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spoken language

Jocelyne C Whitehead, Lingqian Li, Douglas A McQuiggan, Sara A Gambino, Malcolm A Binns, Jennifer D Ryan
INTRODUCTION: Preferential viewing of novel stimuli in the Visual Paired Comparison task has provided a useful marker of memory and medial temporal lobe function. We created a portable version of the VPC (P-VPC) and contrasted P-VPC metrics against the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) in healthy adults, to assess the validity and reliability of the P-VPC as an indicator of memory function across age. A supplementary case series was conducted with individuals diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and other dementias, to provide a preliminary illustration of the P-VPC's use as a measure in clinical populations...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
Nuria Mendoza Laiz, Sagrario Del Valle Díaz, Natalia Rioja Collado, Javier Gomez-Pilar, Roberto Hornero
BACKGROUND: Dementia is a disease that is constantly evolving in older people. Its diverse symptoms appear with varying degrees of severity affecting the daily life of those who suffer from it. The rate in which dementia progresses depends on different aspects of the treatment, chosen to try to control and slow down the development of the illness. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to assess the effectiveness of cognitive training through a Brain Computer Interface (BCI) and the NeuronUp platform in two age groups whose MMSE is between 18-23 MCI (mild dementia)...
2018: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
Sophia Uddin, Shannon L M Heald, Stephen C Van Hedger, Howard C Nusbaum
Environmental sounds (ES) can be understood easily when substituted for words in sentences, suggesting that linguistic context benefits may be mediated by processes more general than some language-specific theories assert. However, the underlying neural processing is not understood. EEG was recorded for spoken sentences ending in either a spoken word or a corresponding ES. Endings were either congruent or incongruent with the sentence frame, and thus were expected to produce N400 activity. However, if ES and word meanings are combined with language context by different mechanisms, different N400 responses would be expected...
March 6, 2018: Brain and Language
Wendy M Pearce, Kieran Flanagan
PURPOSE: Concern exists about the cross-cultural appropriateness of existing language assessments for non-mainstream populations, including Indigenous children who may speak a non-standard dialect of the mainstream language. This study therefore aims to investigate the language skills of Indigenous Australian children in comparison with non-Indigenous children, with a view to exploring the cultural appropriateness of language sampling assessment methods. METHOD: The performance of 51 typically developing Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australian children was compared on a standardised assessment and a spoken narrative protocol using language sample analysis measures...
March 8, 2018: International Journal of Speech-language Pathology
Pierce Edmiston, Marcus Perlman, Gary Lupyan
People have long pondered the evolution of language and the origin of words. Here, we investigate how conventional spoken words might emerge from imitations of environmental sounds. Does the repeated imitation of an environmental sound gradually give rise to more word-like forms? In what ways do these forms resemble the original sounds that motivated them (i.e. exhibit iconicity)? Participants played a version of the children's game 'Telephone'. The first generation of participants imitated recognizable environmental sounds (e...
March 14, 2018: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
Caroline Jones, Mridula Sharma, Samantha Harkus, Catherine McMahon, Mele Taumoepeau, Katherine Demuth, Karen Mattock, Lee Rosas, Raelene Wing, Sulabha Pawar, Anne Hampshire
BACKGROUND: Indigenous infants and children in Australia, especially in remote communities, experience early and chronic otitis media (OM) which is difficult to treat and has lifelong impacts in health and education. The LiTTLe Program (Learning to Talk, Talking to Learn) aimed to increase infants' access to spoken language input, teach parents to manage health and hearing problems, and support children's school readiness. This paper aimed to explore caregivers' views about this inclusive, parent-implemented early childhood program for 0-3 years in an Aboriginal community health context...
March 6, 2018: BMC Pediatrics
Dominic W Massaro
Extensive experience in written language might provide children the opportunity to learn to read in the same manner they learn spoken language. One potential type of written language immersion is reading aloud to children, which is additionally valuable because the vocabulary in picture books is richer and more extensive than that found in child-directed speech. This study continues a comparison between these 2 communication media by evaluating their relative linguistic and cognitive complexity. Although reading grade level has been used only to assess the complexity of written language, it was also applied to both child-directed and adult-directed speech...
