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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076426/evidence-of-a-vocalic-proto-system-in-the-baboon-papio-papio-suggests-pre-hominin-speech-precursors
#1
Louis-Jean Boë, Frédéric Berthommier, Thierry Legou, Guillaume Captier, Caralyn Kemp, Thomas R Sawallis, Yannick Becker, Arnaud Rey, Joël Fagot
Language is a distinguishing characteristic of our species, and the course of its evolution is one of the hardest problems in science. It has long been generally considered that human speech requires a low larynx, and that the high larynx of nonhuman primates should preclude their producing the vowel systems universally found in human language. Examining the vocalizations through acoustic analyses, tongue anatomy, and modeling of acoustic potential, we found that baboons (Papio papio) produce sounds sharing the F1/F2 formant structure of the human [ɨ æ ɑ ɔ u] vowels, and that similarly with humans those vocalic qualities are organized as a system on two acoustic-anatomic axes...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068424/scientific-evidence-and-potential-barriers-in-the-management-of-brazilian-protected-areas
#2
Eduardo L H Giehl, Marcela Moretti, Jessica C Walsh, Marco A Batalha, Carly N Cook
Protected areas are a crucial tool for halting the loss of biodiversity. Yet, the management of protected areas is under resourced, impacting the ability to achieve effective conservation actions. Effective management depends on the application of the best available knowledge, which can include both scientific evidence and the local knowledge of onsite managers. Despite the clear value of evidence-based conservation, there is still little known about how much scientific evidence is used to guide the management of protected areas...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068146/a-natural-language-based-presentation-of-cognitive-stimulation-to-people-with-dementia-in-assistive-technology-a-pilot-study
#3
Nina Dethlefs, Maarten Milders, Heriberto Cuayáhuitl, Turkey Al-Salkini, Lorraine Douglas
Currently, an estimated 36 million people worldwide are affected by Alzheimer's disease or related dementias. In the absence of a cure, non-pharmacological interventions, such as cognitive stimulation, which slow down the rate of deterioration can benefit people with dementia and their caregivers. Such interventions have shown to improve well-being and slow down the rate of cognitive decline. It has further been shown that cognitive stimulation in interaction with a computer is as effective as with a human...
January 9, 2017: Informatics for Health & Social Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065607/integer-ratio-priors-on-musical-rhythm-revealed-cross-culturally-by-iterated-reproduction
#4
Nori Jacoby, Josh H McDermott
Probability distributions over external states (priors) are essential to the interpretation of sensory signals. Priors for cultural artifacts such as music and language remain largely uncharacterized, but likely constrain cultural transmission, because only those signals with high probability under the prior can be reliably reproduced and communicated. We developed a method to estimate priors for simple rhythms via iterated reproduction of random temporal sequences. Listeners were asked to reproduce random "seed" rhythms; their reproductions were fed back as the stimulus and over time became dominated by internal biases, such that the prior could be estimated by applying the procedure multiple times...
January 4, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056139/children-s-use-of-semantic-context-in-perception-of-foreign-accented-speech
#5
Rachael Frush Holt, Tessa Bent
Purpose: The purpose of this study is to evaluate children's use of semantic context to facilitate foreign-accented word recognition in noise. Method: Monolingual American English speaking 5- to 7-year-olds (n = 168) repeated either Mandarin- or American English-accented sentences in babble, half of which contained final words that were highly predictable from context. The same final words were presented in the low- and high-predictability sentences. Results: Word recognition scores were better in the high- than low-predictability contexts...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045838/effect-of-context-and-hearing-loss-on-time-gated-word-recognition-in-children
#6
Dawna Lewis, Judy Kopun, Ryan McCreery, Marc Brennan, Kanae Nishi, Evan Cordrey, Pat Stelmachowicz, Mary Pat Moeller
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to examine word recognition in children who are hard of hearing (CHH) and children with normal hearing (CNH) in response to time-gated words presented in high- versus low-predictability sentences (HP, LP), where semantic cues were manipulated. Findings inform our understanding of how CHH combine cognitive-linguistic and acoustic-phonetic cues to support spoken word recognition. It was hypothesized that both groups of children would be able to make use of linguistic cues provided by HP sentences to support word recognition...
December 30, 2016: Ear and Hearing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045787/some-neurocognitive-correlates-of-noise-vocoded-speech-perception-in-children-with-normal-hearing-a-replication-and-extension-of-eisenberg-et-al-2002
#7
Adrienne S Roman, David B Pisoni, William G Kronenberger, Kathleen F Faulkner
OBJECTIVES: Noise-vocoded speech is a valuable research tool for testing experimental hypotheses about the effects of spectral degradation on speech recognition in adults with normal hearing (NH). However, very little research has utilized noise-vocoded speech with children with NH. Earlier studies with children with NH focused primarily on the amount of spectral information needed for speech recognition without assessing the contribution of neurocognitive processes to speech perception and spoken word recognition...
