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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156241/pre-linguistic-segmentation-of-speech-into-syllable-like-units
#1
Okko Räsänen, Gabriel Doyle, Michael C Frank
Syllables are often considered to be central to infant and adult speech perception. Many theories and behavioral studies on early language acquisition are also based on syllable-level representations of spoken language. There is little clarity, however, on what sort of pre-linguistic "syllable" would actually be accessible to an infant with no phonological or lexical knowledge. Anchored by the notion that syllables are organized around particularly sonorous (audible) speech sounds, the present study investigates the feasibility of speech segmentation into syllable-like chunks without any a priori linguistic knowledge...
November 17, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154035/mapping-language-to-visual-referents-does-the-degree-of-image-realism-matter
#2
Raheleh Saryazdi, Craig G Chambers
Studies of real-time spoken language comprehension have shown that listeners rapidly map unfolding speech to available referents in the immediate visual environment. This has been explored using various kinds of 2-dimensional (2D) stimuli, with convenience or availability typically motivating the choice of a particular image type. However, work in other areas has suggested that certain cognitive processes are sensitive to the level of realism in 2D representations. The present study examined the process of mapping language to depictions of objects that are more or less realistic, namely photographs versus clipart images...
November 15, 2017: Acta Psychologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153448/evidence-of-disturbances-of-deep-levels-of-semantic-cohesion-within-personal-narratives-in-schizophrenia
#3
Jon A Willits, Timothy Rubin, Michael N Jones, Kyle S Minor, Paul H Lysaker
Since initial conceptualizations, schizophrenia has been thought to involve core disturbances in the ability to form complex, integrated ideas. Although this has been studied in terms of formal thought disorder, the level of involvement of altered latent semantic structure is less clear. To explore this question, we compared the personal narratives of adults with schizophrenia (n=200) to those produced by an HIV+ sample (n=55) using selected indices from Coh-Metrix. Coh-Metrix is a software system designed to compute various language usage statistics from transcribed written and spoken language documents...
November 16, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146464/language-control-mechanisms-differ-for-native-languages-neuromagnetic-evidence-from-trilingual-language-switching
#4
Suzanne C A Hut, Päivi Helenius, Alina Leminen, Jyrki P Mäkelä, Minna Lehtonen
How does the brain process and control languages that are learned at a different age, when proficiency in all these languages is high? Early acquired strong languages are likely to have higher baseline activation levels than later learned less-dominant languages. However, it is still largely unknown how the activation levels of these different languages are controlled, and how interference from an irrelevant language is prevented. In this magnetoencephalography (MEG) study on language switching during auditory perception, early Finnish-Swedish bilinguals (N=18) who mastered English with high proficiency after childhood were presented with spoken words in each of the three languages, while performing a simple semantic categorisation task...
November 13, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145897/it-does-matter-where-you-come-from-mothers-experiences-of-childbirth-in-midwife-obstetric-units-tshwane-south-africa
#5
Sarie J Oosthuizen, Anne-Marie Bergh, Robert C Pattinson, Jackie Grimbeek
BACKGROUND: Health professionals are striving to improve respectful care for women, but they fall short in the domains of effective communication, respectful and dignified care and emotional support during labour. This study aimed to determine women's experiences of childbirth with a view to improving respectful clinical care practices in low-risk, midwife-led obstetric units in the Tshwane District Health District, South Africa. METHODS: A survey covering all midwife-led units in the district was conducted among 653 new mothers...
November 16, 2017: Reproductive Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144184/rates-and-predictors-of-professional-interpreting-provision-for-patients-with-limited-english-proficiency-in-the-emergency-department-and-inpatient-ward
#6
Jennifer Ryan, Samantha Abbato, Ristan Greer, Petra Vayne-Bossert, Phillip Good
The provision of professional interpreting services in the hospital setting decreases communication errors of clinical significance and improves clinical outcomes. A retrospective audit was conducted at a tertiary referral adult hospital in Brisbane, Australia. Of 20 563 admissions of patients presenting to the hospital emergency department (ED) and admitted to a ward during 2013-2014, 582 (2.8%) were identified as requiring interpreting services. In all, 19.8% of admissions were provided professional interpreting services in the ED, and 26...
