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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936186/assessing-the-formation-of-experience-based-gender-expectations-in-an-implicit-learning-scenario
#1
Anton Öttl, Dawn M Behne
The present study investigates the formation of new word-referent associations in an implicit learning scenario, using a gender-coded artificial language with spoken words and visual referents. Previous research has shown that when participants are explicitly instructed about the gender-coding system underlying an artificial lexicon, they monitor the frequency of exposure to male vs. female referents within this lexicon, and subsequently use this probabilistic information to predict the gender of an upcoming referent...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932019/towards-identifying-dyslexia-in-standard-indonesian-the-development-of-a-reading-assessment-battery
#2
Bernard A J Jap, Elisabeth Borleffs, Ben A M Maassen
With its transparent orthography, Standard Indonesian is spoken by over 160 million inhabitants and is the primary language of instruction in education and the government in Indonesia. An assessment battery of reading and reading-related skills was developed as a starting point for the diagnosis of dyslexia in beginner learners. Founded on the International Dyslexia Association's definition of dyslexia, the test battery comprises nine empirically motivated reading and reading-related tasks assessing word reading, pseudoword reading, arithmetic, rapid automatized naming, phoneme deletion, forward and backward digit span, verbal fluency, orthographic choice (spelling), and writing...
2017: Reading and Writing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931014/phonological-memory-in-sign-language-relies-on-the-visuomotor-neural-system-outside-the-left-hemisphere-language-network
#3
Yuji Kanazawa, Kimihiro Nakamura, Toru Ishii, Toshihiko Aso, Hiroshi Yamazaki, Koichi Omori
Sign language is an essential medium for everyday social interaction for deaf people and plays a critical role in verbal learning. In particular, language development in those people should heavily rely on the verbal short-term memory (STM) via sign language. Most previous studies compared neural activations during signed language processing in deaf signers and those during spoken language processing in hearing speakers. For sign language users, it thus remains unclear how visuospatial inputs are converted into the verbal STM operating in the left-hemisphere language network...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928645/auditory-motor-mapping-training-in-a-more-verbal-child-with-autism
#4
Karen V Chenausky, Andrea C Norton, Gottfried Schlaug
We tested the effect of Auditory-Motor Mapping Training (AMMT), a novel, intonation-based treatment for spoken language originally developed for minimally verbal (MV) children with autism, on a more-verbal child with autism. We compared this child's performance after 25 therapy sessions with that of: (1) a child matched on age, autism severity, and expressive language level who received 25 sessions of a non-intonation-based control treatment Speech Repetition Therapy (SRT); and (2) a matched pair of MV children (one of whom received AMMT; the other, SRT)...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928348/cross-cultural-adaptation-of-jefferson-scale-of-empathy-health-professions-students-version-an-experience-with-developing-the-tamil-translation
#5
Kathiresan Jeyashree, Soundappan Kathirvel, Muthu K Prathibha
BACKGROUND: Empathy is a key cognitive attribute among healthcare professionals that fosters better patient- healthcare provider relationships. The Jefferson scale of empathy (JSE) measures self-rated empathy among various groups of healthcare professionals-health professionals, medical students and health professions students (HPS). The authors present the experience in translating the JSE-HPS version into an Indian regional language with insights into the issues faced in every step...
May 2017: Education for Health: Change in Training & Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924564/signal-processing-of-functional-nirs-data-acquired-during-overt-speaking
#6
Xian Zhang, Jack Adam Noah, Swethasri Dravida, Joy Hirsch
Functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) offers an advantage over traditional functional imaging methods [such as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)] by allowing participants to move and speak relatively freely. However, neuroimaging while actively speaking has proven to be particularly challenging due to the systemic artifacts that tend to be located in the critical brain areas. To overcome these limitations and enhance the utility of fNIRS, we describe methods for investigating cortical activity during spoken language tasks through refinement of deoxyhemoglobin (deoxyHb) signals with principal component analysis (PCA) spatial filtering to remove global components...
October 2017: Neurophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924215/bilingual-cortical-control-of-between-and-within-language-competition
#7
Viorica Marian, James Bartolotti, Sirada Rochanavibhata, Kailyn Bradley, Arturo E Hernandez
The human capacity to master multiple languages is remarkable and leads to structural and functional changes in the brain. Understanding how the brain accommodates multiple languages simultaneously is crucial to developing a complete picture of our species' linguistic capabilities. To examine the neural mechanisms involved in processing two languages, we looked at cortical activation in Spanish-English bilinguals in response to phonological competition either between two languages or within a language. Participants recognized spoken words in a visual world task while their brains were scanned using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)...