December 27, 2016: Ear and Hearing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043901/mother-child-language-style-matching-predicts-children-s-and-mothers-emotion-reactivity
#8
Hannah F Rasmussen, Jessica L Borelli, Patricia A Smiley, Chloe Cohen, Ryan Cheuk Ming Cheung, Schuyler Fox, Matthew Marvin, Betsy Blackard
Co-regulation of behavior occurring within parent-child attachment relationships is thought to be the primary means through which children develop the capacity to regulate emotion, an ability that is protective across development. Existing research on parent-child co-regulation focuses predominantly on parent-infant dyads, and operationalizes co-regulation as the matching of facial expressions; however, matching can occur on other behaviors, including vocal tone, body movement, and language. Studies with young children find that greater matching is associated with children's lower emotion reactivity, but with unknown impacts on parents...
December 30, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28041786/statistical-evidence-that-a-child-can-create-a-combinatorial-linguistic-system-without-external-linguistic-input-implications-for-language-evolution
#9
REVIEW
Susan Goldin-Meadow, Charles Yang
Can a child who is not exposed to a model for language nevertheless construct a communication system characterized by combinatorial structure? We know that deaf children whose hearing losses prevent them from acquiring spoken language, and whose hearing parents have not exposed them to sign language, use gestures, called homesigns, to communicate. In this study, we call upon a new formal analysis that characterizes the statistical profile of grammatical rules and, when applied to child language data, finds that young children's language is consistent with a productive grammar rather than rote memorization of specific word combinations in caregiver speech...
December 29, 2016: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035712/identification-of-fluency-and-word-finding-difficulty-in-samples-of-children-with-diverse-language-backgrounds
#10
Peter Howell, Kevin Tang, Outi Tuomainen, Sin Kan Chan, Kirsten Beltran, Avin Mirawdeli, John Harris
BACKGROUND: Stuttering and word-finding difficulty (WFD) are two types of communication difficulty that occur frequently in children who learn English as an additional language (EAL), as well as those who only speak English. The two disorders require different, specific forms of intervention. Prior research has described the symptoms of each type of difficulty. This paper describes the development of a non-word repetition test (UNWR), applicable across languages, that was validated by comparing groups of children identified by their speech and language symptoms as having either stuttering or WFD...
December 30, 2016: International Journal of Language & Communication Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035711/written-cohesion-in-children-with-and-without-language-learning-disabilities
#11
Anthony D Koutsoftas, Victoria Petersen
BACKGROUND: Cohesion refers to the linguistic elements of discourse that contribute to its continuity and is an important element to consider as part of written language intervention, especially in children with language learning disabilities (LLD). There is substantial evidence that children with LLD perform more poorly than typically developing (TD) peers on measures of cohesion in spoken language and on written transcription measures; however, there is far less research comparing groups on cohesion as a measure of written language across genres...
December 30, 2016: International Journal of Language & Communication Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035646/seroprevalence-of-hepatitis-b-infection-among-immigrants-in-a-primary-care-clinic-a-case-for-granular-ethnicity-and-language-data-collection
#12
Genji Terasaki, Angel Desai, Christy M McKinney, Mahri Z Haider
Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is highly prevalent worldwide and is most often diagnosed through screening efforts. In order to identify the specific ethnic groups at greatest risk, it is necessary to go beyond traditional categories. We conducted a retrospective case series in a primary care clinic serving non-English speaking immigrants to determine the prevalence of HBV among patients of various primary spoken languages (used as a proxy for ethnicity). Among the 1378 patients, the overall prevalence of current infection was 8%...
December 30, 2016: Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032652/the-specificity-of-sound-symbolic-correspondences-in-spoken-language
#13
Christina Y Tzeng, Lynne C Nygaard, Laura L Namy
Although language has long been regarded as a primarily arbitrary system, sound symbolism, or non-arbitrary correspondences between the sound of a word and its meaning, also exists in natural language. Previous research suggests that listeners are sensitive to sound symbolism. However, little is known about the specificity of these mappings. This study investigated whether sound symbolic properties correspond to specific meanings, or whether these properties generalize across semantic dimensions. In three experiments, native English-speaking adults heard sound symbolic foreign words for dimensional adjective pairs (big/small, round/pointy, fast/slow, moving/still) and for each foreign word, selected a translation among English antonyms that either matched or mismatched with the correct meaning dimension...
