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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923130/plant-evo-devo-how-tip-growth-evolved
#1
Stefan A Rensing
Apical elongation of polarized plant cells (tip growth) occurs in root hairs of flowering plants and in rhizoids of bryophytes. A new report shows that the formation of these cells relies on genes already present in the first land plants.
December 5, 2016: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921861/understanding-intra-vaginal-and-labia-minora-elongation-practices-among-women-heads-of-households-in-zamb%C3%A3-zia-province-mozambique
#2
Carolyn M Audet, Meridith Blevins, Charlotte Buehler Cherry, Lazaro González-Calvo, Ann F Green, Troy D Moon
Intra-vaginal drying and tightening and labia minora elongation are commonly practised in some parts of southern Africa. We sought to capture data on these practices among women living in Zambézia province, Mozambique. Information was gathered from 3543 female heads of household on > 500 variables, including vaginal practices, in 2014. Women who planned to use intra-vaginal tightening substances had 1.84 times higher odds of ever receiving an HIV test (p < 0.001) and 1.40 times higher odds of at least one antenatal care visit attended during last pregnancy (p = 0...
December 6, 2016: Culture, Health & Sexuality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921151/free-boundary-problem-for-cell-protrusion-formations-theoretical-and-numerical-aspects
#3
Olivier Gallinato, Masahito Ohta, Clair Poignard, Takashi Suzuki
In this paper, a free boundary problem for cell protrusion formation is studied theoretically and numerically. The cell membrane is precisely described thanks to a level set function, whose motion is due to specific signalling pathways. The aim is to model the chemical interactions between the cell and its environment, in the process of invadopodia or pseudopodia formation. The model consists of Laplace equation with Dirichlet condition inside the cell coupled to Laplace equation with Neumann condition in the outer domain...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Mathematical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920259/hormone-sensitive-lipase-deficiency-alters-gene-expression-and-cholesterol-content-of-mouse-testis
#4
Feng Wang, Zheng Chen, Xiaofang Ren, Ye Tian, Fucheng Wang, Chao Liu, Pengcheng Jin, Zongyue Li, Feixiong Zhang, Baochang Zhu
Hormone-sensitive lipase-knockout (HSL-/-) mice exhibit azoospermia for unclear reasons. To explore the basis of sterility, we performed the following three experiments. First, HSL protein distribution in the testis was determined. Next, transcriptome analyses were performed on the testes of three experimental groups. Finally, the fatty acid and cholesterol levels in the testes with three different genotypes studied were determined. We found that the HSL protein was present from spermatocyte cells to mature sperm acrosomes in wild-type (HSL+/+) testes...
February 2017: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920256/a-transcription-factor-pulse-can-prime-chromatin-for-heritable-transcriptional-memory
#5
Aimee Iberg-Badeaux, Samuel Collombet, Benoit Laurent, Chris van Oevelen, Kuo-Kai Chin, Denis Thieffry, Thomas Graf, Shi Yang
Short-term and long-term transcriptional memory is the phenomenon whereby the kinetics or magnitude of gene induction is enhanced following a prior induction period. Short-term memory persists within one cell generation or in post-mitotic cells, while long-term memory can survive multiple rounds of cell division. We have developed a tissue culture model to study the epigenetic basis for long-term transcriptional memory (LTTM), and subsequently used this model to better understand the epigenetic mechanisms that enable heritable memory of temporary stimuli...
December 5, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920087/structural-visualization-of-the-p53-rna-polymerase-ii-assembly
#6
Sameer K Singh, Zhen Qiao, Lihua Song, Vijay Jani, William Rice, Edward Eng, Robert A Coleman, Wei-Li Liu
The master tumor suppressor p53 activates transcription in response to various cellular stresses in part by facilitating recruitment of the transcription machinery to DNA. Recent studies have documented a direct yet poorly characterized interaction between p53 and RNA polymerase II (Pol II). Therefore, we dissected the human p53/Pol II interaction via single-particle cryo-electron microscopy, structural docking, and biochemical analyses. This study reveals that p53 binds Pol II via the Rpb1 and Rpb2 subunits, bridging the DNA-binding cleft of Pol II proximal to the upstream DNA entry site...