September 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917133/waiting-for-lexical-access-cochlear-implants-or-severely-degraded-input-lead-listeners-to-process-speech-less-incrementally
#8
Bob McMurray, Ashley Farris-Trimble, Hannah Rigler
Spoken language unfolds over time. Consequently, there are brief periods of ambiguity, when incomplete input can match many possible words. Typical listeners solve this problem by immediately activating multiple candidates which compete for recognition. In two experiments using the visual world paradigm, we examined real-time lexical competition in prelingually deaf cochlear implant (CI) users, and normal hearing (NH) adults listening to severely degraded speech. In Experiment 1, adolescent CI users and NH controls matched spoken words to arrays of pictures including pictures of the target word and phonological competitors...
September 13, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905649/participatory-arts-programs-in-residential-dementia-care-playing-with-language-differences
#9
Aagje Swinnen, Kate de Medeiros
This article examines connections between language, identity, and cultural difference in the context of participatory arts in residential dementia care. Specifically, it looks at how language differences become instruments for the language play that characterizes the participatory arts programs, TimeSlips and the Alzheimer's Poetry Project. These are two approaches that are predominantly spoken-word driven. Although people living with dementia experience cognitive decline that affects language, they are linguistic agents capable of participating in ongoing negotiation processes of connection, belonging, and in- and exclusion through language use...
January 1, 2017: Dementia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899200/spoken-language-and-everyday-functioning-in-5-year-old-children-using-hearing-aids-or-cochlear-implants
#10
Linda Cupples, Teresa Yc Ching, Laura Button, Mark Seeto, Vicky Zhang, Jessica Whitfield, Miriam Gunnourie, Louise Martin, Vivienne Marnane
OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the factors influencing 5-year language, speech and everyday functioning of children with congenital hearing loss. DESIGN: Standardised tests including PLS-4, PPVT-4 and DEAP were directly administered to children. Parent reports on language (CDI) and everyday functioning (PEACH) were collected. Regression analyses were conducted to examine the influence of a range of demographic variables on outcomes. STUDY SAMPLE: Participants were 339 children enrolled in the Longitudinal Outcomes of Children with Hearing Impairment (LOCHI) study...
September 12, 2017: International Journal of Audiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885981/from-surnames-to-linguistic-and-genetic-diversity-five-centuries-of-internal-migrations-in-spain
#11
Roberto Rodríguez-Díaz, María José Blanco-Villegas, Franz Manni
In a previous study concerning 33,753 single Spanish surnames (considered as tokens) occurring 51,419,788 times we have shown that the present-day geography of contemporary surname variability in Spain still corresponds to the political geography of the country at the end of the Middle Ages. Here we reprocess the same database, by clustering surnames with Self-Organizing Maps (SOMs) according to their geographic distribution, to identify the monophyletic surnames showing a geo-historical origin in one of the 47 provinces of continental Spain...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Anthropological Sciences, Rivista di Antropologia: JASS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884331/paratuberculosis-in-latin-america-a-systematic-review
#12
REVIEW
I F Espeschit, D G G Schwarz, A C S Faria, M C C Souza, F A Paolicchi, R A Juste, I A Carvalho, M A S Moreira
Latin America is the definition of the American group, where languages of Latin origin are spoken, including countries in South, Central, and North America. Paratuberculosis is a gastrointestinal contagious chronic disease that affects ruminants, whose etiological agent is the bacilli Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP). Paratuberculosis is characterized by intermittent diarrhea, decreased milk production, dehydration, and progressive weight loss and is possibly involved in Crohn's disease, a human intestinal disease...
September 7, 2017: Tropical Animal Health and Production
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28872675/language-and-reading-comprehension-in-middle-childhood-predicts-emotional-and-behaviour-difficulties-in-adolescence-for-those-with-permanent-childhood-hearing-loss
#13
Jim Stevenson, Hannah Pimperton, Jana Kreppner, Sarah Worsfold, Emmanouela Terlektsi, Merle Mahon, Colin Kennedy
BACKGROUND: Permanent childhood hearing loss (PCHL) is associated with an elevated level of emotional and behaviour difficulties (EBD). In children and adolescents with PCHL, EBD has been found to be linked to language ability in children with PCHL. The present study was designed to test whether childhood language and/or reading comprehension abilities of children with PCHL predict subsequent EBD in adolescence. METHODS: Language comprehension (LC) and reading comprehension (RC) were measured at ages 6-10 years (Time 1) and 13-20 years (Time 2) in participants with PCHL who preferred to communicate using spoken language (n = 57) and a hearing comparison group (n = 38)...
