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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727776/language-related-differences-of-the-sustained-response-evoked-by-natural-speech-sounds
#1
Christina Siu-Dschu Fan, Xingyu Zhu, Hans Günter Dosch, Christiane von Stutterheim, André Rupp
In tonal languages, such as Mandarin Chinese, the pitch contour of vowels discriminates lexical meaning, which is not the case in non-tonal languages such as German. Recent data provide evidence that pitch processing is influenced by language experience. However, there are still many open questions concerning the representation of such phonological and language-related differences at the level of the auditory cortex (AC). Using magnetoencephalography (MEG), we recorded transient and sustained auditory evoked fields (AEF) in native Chinese and German speakers to investigate language related phonological and semantic aspects in the processing of acoustic stimuli...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724982/primary-phonological-planning-units-in-spoken-word-production-are-language-specific-evidence-from-an-erp-study
#2
Jie Wang, Andus Wing-Kuen Wong, Suiping Wang, Hsuan-Chih Chen
It is widely acknowledged in Germanic languages that segments are the primary planning units at the phonological encoding stage of spoken word production. Mixed results, however, have been found in Chinese, and it is still unclear what roles syllables and segments play in planning Chinese spoken word production. In the current study, participants were asked to first prepare and later produce disyllabic Mandarin words upon picture prompts and a response cue while electroencephalogram (EEG) signals were recorded...
July 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723952/evidence-for-prehistoric-origins-of-the-g2019s-mutation-in-the-north-african-berber-population
#3
Rafiqua Ben El Haj, Ayyoub Salmi, Wafa Regragui, Ahmed Moussa, Naima Bouslam, Houyam Tibar, Ali Benomar, Mohamed Yahyaoui, Ahmed Bouhouche
The most common cause of the monogenic form of Parkinson's disease known so far is the G2019S mutation of the leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) gene. Its frequency varies greatly among ethnic groups and geographic regions ranging from less than 0.1% in Asia to 40% in North Africa. This mutation has three distinct haplotypes; haplotype 1 being the oldest and most common. Recent studies have dated haplotype 1 of the G2019S mutation to about 4000 years ago, but it remains controversial whether the mutation has a Near-Eastern or Moroccan-Berber ancestral origin...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715927/mawrid-a-model-of-arabic-word-reading-in-development
#4
Elinor Saiegh-Haddad
This article offers a model of Arabic word reading according to which three conspicuous features of the Arabic language and orthography shape the development of word reading in this language: (a) vowelization/vocalization, or the use of diacritical marks to represent short vowels and other features of articulation; (b) morphological structure, namely, the predominance and transparency of derivational morphological structure in the linguistic and orthographic representation of the Arabic word; and (c) diglossia, specifically, the lexical and lexico-phonological distance between the spoken and the standard forms of Arabic words...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Learning Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715847/language-sampling-with-adolescents-building-a-normative-database-with-fables
#5
Marilyn A Nippold, Laura M Vigeland, Megan W Frantz-Kaspar, Jeannene M Ward-Lonergan
Purpose: The goal of the study was to create a language sampling task appropriate for adolescents and to contribute normative data from speakers with typical language development. Method: Thirty adolescents (mean age = 14 years, 1 month) participated in an interview that involved the retelling and interpretation of 4 Greek fables. Each speaker's performance on the task was audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim, and entered into the Systematic Analysis of Language Transcripts computer program (Miller & Iglesias, 2015)...
July 17, 2017: American Journal of Speech-language Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713191/long-term-recovery-in-stroke-accompanied-by-aphasia-a-reconsideration
#6
Audrey Holland, Davida Fromm, Margaret Forbes, Brian MacWhinney
BACKGROUND: This work focuses on the twenty-six individuals who provided data to AphasiaBank on at least two occasions, with initial testing between 6 months and 5.8 years post-onset of aphasia. The data are archival in nature and were collected from the extensive database of aphasic discourse in AphasiaBank. AIMS: The aim is to furnish data on the nature of long-term changes in both the impairment of aphasia as measured by the Western Aphasia Battery-Revised (WAB-R) and its expression in spoken discourse...