December 5, 2016: Genes & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919803/germ-cell-proliferation-and-cluster-behavior-in-ovarioles-of-sialis-flavilatera-megaloptera-sialidae-during-larval-growth
#7
Ralph Rübsam, Jürgen Büning
Telotrophic meroistic insect ovaries are assigned to four different types. The Sialis type is found in Sialidae (Megaloptera), Raphidioptera and a coleopteran subgroup (Myxophaga: Hydroscaphidae). King and Büning (1985) proposed a hypothetical model for the development of this ovariole type, a detailed description of ovarian development in Sialis was missing so far. Using light and electron microscopy, we investigated developing ovaries of Sialis flavilatera starting in the 10(th) month of the biennial larval phase until adulthood...
December 2, 2016: Arthropod Structure & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919116/stylohyoid-complex-eagle-syndrome-starting-in-a-9-year-old-boy
#8
Maite Gárriz-Luis, Pablo Irimia, Juan M Alcalde, Pablo Domínguez, Juan Narbona
Background There are only four previous pediatric reports of the glossopharyngeal neuralgic form of the stylohyoid complex syndrome. Stylohyoid complex has merely been described as cases of glossopharyngeal neuralgia in children. Case Report A 12-year-old boy came to our hospital because of recurrent episodes of severe cranial pain (9/10) lasting for 5 to 15 minutes. Pain affected the right tonsillar fossa, ear, and mastoid region. Since the start at the age of 9 years, the frequency of painful episodes has progressively increased: when admitted to our clinics 3 years later, the child was having up to five episodes daily in spite of analgesic, antiepileptic, and antidepressant drugs; he had abandoned school and leisure...
December 5, 2016: Neuropediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918620/use-of-gallic-acid-to-enhance-the-antioxidant-and-mechanical-properties-of-active-fish-gelatin-film
#9
Kanokrat Limpisophon, Gerhard Schleining
This study explores the potential roles of gallic acid in fish gelatin film for improving mechanical properties, UV barrier, and providing antioxidant activities. Glycerol, a common used plasticizer, also impacts on mechanical properties of the film. A factorial design was used to investigate the effects of gallic acid and glycerol concentrations on antioxidant activities and mechanical properties of fish gelatin film. Increasing the amount of gallic acid increased the antioxidant capacities of the film measured by radical scavenging assay and the ferric reducing ability of plasma assay...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Food Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918544/a-balance-between-elongation-and-trimming-regulates-telomere-stability-in-stem-cells
#10
Teresa Rivera, Candy Haggblom, Sandro Cosconati, Jan Karlseder
Telomere length maintenance ensures self-renewal of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) and induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs); however, the mechanisms governing telomere length homeostasis in these cell types are unclear. Here, we report that telomere length is determined by the balance between telomere elongation, which is mediated by telomerase, and telomere trimming, which is controlled by XRCC3 and Nbs1, homologous recombination proteins that generate single-stranded C-rich telomeric DNA and double-stranded telomeric circular DNA (T-circles), respectively...
December 5, 2016: Nature Structural & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918540/in-vivo-quantification-of-spatially-varying-mechanical-properties-in-developing-tissues
#11
Friedhelm Serwane, Alessandro Mongera, Payam Rowghanian, David A Kealhofer, Adam A Lucio, Zachary M Hockenbery, Otger Campàs
The mechanical properties of the cellular microenvironment and their spatiotemporal variations are thought to play a central role in sculpting embryonic tissues, maintaining organ architecture and controlling cell behavior, including cell differentiation. However, no direct in vivo and in situ measurement of mechanical properties within developing 3D tissues and organs has yet been performed. Here we introduce a technique that employs biocompatible, magnetically responsive ferrofluid microdroplets as local mechanical actuators and allows quantitative spatiotemporal measurements of mechanical properties in vivo...
