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placenta medicine

M L Larsen, K V Naver, M M Kjaer, F S Jorgensen, L Nilas
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the reproducibility of placental volume using three-dimensional ultrasound. METHODS: The VOCAL (Virtual Organ Computer-aided AnaLysis) technique involves rotating an image of an object along an established axis using predefined angles. This provides a number of sections to measure manually, resulting in the object being displayed with an estimated placental volume. Four predefined angles 30°, 15°, 9°, and 6°, creating 6, 12, 20 and 30 sections, respectively...
December 28, 2015: Facts, Views & Vision in ObGyn
Farah H Amro, Hind N Moussa, Olaide A Ashimi, Baha M Sibai
Hypertensive disorders have become increasingly prevalent and complicate an increasing number of pregnancies. Therefore it is essential that the medications used to treat these disorders be well understood. Furthermore the management is complicated by special consideration needed for the physiologic changes of pregnancy as well as the consideration for possible adverse fetal effects. Areas covered: We performed a review of the scientific literature of medications used to treat hypertensive disorders in pregnancy...
October 11, 2016: Expert Opinion on Drug Safety
Xuejie Fu, Huilin Yang, Hui Zhang, Guichao Wang, Ke Liu, Qiaoli Gu, Yunxia Tao, Guangcun Chen, Xiaohua Jiang, Gang Li, Yanzheng Gu, Qin Shi
BACKGROUND: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are widely used in cell-based therapy owing to their multilineage potential and low immunogenicity. However, low differentiation efficiency and unpredictable immunogenicity of allogeneic MSCs in vivo limit their success in therapeutic treatment. Herein, we evaluated the differentiation potential and immunogenicity of human placenta-derived MSCs manipulated with osteogenic priming and dedifferentiation process. METHODS: MSCs from human placentas were subjected to osteogenic induction and then cultivated in osteogenic factor-free media; the obtained cell population was termed dedifferentiated mesenchymal stem cells (De-MSCs)...
2016: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
Vindya Lankika Udalamaththa, Chanika Dilumi Jayasinghe, Preethi Vidya Udagama
Stem cell therapy has revolutionized modern clinical therapy with the potential of stem cells to differentiate into many different cell types which may help to replace different cell lines of an organism. Innumerous trials are carried out to merge new scientific knowledge and techniques with traditional herbal extracts that may result in less toxic, affordable, and highly available natural alternative therapeutics. Currently, mesenchyamal stromal cell (MSC) lines are treated with individual and mixtures of crude herbal extracts, as well as with purified compounds from herbal extracts, to investigate the mechanisms and effects of these on stem cell growth and differentiation...
2016: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
Stephen C Strom, Roberto Gramignoli
Despite routine liver transplantation and supporting medical therapies, thousands of patients currently wait for an organ and there is an unmet need for more refined and widely available regenerative strategies to treat liver diseases. Cell transplants attempt to maximize the potential for repair and/or regeneration in liver and other organs. Over 40years of laboratory pre-clinical research and 25years of clinical procedures have shown that certain liver diseases can be treated by the infusion of isolated cells (hepatocyte transplant)...
September 2016: Human Immunology
Kate Reed, Inna Kochetkova, Elspeth Whitby
Prenatal screening occupies a prominent role within sociological debates on medical uncertainty. A particular issue concerns the limitations of routine screening which tends to be based on risk prediction. Computer assisted visual technologies such as Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) are now starting to be applied to the prenatal realm to assist in the diagnosis of a range of fetal and maternal disorders (from problems with the fetal brain to the placenta). MRI is often perceived in popular and medical discourse as a technology of certainty and truth...
September 2016: Social Science & Medicine
Simon Fishel, Deborah Baker, Janine Elson, Maha Ragunath, Glenn Atkinson, Adel Shaker, Ahmed Omar, Rahnuma Kazem, Ashley Beccles, Ian A Greer
BACKGROUND: Pregnancy failure and placenta mediated pregnancy complications affect >25% of pregnancies. Although there is biological plausibility for a procoagulant mechanism underlying some of these events, antithrombotic intervention trials demonstrate limited benefit, possibly through lack of stratification in heterogeneous patient groups. The ANXA5 M2 haplotype is a possible procoagulant biomarker and was tested pragmatically to determine whether this screening and LMWH treatment normalized the outcome for ANXA5 M2 positive couples...
