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Holy Grail

Jochem Louisse, Karsten Beekmann, Ivonne Magdalena Catharina Maria Rietjens
The development of reliable non-animal based testing strategies, such as in vitro bioassays, is the holy grail in current human safety testing of chemicals. However, the use of in vitro toxicity data in risk assessment is not straightforward. One of the main issues is that concentration-response curves from in vitro models need to be converted to in vivo dose-response curves. These dose-response curves are needed in toxicological risk assessment to obtain a point of departure to determine safe exposure levels for humans...
October 21, 2016: Chemical Research in Toxicology
Stephen Duckett
Regionalization has strengths and weaknesses. The balance of the two will vary over time, differing in different contexts and with different implementations. Alberta's implementation of a centralized structure had some strengths: economies of scale and expertise; opportunities for province-wide learning; internalization of geographic politics; and improved geographic equity. It also had weaknesses: diseconomies of scale, remoteness from communities and politicization. In any implementation of regionalization, policy makers should attempt to realize the benefits of alternative paths not travelled and minimise the weaknesses of the chosen structure...
2016: HealthcarePapers
Jorge R Espinosa, Alberto Zaragoza, Pablo Rosales-Pelaez, Caridad Navarro, Chantal Valeriani, Carlos Vega, Eduardo Sanz
The avoidance of water freezing is the holy grail in the cryopreservation of biological samples, food, and organs. Fast cooling rates are used to beat ice nucleation and avoid cell damage. This strategy can be enhanced by applying high pressures to decrease the nucleation rate, but the physics behind this procedure has not been fully understood yet. We perform computer experiments to investigate ice nucleation at high pressures consisting in embedding ice seeds in supercooled water. We find that the slowing down of the nucleation rate is mainly due to an increase of the ice I-water interfacial free energy with pressure...
September 23, 2016: Physical Review Letters
Bryn L Adams
Escherichia coli (E. coli) has played a pivotal role in the development of genetics and molecular biology as scientific fields. It is therefore not surprising that synthetic biology (SB) was built upon E. coli and continues to dominate the field. However, scientific capabilities have advanced from simple gene mutations to the insertion of rationally designed, complex synthetic circuits and creation of entirely synthetic genomes. The point is rapidly approaching where E. coli is no longer an adequate host for the increasingly sophisticated genetic designs of SB...
September 26, 2016: ACS Synthetic Biology
Faisal F Syed, Hakan Oral
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 3, 2016: Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine
Hang Ren, Jianfeng Wu, Alessandro Colletta, Mark E Meyerhoff, Chuanwu Xi
Fast eradication of mature biofilms is the 'holy grail' in the clinical management of device-related infections. Endogenous nitric oxide (NO) produced by macrophages plays an important role in host defense against intracellular pathogens, and NO is a promising agent in preventing biofilms formation in vitro. However, the rate of delivery of NO by various NO donors (e.g., diazeniumdiolates, S-nitrosothiols, etc.) is difficult to control, which hinders fundamental studies aimed at understanding the role of NO in biofilm control...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Jun-Xu Li
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 13, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Stephen R Williams, Svetlana Lorenzano
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 20, 2016: Neurology
Trilok Singh, Jai Singh, Tsutomu Miyasaka
Organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite light absorbers have recently emerged as a "holy grail" for next generation thin-film photovoltaics with excellent optoelectronics properties and low fabrication cost. In a very short span of time, we have witnessed a pronounced and unexpected progress in organic- inorganic perovskite solar cells (PSCs) with a vertical rise in power conversion efficiency from 3.8 to 22.1 %. In this manuscript we focus specifically on the recent development of metal oxide-based electron-transporting layer (ETL) modification for high performing PSCs and their stability...
September 22, 2016: ChemSusChem
Arschang Valipour
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: Respirology: Official Journal of the Asian Pacific Society of Respirology
Dan Benjamini, Peter J Basser
Measuring multidimensional (e.g., 2D) relaxation spectra in NMR and MRI clinical applications is a holy grail of the porous media and biomedical MR communities. The main bottleneck is the inversion of Fredholm integrals of the first kind, an ill-conditioned problem requiring large amounts of data to stabilize a solution. We suggest a novel experimental design and processing framework to accelerate and improve the reconstruction of such 2D spectra that uses a priori information from the 1D projections of spectra, or marginal distributions...