December 5, 2016: Nature Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917891/modular-architecture-and-unique-teichoic-acid-recognition-features-of-choline-binding-protein-l-cbpl-contributing-to-pneumococcal-pathogenesis
#12
Javier Gutiérrez-Fernández, Malek Saleh, Martín Alcorlo, Alejandro Gómez-Mejía, David Pantoja-Uceda, Miguel A Treviño, Franziska Voß, Mohammed R Abdullah, Sergio Galán-Bartual, Jolien Seinen, Pedro A Sánchez-Murcia, Federico Gago, Marta Bruix, Sven Hammerschmidt, Juan A Hermoso
The human pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae is decorated with a special class of surface-proteins known as choline-binding proteins (CBPs) attached to phosphorylcholine (PCho) moieties from cell-wall teichoic acids. By a combination of X-ray crystallography, NMR, molecular dynamics techniques and in vivo virulence and phagocytosis studies, we provide structural information of choline-binding protein L (CbpL) and demonstrate its impact on pneumococcal pathogenesis and immune evasion. CbpL is a very elongated three-module protein composed of (i) an Excalibur Ca(2+)-binding domain -reported in this work for the very first time-, (ii) an unprecedented anchorage module showing alternate disposition of canonical and non-canonical choline-binding sites that allows vine-like binding of fully-PCho-substituted teichoic acids (with two choline moieties per unit), and (iii) a Ltp_Lipoprotein domain...
December 5, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917337/identification-characterization-and-phylogenetic-analysis-of-antifungal-trichoderma-from-tomato-rhizosphere
#13
Shalini Rai, Prem Lal Kashyap, Sudheer Kumar, Alok Kumar Srivastava, Pramod W Ramteke
The use of Trichoderma isolates with efficient antagonistic activity represents a potentially effective and alternative disease management strategy to replace health hazardous chemical control. In this context, twenty isolates were obtained from tomato rhizosphere and evaluated by their antagonistic activity against four fungal pathogens (Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici, Alternaria alternata, Colletotrichum gloeosporoides and Rhizoctonia solani). The production of extracellular cell wall degrading enzymes of tested isolates was also measured...
2016: SpringerPlus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917184/studying-secondary-growth-and-bast-fiber-development-the-hemp-hypocotyl-peeks-behind-the-wall
#14
Marc Behr, Sylvain Legay, Eva Žižková, Václav Motyka, Petre I Dobrev, Jean-Francois Hausman, Stanley Lutts, Gea Guerriero
Cannabis sativa L. is an annual herbaceous crop grown for the production of long extraxylary fibers, the bast fibers, rich in cellulose and used both in the textile and biocomposite sectors. Despite being herbaceous, hemp undergoes secondary growth and this is well exemplified by the hypocotyl. The hypocotyl was already shown to be a suitable model to study secondary growth in other herbaceous species, namely Arabidopsis thaliana and it shows an important practical advantage, i.e., elongation and radial thickening are temporally separated...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916935/genome-wide-survey-reveals-transcriptional-differences-underlying-the-contrasting-trichome-phenotypes-of-two-sister-desert-poplars
#15
Jianchao Ma, Xiaodong He, Xiaotao Bai, Zhimin Niu, Bingbing Duan, Ningning Chen, Xuemin Shao, Dongshi Wan
Trichomes, which are widely used as an important diagnostic characteristic in plant species delimitation, play important roles in plant defense and adaptation to adverse environments. In this study, we used two sister poplar species, Populus pruinosa and Populus euphratica-which have, respectively, dense and sparse trichomes-to examine the genetic differences associated with these contrasting phenotypes. The results showed that 42 and 45 genes could be identified as candidate genes related to trichomes in P...
December 1, 2016: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916794/a-jacalin-related-lectin-regulated-the-formation-of-aerial-mycelium-and-fruiting-body-in-flammulina-velutipes
#16
Yuan-Ping Lu, Ren-Liang Chen, Ying Long, Xiao Li, Yu-Ji Jiang, Bao-Gui Xie
Flammulina velutipes, one of the most popular mushroom species in the world, has been recognized as a useful model system to study the biochemical and physiological aspects of the formation and elongation of fruit body. However, few reports have been published on the regulation of fruiting body formation in F. velutipes at the molecular level. In this study, a jacalin-related lectin gene from F. velutipes was characterized. The phylogenetic tree revealed that Fv-JRL1 clustered with other basidiomycete jacalin-like lectins...