August 2016: EBioMedicine
Hyung-Sik Seo, Dong-Jin Lee, Jae-Ho Chung, Chang-Hyun Lee, Ha Rim Kim, Jae Eun Kim, Byung Joo Kim, Myeong Ho Jung, Ki-Tae Ha, Han-Sol Jeong
BACKGROUND: Hominis Placenta (HP) known as a restorative medicine in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), has been widely applied in the clinics of Korea and China as an anti-aging agent to enhance the regeneration of tissue. This study was conducted to investigate whether topical treatment of HP promotes hair regrowth in the animal model. METHODS: The dorsal hairs of 8-week-old C57BL/6 mice were depilated to synchronize hair follicles to the anagen phase. HP was applied topically once a day for 15 days...
2016: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Paul Brownbill, Igor Chernyavsky, Barbara Bottalico, Gernot Desoye, Stefan Hansson, Gerry Kenna, Lisbeth E Knudsen, Udo R Markert, Nicola Powles-Glover, Henning Schneider, Lopa Leach
The human placenta is a critical life-support system that nourishes and protects a rapidly growing fetus; a unique organ, species specific in structure and function. We consider the pressing challenge of providing additional advice on the safety of prescription medicines and environmental exposures in pregnancy and how ex vivo and in vitro human placental models might be advanced to reproducible human placental test systems (HPTSs), refining a weight of evidence to the guidance given around compound risk assessment during pregnancy...
September 2016: Reproductive Toxicology
T Yee Khong, Eoghan E Mooney, Ilana Ariel, Nathalie C M Balmus, Theonia K Boyd, Marie-Anne Brundler, Hayley Derricott, Margaret J Evans, Ona M Faye-Petersen, John E Gillan, Alex E P Heazell, Debra S Heller, Suzanne M Jacques, Sarah Keating, Peter Kelehan, Ann Maes, Eileen M McKay, Terry K Morgan, Peter G J Nikkels, W Tony Parks, Raymond W Redline, Irene Scheimberg, Mirthe H Schoots, Neil J Sebire, Albert Timmer, Gitta Turowski, J Patrick van der Voorn, Ineke van Lijnschoten, Sanne J Gordijn
CONTEXT: -The value of placental examination in investigations of adverse pregnancy outcomes may be compromised by sampling and definition differences between laboratories. OBJECTIVE: -To establish an agreed-upon protocol for sampling the placenta, and for diagnostic criteria for placental lesions. Recommendations would cover reporting placentas in tertiary centers as well as in community hospitals and district general hospitals, and are also relevant to the scientific research community...
July 2016: Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine
Alexandre T J Maria, Marie Maumus, Alain Le Quellec, Christian Jorgensen, Danièle Noël, Philippe Guilpain
Mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (MSC) are non-hematopoietic multipotent progenitor cells, first described in bone marrow in the middle of last century. Since then, MSC have been the objects of a myriad of publications, progressively increasing our knowledge on their potentialities and bringing high expectancies for their regenerative properties. During the same period, numerous tissues, such as adipose tissue, placenta, or umbilical cord, have been used as alternative sources of MSC in comparison with bone marrow...
May 20, 2016: Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology
Ha Yan Kwon, Ja-Young Kwon, Yong Won Park, Young-Han Kim
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the risk of emergency cesarean section according to the prepregnancy body mass index (BMI) and gestational weight gain per the 2009 Institute of Medicine guidelines. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of data from 2,765 women with singleton full-term births (2009 to 2012) who attempted a vaginal delivery was conducted. Pregnancies with preeclampsia, chronic hypertension, diabetes, planned cesarean section, placenta previa, or cesarean section due to fetal anomalies or intrauterine growth restriction were excluded...
May 2016: Obstetrics & Gynecology Science
Kei Tanaka, Keiji Sakai, Miho Matsushima, Yukiko Matsuzawa, Tomoko Izawa, Takashi Nagashima, Seishi Furukawa, Yoichi Kobayashi, Mitsutoshi Iwashita
STUDY QUESTION: Do branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) influence the migration of human extravillous trophoblast (EVT) cells through changes in insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 1 (IGFBP1) production in decidual cells? STUDY FINDING: Decidua-derived IGFBP1 had a stimulating effect on migration of EVT. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: IGFBP1 is abundantly secreted from human decidual cells and influences trophoblast migration in human placenta of early pregnancy...