December 29, 2016: Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28030959/physical-activity-and-sedentary-behavior-of-us-immigrant-versus-non-immigrant-adolescents-findings-from-the-next-generation-health-study-data
#14
Wynette Williams, Kaigang Li, Denise Haynie, Bruce Simons-Morton
OBJECTIVE: This study examined associations of physical activity (PA) and sedentary behavior (SB) with adolescents' immigration status and language spoken at home and with friends. METHODS: Participants (N = 2475) were included from Wave 1 of the NEXT Generation Health Study, a nationally representative 10th-grade cohort study starting in 2009. PA included recommended moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) and vigorous PA (VPA); SB included screen viewing and social-media use...
December 29, 2016: Ethnicity & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028042/mental-disorders-in-deaf-and-hard-of-hearing-adult-outpatients-a-comparison-of-linguistic-subgroups
#15
Beate Øhre, Maj Volden, Erik Falkum, Stephen von Tetzchner
Deaf and hard of hearing (DHH) individuals who use signed language and those who use spoken language face different challenges and stressors. Accordingly, the profile of their mental problems may also differ. However, studies of mental disorders in this population have seldom differentiated between linguistic groups. Our study compares demographics, mental disorders, and levels of distress and functioning in 40 patients using Norwegian Sign Language (NSL) and 36 patients using spoken language. Assessment instruments were translated into NSL...
January 2017: Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018132/the-gender-congruency-effect-during-bilingual-spoken-word-recognition
#16
Luis Morales, Daniela Paolieri, Paola E Dussias, Jorge R Valdés Kroff, Chip Gerfen, María Teresa Bajo
We investigate the 'gender-congruency' effect during a spoken-word recognition task using the visual world paradigm. Eye movements of Italian-Spanish bilinguals and Spanish monolinguals were monitored while they viewed a pair of objects on a computer screen. Participants listened to instructions in Spanish (encuentra la bufanda / 'find the scarf') and clicked on the object named in the instruction. Grammatical gender of the objects' name was manipulated so that pairs of objects had the same (congruent) or different (incongruent) gender in Italian, but gender in Spanish was always congruent...
March 2016: Bilingualism: Language and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28010675/simultaneous-communication-supports-learning-in-noise-by-cochlear-implant-users
#17
Helen Blom, Marc Marschark, Elizabeth Machmer
OBJECTIVES: This study sought to evaluate the potential of using spoken language and signing together (simultaneous communication, SimCom, sign-supported speech) as a means of improving speech recognition, comprehension, and learning by cochlear implant (CI) users in noisy contexts. METHODS: Forty eight college students who were active CI users, watched videos of three short presentations, the text versions of which were standardized at the 8(th)-grade reading level...
December 23, 2016: Cochlear Implants International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008801/focus-in-corrective-exchanges-effects-of-pitch-accent-and-syntactic-form
#18
Charles Clifton, Lyn Frazier
A dialog consisting of an utterance by one speaker and another speaker's correction of its content seems intuitively to be made more acceptable when the new information is pitch accented or otherwise focused, and when the utterance and correction have the same syntactic form. Three acceptability judgment studies, one written and two auditory, investigated the interaction of focus (manipulated by sentence position and, in Experiments 2 and 3, pitch accent) and syntactic parallelism. Experiment 1 indicated that syntactic parallelism interacted with position of the new (contrastive) term: nonparallel forms were relatively acceptable when the new term appeared in object position, a position that commonly contains new information (a 'default focus' position)...
December 2016: Language and Speech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28000389/sentence-comprehension-in-slovak-speaking-patients-with-alzheimer-s-disease
#19
Jana Marková, Ľubica Horváthová, Mária Králová, Zsolt Cséfalvay
BACKGROUND: According to some studies, sentence comprehension is diminished in Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients, but they differ on what underlies the sentence comprehension impairment. Sentence comprehension in AD patients has been studied mainly in the English language. It is less clear how patients with AD speaking a morphologically rich language with grammatical morphemes indicating case and through it even thematic roles process reversible sentences. AIMS: To compare the comprehension of various syntactic constructions in Slovak-speaking AD patients and cognitively intact elderly people...
December 21, 2016: International Journal of Language & Communication Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997954/intensive-language-action-therapy-in-chronic-aphasia-a-randomized-clinical-trial-examining-guidance-by-constraint
#20
Jacquie Kurland, Edward J Stanek, Polly Stokes, Minming Li, Mary Andrianopoulos
Purpose: Intensive language action therapy (ILAT) can be effective in overcoming learned nonuse in chronic aphasia. It is suggested that all three guiding principles (constraint, communication embedding, massed practice) are essential to ILAT's success. We examined whether one of these, guidance by constraint, is critical. Method: Twenty-four participants with aphasia (PWAs) were assigned to ILAT or a modified version of promoting aphasic communicative effectiveness (PACE) in a randomized block, single-blind, parallel-group treatment study...
December 1, 2016: American Journal of Speech-language Pathology
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