January 2017: Inquiry: a Journal of Medical Care Organization, Provision and Financing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143061/the-origins-of-verb-learning-preverbal-and-postverbal-infants-learning-of-word-action-relations
#7
Lakshmi Gogate, Madhavilatha Maganti
Purpose: This experiment examined English- or Spanish-learning preverbal (8-9 months, n = 32) and postverbal (12-14 months, n = 40) infants' learning of word-action pairings prior to and after the transition to verb comprehension and its relation to naturally learned vocabulary. Method: Infants of both verbal levels were first habituated to 2 dynamic video displays of novel word-action pairings, the words /wem/ or /bæf/, spoken synchronously with an adult shaking or looming an object, and tested with interchanged (switched) versus same word-action pairings...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141698/disfluencies-signal-reference-to-novel-objects-for-adults-but-not-children
#8
Sarah J Owens, Justine M Thacker, Susan A Graham
Speech disfluencies can guide the ways in which listeners interpret spoken language. Here, we examined whether three-year-olds, five-year-olds, and adults use filled pauses to anticipate that a speaker is likely to refer to a novel object. Across three experiments, participants were presented with pairs of novel and familiar objects and heard a speaker refer to one of the objects using a fluent ("Look at the ball/lep!") or disfluent ("Look at thee uh ball/lep!") expression. The salience of the speaker's unfamiliarity with the novel referents, and the way in which the speaker referred to the novel referents (i...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Child Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132079/absence-of-delay-in-spontaneous-use-of-gestures-in-spoken-narratives-among-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorders
#9
Miranda Kit-Yi Wong, Wing-Chee So
BACKGROUND: Gestures are spontaneous hand movements produced when speaking. Despite gestures being of communicative significance, little is known about the gestural production in spoken narratives in six- to 12-year-old children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). AIMS: The present study examined whether six- to 12-year-old children with ASD have a delay in gestural production in a spoken narrative task, in comparison to their typically-developing (TD) peers. METHODS AND PROCEDURES: Six- to-12-year-old children with ASD (N=14) and their age- and IQ-matched TD peers (N=12) narrated a story, which could elicit spontaneous speech and gestures...
November 10, 2017: Research in Developmental Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131709/an-exploration-of-motor-learning-concepts-relevant-to-use-of-speech-generating-devices
#10
Elena Dukhovny, Jennifer J Thistle
For individuals who rely on speech-generating devices (SGDs) to complement and substitute for spoken language, speed and accuracy of access to the device are paramount for effective communication. There is some evidence that application of motor memory principles may improve effectiveness of SGD-based communication. This article reviews motor learning models and principles, including learning stages, types of practice and environmental factors that affect learning, and highlights the potential applications of these principles in dynamic display SGD design, intervention and research...
November 13, 2017: Assistive Technology: the Official Journal of RESNA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130982/aphasia-following-left-putaminal-hemorrhage-at-a-rehabilitation-hospital
#11
Shinichiro Maeshima, Sayaka Okamoto, Hideto Okazaki, Reisuke Funahashi, Shigenori Hiraoka, Hirokazu Hori, Kei Yagihashi, Ikuko Fuse, Shinichiro Tanaka, Naoki Asano, Shigeru Sonoda
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to clarify the relationship between aphasia and hematoma type/volume in patients with left putaminal hemorrhage admitted to a rehabilitation facility. METHODS: We evaluated the relationship between the presence, type, and severity of aphasia and hematoma type/volume in 92 patients with putaminal hemorrhage aged 29-83 years. Hematoma type and volume were evaluated on the basis of CT images obtained at stroke onset. The Standard Language Test for Aphasia was conducted as part of the initial assessment...
November 9, 2017: European Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130438/segmental-and-suprasegmental-perception-in-children-using-hearing-aids
#12
Kaitlyn A Wenrich, Lisa S Davidson, Rosalie M Uchanski
BACKGROUND: Suprasegmental perception (perception of stress, intonation, "how something is said" and "who says it") and segmental speech perception (perception of individual phonemes or perception of "what is said") are perceptual abilities that provide the foundation for the development of spoken language and effective communication. While there are numerous studies examining segmental perception in children with hearing aids (HAs), there are far fewer studies examining suprasegmental perception, especially for children with greater degrees of residual hearing...
November 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Audiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128783/differences-in-self-advocacy-among-hard-of-hearing-and-typical-hearing-students
#13
Rinat Michael, Haya Maroon Zidan
BACKGROUND: Self-advocacy is considered a protective factor of psychosocial and academic problems among students with special needs. AIMS: To asses self-advocacy among students with hearing loss and compare it to that of typical hearing students. METHODS AND PROCEDURE: The current study examined 27 hard of hearing (hh) students and 27 typical hearing students, all studying in mainstream classes. They completed the Hope Scale, a self-esteem scale, a self-efficacy scale, and a measure of self-advocacy statements...
November 9, 2017: Research in Developmental Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121171/recognition-and-comprehension-of-narrow-focus-by-young-adults-with-prelingual-hearing-loss-using-hearing-aids-or-cochlear-implants
#14
Osnat Segal, Liat Kishon-Rabin
Purpose: The stressed word in a sentence (narrow focus [NF]) conveys information about the intent of the speaker and is therefore important for processing spoken language and in social interactions. The ability of participants with severe-to-profound prelingual hearing loss to comprehend NF has rarely been investigated. The purpose of this study was to assess the recognition and comprehension of NF by young adults with prelingual hearing loss compared with those of participants with normal hearing (NH)...