April 2017: American Journal of Psychology
Chyrise B Bradley, Erica N Browne, Aimee A Alexander, Jack Collins, Jamie L Dahm, Carolyn G DiGuiseppi, Susan E Levy, Eric J Moody, Laura A Schieve, Gayle C Windham, Lisa Young, Julie L Daniels
Participant attrition can limit inferences drawn from study results and inflate research costs. We examined factors associated with completion of the Study to Explore Early Development (2007-2011), a multiple-component, case-control study of risk factors for autism spectrum disorder in preschoolers, conducted in California, Colorado, Georgia, Maryland, North Carolina, and Pennsylvania. Participants (n = 3,769) were asked to complete phone interviews, questionnaires, an in-person evaluation, and biologic sampling...
March 1, 2018: American Journal of Epidemiology
Jeffrey Guina, Cathryn Guina
While post-stroke depression (PSD) is a common sequelae of stroke, many stroke survivors also have expressive aphasia (i.e., the inability to produce spoken or written language), which limits or prevents treating depression with talk psychotherapy. Unlike most psychotherapy modalities, eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) does not require extensive verbal communication to therapists, which might make EMDR an ideal treatment modality for aphasic patients with mental health concerns. The authors present the first known case reporting EMDR in aphasia, describing the treatment of a 50-year-old woman with a history of depression following a left middle cerebral artery stroke...
February 1, 2018: Innovations in Clinical Neuroscience
Arno Vogel
Cochlear implantation in children with deaf or severely hearing-impaired parents is possible. It is necessary to organize intensive auditory-verbal training before the children undergo implantation. Success of the children depends on mediators supporting the parents. These children grow up bilingually: sign language and spoken language. They can attend schools for the hard-of-hearing or regular schools for the hearing.
March 2018: Laryngo- Rhino- Otologie
Sarah Nelson, Andrea McDuffie, Amy Banasik, Robyn Tempero Feigles, Angela John Thurman, Leonard Abbeduto
This study examined the impact of a distance-delivered parent-implemented narrative language intervention on the use of inferential language during shared storytelling by school-aged boys with fragile X syndrome, an inherited neurodevelopmental disorder. Nineteen school-aged boys with FXS and their biological mothers participated. Dyads were randomly assigned to an intervention or a treatment-as-usual comparison group. Transcripts from all pre- and post-intervention sessions were coded for child use of prompted and spontaneous inferential language coded into various categories...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Communication Disorders
Carolyn M Porta, Michael L Bloomquist, Diego Garcia-Huidobro, Rafael Gutiérrez, Leticia Vega, Rosita Balch, Xiaohui Yu, Daniel K Cooper
OBJECTIVES: To (a) explore the preferences of Mexican parents and Spanish-speaking professionals working with migrant Latino families in Minnesota regarding the Mexican-adapted brief model versus the original conduct problems intervention and (b) identifying the potential challenges, and preferred solutions, to implementation of a conduct problems preventive intervention. METHOD: The core practice elements of a conduct problems prevention program originating in the United States were adapted for prevention efforts in Mexico...
March 1, 2018: Cultural Diversity & Ethnic Minority Psychology
L Ryom, C Boesecke, M Bracchi, J Ambrosioni, A Pozniak, J Arribas, G Behrens, Pgm Mallon, M Puoti, A Rauch, J M Miro, O Kirk, C Marzolini, J D Lundgren, M Battegay
BACKGROUND: The European AIDS Clinical Society (EACS) Guidelines have since 2005 provided multidisciplinary recommendations for the care of HIV-positive persons in geographically diverse areas. GUIDELINE HIGHLIGHTS: Major revisions have been made in all sections of the 2017 Guidelines: antiretroviral treatment (ART), comorbidities, coinfections and opportunistic diseases. Newly added are also a summary of the main changes made, and direct video links to the EACS online course on HIV Management...
March 1, 2018: HIV Medicine
Leslie K Ballas, Ryan Kraus, Lingyun Ji, Susan Groshen, Mariana C Stern, Inderbir Gill, David I Quinn, Eugene Chung, Andre Abreu, Ann S Hamilton
INTRODUCTION: Active surveillance (AS) is one recommended option for low-risk prostate cancer and involves close follow-up and monitoring. Our objective was to determine whether non-clinical trial patients adhere to AS protocols and how many are lost to follow-up (LTFU). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Retrospective chart review was performed for patients with nonmetastatic prostate cancer who initiated AS at Los Angeles County Hospital (LAC) and University of Southern California Norris Comprehensive Cancer Center (Norris) between January 1, 2008, and January 1, 2015...
