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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928791/wu-mei-wan-reduces-insulin-resistance-via-inhibition-of-nlrp3-inflammasome-activation-in-hepg2-cells
#1
Xueping Yang, Lingli Li, Ke Fang, Ruolan Dong, Jingbin Li, Yan Zhao, Hui Dong, Ping Yi, Zhaoyi Huang, Guang Chen, Fuer Lu
Wu-Mei-Wan (WMW) is a Chinese herbal formula used to treat type 2 diabetes. In this study, we aimed to explore the effects and mechanisms of WMW on insulin resistance in HepG2 cells. HepG2 cells were pretreated with palmitate (0.25 mM) to impair the insulin signaling pathway. Then, they were treated with different doses of WMW-containing medicated serum and stimulated with 100 nM insulin. Results showed that palmitate could reduce the glucose consumption rate in HepG2 cells and impair insulin signaling related to phosphorylation of insulin receptor (IR) and insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1), thereby regulating the downstream signaling pathways...
2017: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928726/phosphoprotein-gene-contributes-to-the-enhanced-apoptosis-induced-by-wild-type-rabies-virus-gd-sh-01-in-vitro
#2
Qin Tian, Yifei Wang, Qiong Zhang, Jun Luo, He Jiang, Boyue Zhang, Mingzhu Mei, Fan Wu, Yuting Wu, Jiaojiao Peng, Teng Long, Yongwen Luo, Xiaofeng Guo
Previous research demonstrated that the matrix protein (M) and glycoprotein (G) of attenuated rabies virus (RABV) strains are involved in the induction of host cell apoptosis. In this work, we show that wild-type (wt) RABV GD-SH-01 induces significantly greater apoptosis than the attenuated strain HEP-Flury. In order to identify the gene(s) accounting for this phenotype, five recombinant RABVs (rRABVs) were constructed by replacing each single gene of HEP-Flury with the corresponding gene of GD-SH-01. By using these rRABVs, we found that not only M and G, but also the phosphoprotein (P) plays an important role in inducing apoptosis...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918505/purification-and-characterization-of-skeletal-muscle-pyruvate-kinase-from-the-hibernating-ground-squirrel-urocitellus-richardsonii-potential-regulation-by-posttranslational-modification-during-torpor
#3
Ryan A V Bell, Kenneth B Storey
Ground squirrel torpor during winter hibernation is characterized by numerous physiological and biochemical changes, including alterations to fuel metabolism. During torpor, many tissues switch from carbohydrate to lipid catabolism, often by regulating key enzymes within glycolytic and lipolytic pathways. This study investigates the potential regulation of pyruvate kinase (PK), a key member of the glycolytic pathway, within the skeletal muscle of hibernating ground squirrels. PK was purified from the skeletal muscle of control and torpid Richardson's ground squirrels, and PK kinetics, structural stability, and posttranslational modifications were subsequently assessed...
September 16, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910556/probing-the-influence-of-sibling-proteins-on-collagen-i-fibrillogenesis-and-denaturation
#4
Chengyu Jiang, Kevin Zurick, Chunlin Qin, Matthew T Bernards
Bone tissue is comprised of collagen, non-collagenous proteins, and hydroxyapatite and the SIBLING (small integrin binding, N-linked glycoprotein) family of proteins is the primary group of non-collagenous proteins. By replicating the native interactions between collagen and the SIBLING family of proteins at the interface of an implant, it is believed that a bone scaffold will more easily integrate with the surrounding tissue. In this work bone sialoprotein (BSP), osteopontin (OPN), dentin sialoprotein (DSP), dentin phosphoprotein (DPP), C-terminal fragment of dentin matrix protein 1 (DMP1-C) and proteoglycan versions of DSP (DSP-PG) and DMP1 (DMP1-PG) were tested individually to determine their roles in collagen fibrillogenesis and the prevention of denaturation...
September 14, 2017: Connective Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904993/abnormalities-of-signal-transduction-networks-in-chronic-schizophrenia
#5
Jennifer L McGuire, Erica A Depasquale, Adam J Funk, Sinead M O'Donnovan, Kathryn Hasselfeld, Shruti Marwaha, John H Hammond, Vahram Hartounian, James H Meador-Woodruff, Jarek Meller, Robert E McCullumsmith
Schizophrenia is a serious neuropsychiatric disorder characterized by disruptions of brain cell metabolism, microstructure, and neurotransmission. All of these processes require coordination of multiple kinase-mediated signaling events. We hypothesize that imbalances in kinase activity propagate through an interconnected network of intracellular signaling with potential to simultaneously contribute to many or all of the observed deficits in schizophrenia. We established a workflow distinguishing schizophrenia-altered kinases in anterior cingulate cortex using a previously published kinome array data set...
