cost. The system uses ADS1256, a constant current source module, a serial communication module, a Raspberry host, a touch screen, and other components. The wavelet transform is used to preprocess the collected signal to improve the anti-jamming performance of the system...
November 15, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140281/non-contact-sensor-for-long-term-continuous-vital-signs-monitoring-a-review-on-intelligent-phased-array-doppler-sensor-design
#13
REVIEW
Travis Hall, Donald Y C Lie, Tam Q Nguyen, Jill C Mayeda, Paul E Lie, Jerry Lopez, Ron E Banister
It has been the dream of many scientists and engineers to realize a non-contact remote sensing system that can perform continuous, accurate and long-term monitoring of human vital signs as we have seen in many Sci-Fi movies. Having an intelligible sensor system that can measure and record key vital signs (such as heart rates and respiration rates) remotely and continuously without touching the patients, for example, can be an invaluable tool for physicians who need to make rapid life-and-death decisions. Such a sensor system can also effectively help physicians and patients making better informed decisions when patients' long-term vital signs data is available...
November 15, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139557/using-somatosensory-mismatch-responses-as-a-window-into-somatotopic-processing-of-tactile-stimulation
#14
Guannan Shen, Nathan J Smyk, Andrew N Meltzoff, Peter J Marshall
Brain responses to tactile stimulation have often been studied through the examination of ERPs elicited to touch on the body surface. Here, we examined two factors potentially modulating the amplitude of the somatosensory mismatch negativity (sMMN) and P300 responses elicited by touch to pairs of body parts: (a) the distance between the representation of these body parts in somatosensory cortex, and (b) the physical distances between the stimulated points on the body surface. The sMMN and the P300 response were elicited by tactile stimulation in two oddball protocols...
November 15, 2017: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139286/highly-sensitive-flexible-pressure-sensors-based-on-printed-organic-transistors-with-centro-apically-self-organized-organic-semiconductor-microstructures
#15
So Young Yeo, Sangsik Park, Yeonjin Yi, Do Hwan Kim, Jung Ah Lim
A highly sensitive pressure sensor based on a printed organic transistors with three-dimensionally self-organized organic semiconductor microstructures were demonstrated. A unique organic transistor with semiconductor channels positioned at the highest summit of printed cylindrical microstructures was achieved simply by printing an organic semiconductor and polymer blend on the plastic substrate without the use of additional etching or replication processes. A combination of the printed organic semiconductor microstructure and an elastomeric top-gate dielectric resulted in a highly sensitive OFET pressure sensor with a high pressure sensitivity of 1...
November 15, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138946/semiotic-systems-with-duality-of-patterning-and-the-issue-of-cultural-replicators
#16
Gerhard Schaden, Cédric Patin
Two major works in recent evolutionary biology have in different ways touched upon the issue of cultural replicators in language, namely Dawkins' Selfish Gene and Maynard Smith and Szathmáry's Major Transitions in Evolution. In the latter, the emergence of language is referred to as the last major transition in evolution (for the time being), a claim we argue to be derived from a crucial property of language, called Duality of Patterning. Prima facie, this property makes natural language look like a structural equivalent to DNA, and its peer in terms of expressive power...
November 14, 2017: History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138669/medical-and-dental-students-attitude-and-practice-of-prevention-strategies-against-hepatitis-b-virus-infection-in-a-nigerian-university
#17
Oyebimpe Jumoke Adenlewo, Peter Olalekan Adeosun, Olawunmi Adedoyin Fatusi
Introduction: Medical and dental students are a high-risk group for hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection which is an occupational hazard for them and a leading cause of death globally. Prevention strategies include vaccination and observance of standard precaution. However, available reports claim utilization of the prevention strategies is low. This study evaluated the attitude of the students towards HBV vaccine and cross-infection practices. Methods: This study was a cross-sectional study carried out at the College of Health Sciences, Obafemi Awolowo University, Nigeria...
2017: Pan African Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138290/developing-a-sense-of-touch
#18
REVIEW
Blair A Jenkins, Ellen A Lumpkin
The sensation of touch is mediated by mechanosensory neurons that are embedded in skin and relay signals from the periphery to the central nervous system. During embryogenesis, axons elongate from these neurons to make contact with the developing skin. Concurrently, the epithelium of skin transforms from a homogeneous tissue into a heterogeneous organ that is made up of distinct layers and microdomains. Throughout this process, each neuronal terminal must form connections with an appropriate skin region to serve its function...
November 15, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138055/merkel-cells-sense-cooling-with-trpm8-channels
#19
Valentine Bouvier, Yann Roudaut, Nancy Osorio, Jean-Marc Aimonetti, Edith Ribot-Ciscar, Virginie Penalba, Thierry Merrot, Nicolas Lebonvallet, Christelle Le Gall-Ianotto, Laurent Misery, Patrick Delmas, Marcel Crest
In the skin, Merkel cells (MCs) connect with keratinocytes and Aβ nerve fibers to form a touch receptor which functions as a slow adapting mechanoreceptor (SA1 receptor). In human and mouse MCs, we observed an increased concentration of intracellular Ca(2+) ions in response to cold temperature and transient receptor potential melastatine 8 (TRPM8) ion channel agonists. A reduction in the response to cooling and TRPM8 agonists occurred following addition of TRPM8 antagonists, as well as in TRPM8 knockout mice...
November 11, 2017: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135999/-life-like-assessment-of-antimicrobial-surfaces-by-a-new-touch-transfer-assay-displays-strong-superiority-of-a-copper-alloy-compared-to-silver-containing-surfaces
#20
Johannes Karl-Mark Knobloch, Sabrina Tofern, Wladimir Kunz, Sara Schütze, Michael Riecke, Werner Solbach, Thomas Wuske
Transmission of bacteria from inanimate surfaces in healthcare associated environments is an important source of hospital acquired infections. A number of commercially available medical devices promise to fulfill antibacterial activity to reduce environmental contamination. In this study we developed a touch transfer assay modeling fingerprint transmission to investigate the antibacterial activity of surfaces, with confirmed antibacterial activity by a modified ISO 22196 (JIS Z 2801) assay to test such surfaces under more realistic conditions...
2017: PloS One
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