February 6, 2018: Clinical Genitourinary Cancer
Michelle Paradis, Katherine M Atkinson, Charles Hui, David Ponka, Douglas G Manuel, Paula Day, Malia Sq Murphy, Ruth Rennicks White, Kumanan Wilson
OBJECTIVES: Newcomers experience unique challenges with respect to vaccination, challenges that are compounded by the need to navigate complex vaccination catch-up schedules upon arrival in Canada. Our group has pioneered the development of CANImmunize, a free, bilingual, pan-Canadian digital application designed to empower individuals to manage their vaccination records. To inform how a vaccine tracking app, such as CANImmunize might be tailored to meet the unique needs of newcomers, this study sought to determine commonly spoken languages, technology use, and current methods of vaccine tracking among recent newcomers to Canada...
February 26, 2018: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
Zheng Wang, Guanglin He, Tao Luo, Xueying Zhao, Jing Liu, Mengge Wang, Di Zhou, Xu Chen, Chengtao Li, Yiping Hou
The Tibeto-Burman language, one subfamily of the Sino-Tibetan languages, is spoken by over 60 million people all over East Asia. Yet the ethnic origin and genetic architecture of Tibeto-Burman speaking populations remain largely unexplored. In the present study, 169 Chinese individuals from Tibeto-Burman speaking populations (two ethnic groups: Tibetan and Yi) in four different geographic regions in western China were analyzed using the Precision ID Ancestry Panel (165 AISNPs) and the Ion PGM System. The performance and corresponding forensic statistical parameters of this AISNPs panel were investigated...
February 13, 2018: Forensic Science International. Genetics
Lucas Gosdin, Reynaldo Martorell, Rosario M Bartolini, Rukshan Mehta, Sridhar Srikantiah, Melissa F Young
Anaemia and stunting are prevalent nutritional problems among children of low-income countries that have profound effects on development, morbidity, and mortality. Many use a single conceptual framework to identify the basic determinants of these and other forms of malnutrition. One would expect that problems with matching underlying determinants should co-occur in affected individuals to a greater degree than by chance. In 2 populations of children-ages 6-18 months in Bihar, India, (n = 5,664) and 6-36 months in Lambayeque, Peru (n = 688)-we measured the frequency of the co-occurrence of anaemia and stunting...
February 22, 2018: Maternal & Child Nutrition
Else Eising, Amaia Carrion-Castillo, Arianna Vino, Edythe A Strand, Kathy J Jakielski, Thomas S Scerri, Michael S Hildebrand, Richard Webster, Alan Ma, Bernard Mazoyer, Clyde Francks, Melanie Bahlo, Ingrid E Scheffer, Angela T Morgan, Lawrence D Shriberg, Simon E Fisher
Genetic investigations of people with impaired development of spoken language provide windows into key aspects of human biology. Over 15 years after FOXP2 was identified, most speech and language impairments remain unexplained at the molecular level. We sequenced whole genomes of nineteen unrelated individuals diagnosed with childhood apraxia of speech, a rare disorder enriched for causative mutations of large effect. Where DNA was available from unaffected parents, we discovered de novo mutations, implicating genes, including CHD3, SETD1A and WDR5...
February 20, 2018: Molecular Psychiatry
Jin Wang, Marc F Joanisse, James R Booth
The left ventral occipitotemporal cortex (vOT) is important in visual word recognition. Studies have shown that the left vOT is generally observed to be involved in spoken language processing in skilled readers, suggesting automatic access to corresponding orthographic information. However, little is known about where and how the left vOT is involved in the spoken language processing of young children with emerging reading ability. In order to answer this question, we examined the relation of reading ability in 5-6-year-old kindergarteners to the activation of vOT during an auditory phonological awareness task...
February 14, 2018: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
Bozana Meinhardt-Injac, Moritz M Daum, Günter Meinhardt, Malte Persike
According to the two-systems account of theory of mind (ToM), understanding mental states of others involves both fast social-perceptual processes, as well as slower, reflexive cognitive operations (Frith and Frith, 2008; Apperly and Butterfill, 2009). To test the respective roles of specific abilities in either of these processes we administered 15 experimental procedures to a large sample of 343 participants, testing ability in face recognition and holistic perception, language, and reasoning. ToM was measured by a set of tasks requiring ability to track and to infer complex emotional and mental states of others from faces, eyes, spoken language, and prosody...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
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