2017: NPJ Schizophrenia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904862/t-darpp-is-an-elongated-monomer-that-binds-calcium-and-is-phosphorylated-by-cyclin-dependent-kinases-1-and-5
#6
Jamil Momand, Patrycja Magdziarz, You Feng, Dianlu Jiang, Elizabeth Parga, Arianna Celis, Erin Denny, Xiaoying Wang, Martin L Phillips, Estuardo Monterroso, Susan E Kane, Feimeng Zhou
t-Darpp (truncated isoform of dopamine- and cAMP-regulated phosphoprotein) is a protein encoded by the PPP1R1B gene and is expressed in breast, colon, esophageal, gastric, and prostate cancers, as well as in normal adult brain striatal cells. Overexpression of t-Darpp in cultured cells leads to increased protein kinase A activity and increased phosphorylation of AKT (protein kinase B). In HER2+ breast cancer cells, t-Darpp confers resistance to the chemotherapeutic agent trastuzumab. To shed light on t-Darpp function, we studied its secondary structure, oligomerization status, metal-binding properties, and phosphorylation by cyclin-dependent kinases 1 and 5...
September 2017: FEBS Open Bio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902892/neanderthal-and-denisova-tooth-protein-variants-in-present-day-humans
#7
Clément Zanolli, Mathilde Hourset, Rémi Esclassan, Catherine Mollereau
Environment parameters, diet and genetic factors interact to shape tooth morphostructure. In the human lineage, archaic and modern hominins show differences in dental traits, including enamel thickness, but variability also exists among living populations. Several polymorphisms, in particular in the non-collagenous extracellular matrix proteins of the tooth hard tissues, like enamelin, are involved in dental structure variation and defects and may be associated with dental disorders or susceptibility to caries...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902712/attenuation-of-pentylenetrazole-induced-acute-status-epilepticus-in-rats-by-adenosine-involves-inhibition-of-the-mammalian-target-of-rapamycin-pathway
#8
Yuliang Wang, Xuewu Liu, Yuan Wang, Jinbo Chen, Tao Han, Lei Su, Kejun Zang
Adenosine (ADO) has been characterized as an endogenous anticonvulsant and alternative therapeutic drug, but its mechanism is not entirely clear. This study aimed to examine the relationship of ADO with the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) in a Wistar rat model of pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced acute status epilepticus. ADO (200 mg/kg) was administered intraperitoneally 30 min before PTZ (55-65 mg/kg) treatment, and Western blot assays and immunohistochemistry were performed 3 h after the onset of acute status epilepticus to detect phospho-TOR and the downstream target of mTOR, phospho-S6...
September 11, 2017: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901498/golph3-promotes-cell-proliferation-and-tumorigenicity-in-esophageal-squamous-cell-carcinoma-via-mtor-and-wnt-%C3%AE-%C3%A2-catenin-signal-activation
#9
Jian-Hua Wang, Lin-Jing Yuan, Rong-Xin Liang, Zi-Gang Liu, Bo-Hai Li, Zhe-Sheng Wen, Shu-Ting Huang, Min Zheng
The authors' previous study demonstrated that Golgi phosphoprotein 3 (GOLPH3) was significantly overexpressed in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC), correlating with poor patient survival. In the present study, GOLPH3 stable overexpression and knockdown KYSE‑140 cell lines were constructed. Cell proliferation, colony formation, cell cycle progression and tumorigenesis assays were performed. The results revealed that GOLPH3 promoted ESCC cell growth and proliferation. The effects of GOLPH3 on the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) and Wnt/β‑catenin signaling pathways were investigated using western blot analyis and dual‑luciferase reporter assays, and were observed to be activated in cells with GOLPH3 overexpression...
September 13, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900113/abnormalities-of-signal-transduction-networks-in-chronic-schizophrenia
#10
Jennifer L McGuire, Erica A Depasquale, Adam J Funk, Sinead M O'Donnovan, Kathryn Hasselfeld, Shruti Marwaha, John H Hammond, Vahram Hartounian, James H Meador-Woodruff, Jarek Meller, Robert E McCullumsmith
Schizophrenia is a serious neuropsychiatric disorder characterized by disruptions of brain cell metabolism, microstructure, and neurotransmission. All of these processes require coordination of multiple kinase-mediated signaling events. We hypothesize that imbalances in kinase activity propagate through an interconnected network of intracellular signaling with potential to simultaneously contribute to many or all of the observed deficits in schizophrenia. We established a workflow distinguishing schizophrenia-altered kinases in anterior cingulate cortex using a previously published kinome array data set...