November 9, 2017: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119700/oral-and-written-picture-description-in-individuals-with-aphasia
#15
Dorien Vandenborre, Evy Visch-Brink, Kim van Dun, Jo Verhoeven, Peter Mariën
BACKGROUND: Aphasia is characterized by difficulties in connected speech/writing. AIMS: To explore the differences between the oral and written description of a picture in individuals with chronic aphasia (IWA) and healthy controls. Descriptions were controlled for productivity, efficiency, grammatical organization, substitution behaviour and discourse organization. METHODS & PROCEDURES: Fifty IWA and 50 healthy controls matched for age, gender and education provided an oral and written description of a black-and-white situational drawing from the Dutch version of the Comprehensive Aphasia Test...
November 8, 2017: International Journal of Language & Communication Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114770/infant-directed-speech-enhances-attention-to-speech-in-deaf-infants-with-cochlear-implants
#16
Yuanyuan Wang, Tonya R Bergeson, Derek M Houston
Purpose: Both theoretical models of infant language acquisition and empirical studies posit important roles for attention to speech in early language development. However, deaf infants with cochlear implants (CIs) show reduced attention to speech as compared with their peers with normal hearing (NH; Horn, Davis, Pisoni, & Miyamoto, 2005; Houston, Pisoni, Kirk, Ying, & Miyamoto, 2003), which may affect their acquisition of spoken language. The main purpose of this study was to determine (a) whether infant-directed speech (IDS) enhances attention to speech in infants with CIs, as compared with adult-directed speech (ADS), and (b) whether the degree to which infants with CIs pay attention to IDS is associated with later language outcomes...
November 9, 2017: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105729/rheumatic-heart-disease-in-pregnancy-how-can-health-services-adapt-to-the-needs-of-indigenous-women-a-qualitative-study
#17
Suzanne Belton, Sue Kruske, Lisa Jackson Pulver, Juanita Sherwood, Kylie Tune, Jonathan Carapetis, Geraldine Vaughan, Michael Peek, Claire McLintock, Elizabeth Sullivan
OBJECTIVES: To study rheumatic heart disease health literacy and its impact on pregnancy, and to identify how health services could more effectively meet the needs of pregnant women with rheumatic heart disease. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Researchers observed and interviewed a small number of Aboriginal women and their families during pregnancy, childbirth and postpartum as they interacted with the health system. An Aboriginal Yarning method of relationship building over time, participant observations and interviews with Aboriginal women were used in the study...
November 6, 2017: Australian & New Zealand Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098269/neural-indices-of-semantic-processing-in-early-childhood-distinguish-eventual-stuttering-persistence-and-recovery
#18
Kathryn Kreidler, Amanda Hampton Wray, Evan Usler, Christine Weber
Purpose: Maturation of neural processes for language may lag in some children who stutter (CWS), and event-related potentials (ERPs) distinguish CWS who have recovered from those who have persisted. The current study explores whether ERPs indexing semantic processing may distinguish children who will eventually persist in stuttering (CWS-ePersisted) from those who will recover from stuttering (CWS-eRecovered). Method: Fifty-six 5-year-old children with normal receptive language listened to naturally spoken sentences in a story context...
November 9, 2017: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29096696/clinical-educators-experiences-of-facilitating-learning-when-speaking-a-different-language-from-both-the-student-and-client
#19
Nicola Keeton, Harsha Kathard, Shajila Singh
BACKGROUND: Worldwide there is an increasing responsibility for clinical educators to help students from different language backgrounds to develop the necessary skills to provide health care services to a linguistically diverse client base. This study describes the experiences of clinical educators who facilitate learning in contexts where they are not familiar with the language spoken between students and their clients. A part of the qualitative component of a larger mixed methods study is the focus of this paper...
November 2, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29094994/keep-listening-grammatical-context-reduces-but-does-not-eliminate-activation-of-unexpected-words
#20
Julia F Strand, Violet A Brown, Hunter E Brown, Jeffrey J Berg
To understand spoken language, listeners combine acoustic-phonetic input with expectations derived from context (Dahan & Magnuson, 2006). Eye-tracking studies on semantic context have demonstrated that the activation levels of competing lexical candidates depend on the relative strengths of the bottom-up input and top-down expectations (cf. Dahan & Tanenhaus, 2004). In the grammatical realm, however, graded effects of context on lexical competition have been predicted (Magnuson, Tanenhaus, & Aslin, 2008), but not demonstrated...
November 2, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
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