2017: Aphasiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701981/language-mediated-concept-activation-in-bilingual-memory-facilitates-cognitive-flexibility
#7
Anatoliy V Kharkhurin
This is the first attempt of empirical investigation of language mediated concept activation (LMCA) in bilingual memory as a cognitive mechanism facilitating divergent thinking. Russian-English bilingual and Russian monolingual college students were tested on a battery of tests including among others Abbreviated Torrance Tests for Adults assessing divergent thinking traits and translingual priming (TLP) test assessing the LMCA. The latter was designed as a lexical decision priming test, in which a prime and a target were not related in Russian (language of testing), but were related through their translation equivalents in English (spoken only by bilinguals)...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701977/foreign-languages-sound-fast-evidence-from-implicit-rate-normalization
#8
Hans Rutger Bosker, Eva Reinisch
Anecdotal evidence suggests that unfamiliar languages sound faster than one's native language. Empirical evidence for this impression has, so far, come from explicit rate judgments. The aim of the present study was to test whether such perceived rate differences between native and foreign languages (FLs) have effects on implicit speech processing. Our measure of implicit rate perception was "normalization for speech rate": an ambiguous vowel between short /a/ and long /a:/ is interpreted as /a:/ following a fast but as /a/ following a slow carrier sentence...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698606/reading-induced-shifts-of-perceptual-speech-representations-in-auditory-cortex
#9
Milene Bonte, Joao M Correia, Mirjam Keetels, Jean Vroomen, Elia Formisano
Learning to read requires the formation of efficient neural associations between written and spoken language. Whether these associations influence the auditory cortical representation of speech remains unknown. Here we address this question by combining multivariate functional MRI analysis and a newly-developed 'text-based recalibration' paradigm. In this paradigm, the pairing of visual text and ambiguous speech sounds shifts (i.e. recalibrates) the perceptual interpretation of the ambiguous sounds in subsequent auditory-only trials...
July 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697699/effects-of-word-frequency-and-transitional-probability-on-word-reading-durations-of-younger-and-older-speakers
#10
Cornelia Moers, Antje Meyer, Esther Janse
High-frequency units are usually processed faster than low-frequency units in language comprehension and language production. Frequency effects have been shown for words as well as word combinations. Word co-occurrence effects can be operationalized in terms of transitional probability (TP). TPs reflect how probable a word is, conditioned by its right or left neighbouring word. This corpus study investigates whether three different age groups-younger children (8-12 years), adolescents (12-18 years) and older (62-95 years) Dutch speakers-show frequency and TP context effects on spoken word durations in reading aloud, and whether age groups differ in the size of these effects...
June 2017: Language and Speech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697517/-cochlear-implants-in-children-and-adults
#11
Thomas Zahnert, Dirk Mürbe
About 4000 patients receive a cochlear implant in Germany every year. Adults have become the main group for cochlear implantation candidacy.Elderly people with progressive and profound hearing loss experienced high communication restraints due to the limits of conventional hearing aids in the past. Nowadays cochlear implants can be offered as a well-established extension to the supply chain of hearing systems. The option of cochlear implantation for children with profound hearing impairment has led to a paradigm shift in hearing rehabilitation...
June 2017: Laryngo- Rhino- Otologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691732/prereader-to-beginning-reader-changes-induced-by-reading-acquisition-in-print-and-speech-brain-networks
#12
Katarzyna Chyl, Bartosz Kossowski, Agnieszka Dębska, Magdalena Łuniewska, Anna Banaszkiewicz, Agata Żelechowska, Stephen J Frost, William Einar Mencl, Marek Wypych, Artur Marchewka, Kenneth R Pugh, Katarzyna Jednoróg
BACKGROUND: Literacy acquisition is a demanding process that induces significant changes in the brain, especially in the spoken and written language networks. Nevertheless, large-scale paediatric fMRI studies are still limited. METHODS: We analyzed fMRI data to show how individual differences in reading performance correlate with brain activation for speech and print in 111 children attending kindergarten or first grade and examined group differences between a matched subset of emergent-readers and prereaders...
July 10, 2017: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691260/semantic-fluency-in-deaf-children-who-use-spoken-and-signed-language-in-comparison-with-hearing-peers
#13
C R Marshall, A Jones, A Fastelli, J Atkinson, N Botting, G Morgan
BACKGROUND: Deafness has an adverse impact on children's ability to acquire spoken languages. Signed languages offer a more accessible input for deaf children, but because the vast majority are born to hearing parents who do not sign, their early exposure to sign language is limited. Deaf children as a whole are therefore at high risk of language delays. AIMS: We compared deaf and hearing children's performance on a semantic fluency task. Optimal performance on this task requires a systematic search of the mental lexicon, the retrieval of words within a subcategory and, when that subcategory is exhausted, switching to a new subcategory...