September 12, 2017: NPJ Schizophrenia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893763/pea-15-phosphoprotein-enriched-in-astrocytes-15-is-a-protective-mediator-in-the-vasculature-and-is-regulated-during-neointimal-hyperplasia
#11
Fiona H Greig, Simon Kennedy, George Gibson, Joe W Ramos, Graeme F Nixon
BACKGROUND: Neointimal hyperplasia following angioplasty occurs via vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation. The mechanisms involved are not fully understood but include mitogen-activated protein kinases ERK1/2 (extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2). We recently identified the intracellular mediator PEA-15 (phosphoprotein enriched in astrocytes 15) in vascular smooth muscle cells as a regulator of ERK1/2-dependent proliferation in vitro. PEA-15 acts as a cytoplasmic anchor for ERK1/2, preventing nuclear localization and thereby reducing ERK1/2-dependent gene expression...
September 11, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893313/p53-dependent-puma-to-dram-antagonistic-interplay-as-a-key-molecular-switch-in-cell-fate-decision-in-normal-high-glucose-conditions
#12
Alessia Garufi, Giuseppa Pistritto, Silvia Baldari, Gabriele Toietta, Mara Cirone, Gabriella D'Orazi
BACKGROUND: As an important cellular stress sensor phosphoprotein p53 can trigger cell cycle arrest and apoptosis and regulate autophagy. The p53 activity mainly depends on its transactivating function, however, how p53 can select one or another biological outcome is still a matter of profound studies. Our previous findings indicate that switching cancer cells in high glucose (HG) impairs p53 apoptotic function and the transcription of target gene PUMA. METHODS AND RESULTS: Here we report that, in response to drug adriamycin (ADR) in HG, p53 efficiently induced the expression of DRAM (damage-regulated autophagy modulator), a p53 target gene and a stress-induced regulator of autophagy...
September 11, 2017: Journal of Experimental & Clinical Cancer Research: CR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890401/aggregation-properties-of-a-disordered-protein-are-tunable-by-ph-and-depend-on-its-net-charge-per-residue
#13
Giulia Tedeschi, Marco Mangiagalli, Sara Chmielewska, Marina Lotti, Antonino Natalello, Stefania Brocca
Intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) possess a peculiar amino acid composition that makes them very soluble. Nevertheless, they can encounter aggregation in physiological and pathological contexts. In this work, we addressed the issue of how electrostatic charges can influence aggregation propensity by using the N-terminus moiety of the measles virus phosphoprotein, PNT, as a model IDP. Taking advantage of the high sequence designability of IDPs, we have produced an array of PNT variants sharing the same hydrophobicity, but differing in net charges per residue and isoelectric points (pI)...
September 8, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887307/dynamic-feature-of-mitotic-arrest-deficient-2-like-protein-2-mad2l2-and-structural-basis-for-its-interaction-with-chromosome-alignment-maintaining-phosphoprotein-camp
#14
Kodai Hara, Shota Taharazako, Masanori Ikeda, Hiroki Fujita, Yoshiko Mikami, Sotaro Kikuchi, Asami Hishiki, Hideshi Yokoyama, Yoshinobu Ishikawa, Shin-Ichiro Kanno, Kozo Tanaka, Hiroshi Hashimoto
Mitotic arrest deficient 2-like protein 2 (MAD2L2), also termed MAD2B or REV7, is involved in multiple cellular functions including translesion DNA synthesis (TLS), signal transduction, transcription, and mitotic events. MAD2L2 interacts with chromosome alignment-maintaining phosphoprotein (CAMP), a kinetochore-microtubule attachment protein in mitotic cells, presumably through a novel "WK" motif in CAMP. Structures of MAD2L2 in complex with binding regions of the TLS proteins REV3 and REV1 have revealed that MAD2L2 has two faces for protein-protein interactions (PPIs) that are regulated by its C-terminal region; however, the mechanisms underlying the MAD2L2-CAMP interaction and the mitotic role of MAD2L2 remain unknown...
September 8, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887036/autocrine-stip1-signaling-promotes-tumor-growth-and-is-associated-with-disease-outcome-in-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#15
Zebin Chen, Lixia Xu, Tianhong Su, Zunfu Ke, Zhenwei Peng, Ning Zhang, Sui Peng, Qiuyang Zhang, Gengxun Liu, Guangyan Wei, Yu Guo, Minghui He, Ming Kuang
Stress-induced phosphoprotein 1 (STIP1) is an adaptor protein that bridges between HSP70 and HSP90 folding and a secretory protein which regulates malignant cell growth. However, the role of STIP1 in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains unknown. Here, we found high expression of STIP1 in tumors was associated with worse overall survival (41.3 vs 62.7 months, P < 0.001) in 231 HCC patients. STIP1 was overexpressed in HCC tissues compared to adjacent non-tumor liver tissue (64.9% vs 4.0% P < 0.001), and serum STIP1 levels of HCC patients were elevated compared to healthy controls (P < 0...