October 2016: Journal of Magnetic Resonance
Mathew John, Ambika Gopalakrishnan Unnikrishnan, Sanjay Kalra, Tiny Nair
Since the time questions arose on cardiovascular safety of Rosiglitazone, FDA has suggested guidelines on conduct of studies on anti-diabetic drugs so as to prove that the cardiovascular risk is acceptable. Based on the cardiovascular risks of pre-approval clinical trials, guidelines have been made to conduct cardiovascular safety outcome trials (CVSOTs) prior to the drug approval or after the drug has been approved. Unlike the trials comparing the efficacy of antidiabetic agents, the CVSOTs examine the cardiovascular safety of a drug in comparison to standard of care...
July 2016: Indian Heart Journal
Kevin Liou, Nigel Jepson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2016: Journal of Thoracic Disease
Pier Luigi Meroni
Pregnancy morbidity is part of the clinical spectrum of the anti-phospholipid syndrome (APS), with an important social and economical cost. Antiplatelet and anticoagulant agents are effective in preventing the clinical manifestations in the majority of the patients. However, a consistent proportion of the pregnant women present recurrences in spite of the standard therapy. Observational studies and anecdotal reports raised the issue of additional therapeutic strategies in these refractory cases. Among these, anti-malarials (AMs) and in particular hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) are becoming more and more popular in APS as well as in other systemic autoimmune rheumatic conditions...
August 2, 2016: Journal of Autoimmunity
Richard K N Ryu
Rotator cuff integrity after repair is the basis for a better patient outcome, and the use of adjunctive graft material may result in a demonstrable benefit toward achieving that end.
August 2016: Arthroscopy: the Journal of Arthroscopic & related Surgery
Christian Niehage, Jana Karbanová, Charlotte Steenblock, Denis Corbeil, Bernard Hoflack
Multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are promising tools for regenerative medicine. They can be isolated from different sources based on their plastic-adherence property. The identification of reliable cell surface markers thus becomes the Holy Grail for their prospective isolation. Here, we determine the cell surface proteomes of human dental pulp-derived MSCs isolated from single donors after culture expansion in low (2%) or high (10%) serum-containing media. Cell surface proteins were tagged on intact cells using cell impermeable, cleavable sulfo-NHS-SS-biotin, which allows their enrichment by streptavidin pull-down...
2016: PloS One
B Pigneur, H Sokol
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is due to an aberrant immune response toward luminal antigens, probably commensal bacteria, in genetically susceptible subjects and is also influenced by environmental factors. An imbalanced intestinal microbiota known as "dysbiosis," characterized by an increased proportion of pro-inflammatory microorganisms and a decreased proportion of anti-inflammatory microorganisms, has been repeatedly observed in IBD and is now recognized as a key factor in the gut inflammatory process...
November 2016: Mucosal Immunology
Richard Reeve, Daryl W Borley, Francois F Maree, Sasmita Upadhyaya, Azwidowi Lukhwareni, Jan J Esterhuysen, William T Harvey, Belinda Blignaut, Elizabeth E Fry, Satya Parida, David J Paton, Mana Mahapatra
Quantifying and predicting the antigenic characteristics of a virus is something of a holy grail for infectious disease research because of its central importance to the emergence of new strains, the severity of outbreaks, and vaccine selection. However, these characteristics are defined by a complex interplay of viral and host factors so that phylogenetic measures of viral similarity are often poorly correlated to antigenic relationships. Here, we generate antigenic phylogenies that track the phenotypic evolution of two serotypes of foot-and-mouth disease virus by combining host serology and viral sequence data to identify sites that are critical to their antigenic evolution...
2016: PloS One
Benjamin Herzberg, David E Fisher
Harnessing the immune system to attack cancer cells has represented a holy grail for greater than 100years. While prospects of tumor-selective durable immune based therapies have provided small clinical signals for many decades, recent years have demonstrated a virtual explosion in progress. Melanoma has led the field of cancers in which immunotherapy has produced major clinical inroads. The most significant and impactful immunotherapies for melanoma utilize immune checkpoint inhibition to stimulate T cell mediated tumor killing...
July 15, 2016: Clinical Immunology: the Official Journal of the Clinical Immunology Society
Brian J Caveney
The health care system is slowly evolving from fee-for-service care to other forms of payment. Pay-for-performance contracts based on quality, patient satisfaction, and utilization are an important development along the continuum. The metrics are not perfect and do not always nudge clinicians to improve their performance, but many outcomes are likely to improve.
July 2016: North Carolina Medical Journal
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