November 28, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915455/overexpression-of-atedt1-promotes-root-elongation-and-affects-medicinal-secondary-metabolite-biosynthesis-in-roots-of-transgenic-salvia-miltiorrhiza
#17
Yu Liu, Geng Sun, Zhaohui Zhong, Linyi Ji, Yong Zhang, Jianping Zhou, Xuelian Zheng, Kejun Deng
Medicinal secondary metabolites (salvianolic acids and tanshinones) are valuable natural bioactive compounds in Salvia miltiorrhiza and have widespread applications. Improvement of medicinal secondary metabolite accumulation through biotechnology is necessary and urgent to satisfy their increasing demand. Herein, it was demonstrated that the overexpression of the transcription factor Arabidopsis thaliana-enhanced drought tolerance 1 (AtEDT1) could affect medicinal secondary metabolite accumulation. In this study, we observed that the transgenic lines significantly conferred drought tolerance phenotype...
December 3, 2016: Protoplasma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915231/predominant-role-of-dna-polymerase-eta-and-p53-dependent-translesion-synthesis-in-the-survival-of-ultraviolet-irradiated-human-cells
#18
Leticia K Lerner, Guilherme Francisco, Daniela T Soltys, Clarissa R R Rocha, Annabel Quinet, Alexandre T Vessoni, Ligia P Castro, Taynah I P David, Silvina O Bustos, Bryan E Strauss, Vanesa Gottifredi, Anne Stary, Alain Sarasin, Roger Chammas, Carlos F M Menck
Genome lesions trigger biological responses that help cells manage damaged DNA, improving cell survival. Pol eta is a translesion synthesis (TLS) polymerase that bypasses lesions that block replicative polymerases, avoiding continued stalling of replication forks, which could lead to cell death. p53 also plays an important role in preventing cell death after ultraviolet (UV) light exposure. Intriguingly, we show that p53 does so by favoring translesion DNA synthesis by pol eta. In fact, the p53-dependent induction of pol eta in normal and DNA repair-deficient XP-C human cells after UV exposure has a protective effect on cell survival after challenging UV exposures, which was absent in p53- and Pol H-silenced cells...
December 2, 2016: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915209/development-of-neural-population-activity-towards-self-organized-criticality
#19
Yuichiro Yada, Takeshi Mita, Akihiro Sanada, Ryuichi Yano, Ryohei Kanzaki, Douglas J Bakkum, Andreas Hierlemann, Hirokazu Takahashi
Self-organized criticality (SoC), a spontaneous dynamic state established and maintained in networks of moderate complexity, is a universal characteristic of neural systems. Such systems produce cascades of spontaneous activity that are typically characterized by power-law distributions and rich, stable spatiotemporal patterns (i.e., neuronal avalanches). Since the dynamics of the critical state confer advantages in information processing within neuronal networks, it is of great interest to determine how criticality emerges during development...
November 30, 2016: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915177/identification-and-subcellular-localization-analysis-of-two-rubber-elongation-factor-isoforms-on-hevea-brasiliensis-rubber-particles
#20
Longjun Dai, Zhiyi Nie, Guijuan Kang, Yu Li, Rizhong Zeng
Rubber elongation factor (REF) is the most abundant protein found on the rubber particles or latex from Hevea brasiliensis (the Para rubber tree) and is considered to play important roles in natural rubber (cis-polyisoprene) biosynthesis. 16 BAC (benzyldimethyl-n-hexadecylammonium chloride)/SDS-PAGE separations and mass spectrometric identification had revealed that two REF isoforms shared similar amino acid sequences and common C-terminal sequences. In this study, the gene sequences encoding these two REF isoforms (one is 23...
November 23, 2016: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
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