July 10, 2017: International Journal of Language & Communication Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690507/the-relationship-between-intrinsic-couplings-of-the-visual-word-form-area-with-spoken-language-network-and-reading-ability-in-children-and-adults
#14
Yu Li, Linjun Zhang, Zhichao Xia, Jie Yang, Hua Shu, Ping Li
Reading plays a key role in education and communication in modern society. Learning to read establishes the connections between the visual word form area (VWFA) and language areas responsible for speech processing. Using resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) and Granger Causality Analysis (GCA) methods, the current developmental study aimed to identify the difference in the relationship between the connections of VWFA-language areas and reading performance in both adults and children. The results showed that: (1) the spontaneous connectivity between VWFA and the spoken language areas, i...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685249/memory-for-conversation-and-the-development-of-common-ground
#15
Geoffrey L McKinley, Sarah Brown-Schmidt, Aaron S Benjamin
Efficient conversation is guided by the mutual knowledge, or common ground, that interlocutors form as a conversation progresses. Characterized from the perspective of commonly used measures of memory, efficient conversation should be closely associated with item memory-what was said-and context memory-who said what to whom. However, few studies have explicitly probed memory to evaluate what type of information is maintained following a communicative exchange. The current study examined how item and context memory relate to the development of common ground over the course of a conversation, and how these forms of memory vary as a function of one's role in a conversation as speaker or listener...
July 6, 2017: Memory & Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680416/an-eye-tracking-study-on-the-perception-and-comprehension-of-unimodal-and-bimodal-linguistic-inputs-by-deaf-adolescents
#16
Eliana Mastrantuono, David Saldaña, Isabel R Rodríguez-Ortiz
An eye tracking experiment explored the gaze behavior of deaf individuals when perceiving language in spoken and sign language only, and in sign-supported speech (SSS). Participants were deaf (n = 25) and hearing (n = 25) Spanish adolescents. Deaf students were prelingually profoundly deaf individuals with cochlear implants (CIs) used by age 5 or earlier, or prelingually profoundly deaf native signers with deaf parents. The effectiveness of SSS has rarely been tested within the same group of children for discourse-level comprehension...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28663170/spoken-language-shows-some-improvement-following-intervention-for-children-with-autism-but-for-which-children-and-why
#17
EDITORIAL
Kristelle Hudry, Stefanie Dimov
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 29, 2017: Evidence-based Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28661580/a-review-of-endophenotypes-in-schizophrenia-and-autism-the-next-phase-for-understanding-genetic-etiologies
#18
Lisabeth F DiLalla, Megan McCrary, Emma Diaz
Many psychiatric disorders are caused by multiple genes and multiple environmental factors, making the identification of specific genetic risk factors for these disorders difficult. Endophenotypes are behaviors or characteristics that are intermediate between the genotype and a phenotype of interest. Because they are more directly related to the gene action than is the endpoint disorder, they may be useful in the identification of specific genes related to psychiatric disorders and the classification of disorders or traits that share an underlying genetic etiology...
June 29, 2017: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part C, Seminars in Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650177/learning-on-hold-cell-phones-sidetrack-parent-child-interactions
#19
Jessa Reed, Kathy Hirsh-Pasek, Roberta Michnick Golinkoff
Although research suggests that responsive interactions are imperative for language development, the advent of mobile technology means that parent-child exchanges are often fraught with unpredictable interruptions. Less clear is how these momentary breaks in responsiveness affect word learning. In this within-subjects design, 38 mothers taught their 2-year-olds (M = 27.15 months) 2 novel words, 1 at a time. One teaching period was interrupted by a cell phone call. Children learned the word when the teaching was not interrupted, but not when it was interrupted...
June 26, 2017: Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648683/reliability-and-validity-analyses-of-the-north-star-ambulatory-assessment-in-brazilian-portuguese
#20
Larissa O Okama, Lívia M Zampieri, Carina L Ramos, Flávia O Toledo, Cyntia R J Alves, Ana Cláudia Mattiello-Sverzut, Anna Mayhew, Cláudia F R Sobreira
The North Star Ambulatory Assessment measures motor performance in ambulatory boys with Duchenne muscular dystrophy, a hereditary and degenerative muscle disorder. To use the North Star Ambulatory Assessment in Brazilian boys, we performed the cross-cultural adaptation to the Portuguese language spoken in Brazil and evaluated the reliability and validity of the instrument. Cross-cultural adaptation included: independent translations, synthesis, committee review, pre-testing in 12 boys, back-translation and comparison with the original instrument...
May 26, 2017: Neuromuscular Disorders: NMD
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