September 5, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883432/quantitative-phosphoproteomic-analysis-reveals-key-mechanisms-of-cellular-proliferation-in-liver-cancer-cells
#16
Bo Zhu, Quanze He, Jingjing Xiang, Fang Qi, Hao Cai, Jun Mao, Chunhua Zhang, Qin Zhang, Haibo Li, Lu Lu, Ting Wang, Wenbo Yu
Understanding the mechanisms of uncontrolled proliferation in cancer cells provides valuable insights into tumor development and is benefit for discovering efficient methods in cancer treatment. In this study, we identified and quantified 2,057 phosphoproteins and 9,824 unique phosphosites in three liver cell lines with high (QGY, Hep3B) and low (L02) proliferative potentials and disclosed the wide variations in phosphorylation sites and levels among them. We found that the number of identified phosphoproteins and phosphosites in these cells were negatively correlated with their proliferative abilities...
September 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883096/cog7-deficiency-in-drosophila-generates-multifaceted-developmental-behavioral-and-protein-glycosylation-phenotypes
#17
Anna Frappaolo, Stefano Sechi, Tadahiro Kumagai, Sarah Robinson, Roberta Fraschini, Angela Karimpour Ghahnavieh, Giorgio Belloni, Roberto Piergentili, Katherine H Tiemeyer, Michael Tiemeyer, Maria Grazia Giansanti
Congenital Disorders of Glycosylation (CDG) comprise a family of human multi-systemic diseases caused by recessive mutations in genes required for protein N-glycosylation. More than 100 distinct forms of CDGs have been identified and most of them cause severe neurological impairment. The Conserved Oligomeric Golgi (COG) complex mediates tethering of vesicles carrying glycosylation enzymes across the Golgi cisternae. Mutations affecting human COG1, COG2, COG4-COG8 cause monogenic forms of inherited, autosomal recessive, CDGs...
September 7, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28881851/the-involvement-of-darpp-32-in-the-pathophysiology-of-schizophrenia
#18
REVIEW
Haitao Wang, Mohd Farhan, Jiangping Xu, Philip Lazarovici, Wenhua Zheng
Schizophrenia is one of the most devastating heterogeneous psychiatric disorders. The dopamine hypothesis is the longest standing pathoetiologic theory of schizophrenia based on neurochemical evidences of elevated brain striatal dopamine synthesis capacity and increased dopamine release in response to stress. Dopamine and cyclic AMP-regulated phosphoprotein of relative molecular mass 32,000 (DARPP-32) is a cytosolic protein highly enriched in the medium spiny neurons of the neostriatum, considered as the most important integrator between the cortical input and the basal ganglia, and associated with motor control...
August 8, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28879772/brain-membrane-proteome-and-phosphoproteome-reveal-molecular-basis-associating-with-nursing-and-foraging-behaviors-of-honeybee-workers
#19
Bin Han, Yu Fang, Mao Feng, Han Hu, Yue Hao, Chuan Ma, Xinmei Huo, Lifeng Meng, Xufeng Zhang, Fan Wu, Jianke Li
The brain is a vital organ in regulating complex social behaviors of honeybees including learning and memory. Knowledge of how brain membrane proteins and their phosphorylation underlie the age-related behavioral polyethism is still lacking. A hitherto age-resolved brain membrane proteome and phosphoproteome were reported in adult worker bees from two strains of honeybee (Apis mellifera ligustica): Italian bee (ITB) and Royal Jelly bee (RJB), a line selected from ITB for increased RJ outputs over 4 decades...
September 7, 2017: Journal of Proteome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877606/discordance-between-vasp-phosphorylation-and-platelet-aggregation-in-defining-high-on-clopidogrel-platelet-reactivity-after-st-segment-elevation-myocardial-infarction
#20
Jing Sun, Guo-Hong Yang, Jun-Xiang Liu, Xin-Lin Liu, Yong-Qiang Ma, Rui-Yi Lu, Ying-Ying Zhang, Shao-Bo Chen, Ji-Hong Zhao, Wen-Jie Ji, Xin Zhou, Yu-Ming Li
To investigate potential clinical characteristics associated with discordance between platelet vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein phosphorylation (VASP-P) flow cytometry (FCM) assay and light transmission aggregometry (LTA) in defining high on-clopidogrel platelet reactivity (HPR) after ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). In this study, platelet responsiveness was measured by the above 2 methods simultaneously on day 1 and on day 6 of STEMI onset in 90 consecutive patients who underwent primary percutaneous coronary intervention...
January 1, 2017: Clinical and Applied Thrombosis/hemostasis
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