August 2016: Molecular Human Reproduction
Roberto Gramignoli, Raghuraman C Srinivasan, Kristina Kannisto, Stephen C Strom
Different cell types can be isolated from human placental tissues, and some have been reported to retain phenotypic plasticity and characteristics that make them a promising source of cells for regenerative medicine. Among these are human amnion epithelial cells (hAECs). Adoption of current good manufacturing practices (cGMP) and enhanced quality control is essential when isolating hAECs in order to deliver a safe and effective cellular product for clinical purposes. This unit describes a detailed protocol for selective isolation of hAECs from human term placenta with little to no contamination by other cell types...
2016: Current Protocols in Stem Cell Biology
Caroline E Gargett, Shanti Gurung
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2016: Biology of Reproduction
E Katsiani, A Garas, C Skentou, A Tsezou, C I Messini, K Dafopoulos, A Daponte, I E Messinis
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can be obtained from a variety of human tissues. MSCs derived from placental chorionic villi of the first trimester are likely to resemble, biologically, embryonic stem cells (ESC), due to the earlier development stage of placenta. In the present study long-term cultures of MSC-like cells were assessed in order to evaluate MSCs multipotent characteristics and molecular features during the period of culture. CV-cells obtained from 10 samples of chorionic villus displayed typical fibroblastoid morphology, undergone 20 passages during a period of 120 days, maintaining a stable karyotype throughout long term expansion...
September 2016: Cell and Tissue Banking
Jennifer McIntosh, Helen Feltovich, Vincenzo Berghella, Tracy Manuck
Preterm birth remains a major cause of neonatal death and short and long-term disability in the US and across the world. The majority of preterm births are spontaneous and cervical length screening is one tool that can be utilized to identify women at increased risk who may be candidates for preventive interventions. The purpose of this document is to review the indications and rationale for CL screening to prevent preterm birth in various clinical scenarios. The Society for Maternal-Fetal Medicine recommends (1) routine transvaginal cervical length screening for women with singleton pregnancy and history of prior spontaneous preterm birth (grade 1A); (2) routine transvaginal cervical length screening not be performed for women with cervical cerclage, multiple gestation, preterm premature rupture of membranes, or placenta previa (grade 2B); (3) practitioners who decide to implement universal cervical length screening follow strict guidelines (grade 2B); (4) sonographers and/or practitioners receive specific training in the acquisition and interpretation of cervical imaging during pregnancy (grade 2B)...
September 2016: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
Naimisha Beeravolu, Irfan Khan, Christina McKee, Sumi Dinda, Bryan Thibodeau, George Wilson, Mick Perez-Cruet, Ray Bahado-Singh, G Rasul Chaudhry
Human umbilical cord (hUC) blood and tissue are non-invasive sources of potential stem/progenitor cells with similar cell surface properties as bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs). While they are limited in cord blood, they may be more abundant in hUC. However, the hUC is an anatomically complex organ and the potential of cells in various sites of the hUC has not been fully explored. We dissected the hUC into its discrete sites and isolated hUC cells from the cord placenta junction (CPJ), cord tissue (CT), and Wharton's jelly (WJ)...
May 2016: Stem Cell Research
Tuangsit Wataganara, Alaa Ebrashy, Labaran Dayyabu Aliyu, Renato Augusto Moreira de Sa, Ritsuko Pooh, Asim Kurjak, Cihat Sen, Abdallah Adra, Milan Stanojevic
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been increasingly adopted in obstetrics practice in the past three decades. MRI aids prenatal ultrasound and improves diagnostic accuracy for selected maternal and fetal conditions. However, it should be considered only when high-quality ultrasound cannot provide certain information that affects the counseling, prenatal intervention, pregnancy course, and delivery plan. Major indications of fetal MRI include, but are not restricted to, morbidly adherent placenta, selected cases of fetal brain anomalies, thoracic lesions (especially in severe congenital diaphragmatic hernia), and soft tissue tumors at head and neck regions of the fetus...
July 1, 2016: Journal of Perinatal Medicine
Sonja E Lobo, Luciano César P C Leonel, Carla M F C Miranda, Talya M Coelho, Guilherme A S Ferreira, Andrea Mess, Mauricio S Abrão, Maria Angelica Miglino
The placenta is a temporal, dynamic and diverse organ with important immunological features that facilitate embryonic and fetal development and survival, notwithstanding the fact that several aspects of its formation and function closely resemble tumor progression. Placentation in mammals is commonly used to characterize the evolution of species, including insights into human evolution. Although most placentas are discarded after birth, they are a high-yield source for the isolation of stem/progenitor cells and are rich in extracellular matrix (ECM), representing an important resource for regenerative medicine purposes...
2016: Cells, Tissues, Organs
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