September 5, 2017: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28864052/the-health-literacy-demands-of-electronic-personal-health-records-e-phrs-an-integrative-review-to-inform-future-inclusive-research
#14
REVIEW
Bronwyn Hemsley, Megan Rollo, Andrew Georgiou, Susan Balandin, Sophie Hill
OBJECTIVE: To integrate the findings of research on electronic personal health records (e-PHRs) for an understanding of their health literacy demands on both patients and providers. METHODS: We sought peer-reviewed primary research in English addressing the health literacy demands of e-PHRs that are online and allow patients any degree of control or input to the record. A synthesis of three theoretical models was used to frame the analysis of 24 studies. RESULTS: e-PHRs pose a wide range of health literacy demands on both patients and health service providers...
July 11, 2017: Patient Education and Counseling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28863583/speech-rate-rate-matching-and-intelligibility-in-early-implanted-cochlear-implant-users
#15
Valerie Freeman, David B Pisoni
An important speech-language outcome for deaf people with cochlear implants is speech intelligibility-how well their speech is understood by others, which also affects social functioning. Beyond simply uttering recognizable words, other speech-language skills may affect communicative competence, including rate-matching or converging toward interlocutors' speech rates. This initial report examines speech rate-matching and its relations to intelligibility in 91 prelingually deaf cochlear implant users and 93 typically hearing peers age 3 to 27 years...
August 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28856956/semantic-and-phonological-schema-influence-spoken-word-learning-and-overnight-consolidation
#16
Viktória Havas, J S H Taylor, Lucía Vaquero, Ruth de Diego-Balaguer, Antoni Rodríguez-Fornells, Matthew H Davis
We studied the initial acquisition and overnight consolidation of new spoken words that resemble words in the native language (L1) or in an unfamiliar, non-native language (L2). Spanish-speaking participants learned the spoken forms of novel words in their native language (Spanish) or in a different language (Hungarian), which were paired with pictures of familiar or unfamiliar objects, or no picture. We thereby assessed, in a factorial way, the impact of existing knowledge (schema) on word learning by manipulating both semantic (familiar vs...
August 31, 2017: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28834101/reshaping-curricula-culture-and-mental-health-in-undergraduate-health-degrees
#17
Eimear Muir-Cochrane, Deb O'Kane, Margaret McAllister, Tracy Levett-Jones, Adam Gerace
Australia is a country rich in cultural diversity, with Indigenous Australians having specific cultural values and a variety of spoken languages. In addition, the increasing number of people from migrant and refugee backgrounds requires that health professionals be able to communicate effectively with people from a wide range of cultural backgrounds. This is particularly relevant when undertaking a mental health assessment, because members of diverse communities often face the dual vulnerability of marginalization and stigmatization...
August 20, 2017: International Journal of Mental Health Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28832887/the-association-between-positive-relationships-with-adults-and-suicide-attempt-resilience-in-american-indian-youth-in-new-mexico
#18
Courtney A FitzGerald, Lynne Fullerton, Dan Green, Meryn Hall, Linda J Peñaloza
This study examined the 2013 New Mexico Youth Risk and Resiliency Survey (NM-YRRS) to determine whether cultural connectedness and positive relationships with adults protected against suicide attempts among American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) youth and whether these relationships differed by gender. The sample included 2,794 AI/AN students in grades 9 to 12 who answered the question about past-year suicide attempts. Protective factor variables tested included relationships with adults at home, school, and the community...
2017: American Indian and Alaska Native Mental Health Research: the Journal of the National Center
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821381/evidence-from-blindness-for-a-cognitively-pluripotent-cortex
#19
REVIEW
Marina Bedny
Cognitive neuroscience seeks to discover how cognitive functions are implemented in neural circuits. Studies of plasticity in blindness suggest that this mind-brain mapping is highly flexible during development. In blindness, 'visual' cortices take on higher-cognitive functions, including language and mathematics, becoming sensitive to the grammatical structure of spoken sentences and the difficulty of math equations. Visual cortex activity at rest becomes synchronized with higher-cognitive networks. Such repurposing is striking in light of the cognitive and evolutionary differences between vision, language, and mathematics...
July 8, 2017: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821345/evidence-from-blindness-for-a-cognitively-pluripotent-cortex
#20
REVIEW
Marina Bedny
Cognitive neuroscience seeks to discover how cognitive functions are implemented in neural circuits. Studies of plasticity in blindness suggest that this mind-brain mapping is highly flexible during development. In blindness, 'visual' cortices take on higher-cognitive functions, including language and mathematics, becoming sensitive to the grammatical structure of spoken sentences and the difficulty of math equations. Visual cortex activity at rest becomes synchronized with higher-cognitive networks. Such repurposing is striking in light of the cognitive and evolutionary differences between vision, language, and mathematics...
September 2017: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
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