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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317276/important-considerations-in-lesion-symptom-mapping-illustrations-from-studies-of-word-comprehension
#1
Hinna Shahid, Rajani Sebastian, Tatiana T Schnur, Taylor Hanayik, Amy Wright, Donna C Tippett, Julius Fridriksson, Chris Rorden, Argye E Hillis
Lesion-symptom mapping is an important method of identifying networks of brain regions critical for functions. However, results might be influenced substantially by the imaging modality and timing of assessment. We tested the hypothesis that brain regions found to be associated with acute language deficits depend on (1) timing of behavioral measurement, (2) imaging sequences utilized to define the "lesion" (structural abnormality only or structural plus perfusion abnormality), and (3) power of the study. We studied 191 individuals with acute left hemisphere stroke with MRI and language testing to identify areas critical for spoken word comprehension...
March 20, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295485/maternal-socioeconomic-status-influences-the-range-of-expectations-during-language-comprehension-in%C3%A2-adulthood
#2
Melissa Troyer, Arielle Borovsky
In infancy, maternal socioeconomic status (SES) is associated with real-time language processing skills, but whether or not (and if so, how) this relationship carries into adulthood is unknown. We explored the effects of maternal SES in college-aged adults on eye-tracked, spoken sentence comprehension tasks using the visual world paradigm. When sentences ended in highly plausible, expected target nouns (Exp. 1), higher SES was associated with a greater likelihood of considering alternative endings related to the action of the sentence...
March 13, 2017: Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292268/social-inclusion-for-children-with-hearing-loss-in-listening-and-spoken-language-early-intervention-an-exploratory-study
#3
Gabriella Constantinescu-Sharpe, Rebecca L Phillips, Aleisha Davis, Dimity Dornan, Anthony Hogan
BACKGROUND: Social inclusion is a common focus of listening and spoken language (LSL) early intervention for children with hearing loss. This exploratory study compared the social inclusion of young children with hearing loss educated using a listening and spoken language approach with population data. METHODS: A framework for understanding the scope of social inclusion is presented in the Background. This framework guided the use of a shortened, modified version of the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children (LSAC) to measure two of the five facets of social inclusion ('education' and 'interacting with society and fulfilling social goals')...
March 14, 2017: BMC Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282435/the-statistical-trade-off-between-word-order-and-word-structure-large-scale-evidence-for-the-principle-of-least-effort
#4
Alexander Koplenig, Peter Meyer, Sascha Wolfer, Carolin Müller-Spitzer
Languages employ different strategies to transmit structural and grammatical information. While, for example, grammatical dependency relationships in sentences are mainly conveyed by the ordering of the words for languages like Mandarin Chinese, or Vietnamese, the word ordering is much less restricted for languages such as Inupiatun or Quechua, as these languages (also) use the internal structure of words (e.g. inflectional morphology) to mark grammatical relationships in a sentence. Based on a quantitative analysis of more than 1,500 unique translations of different books of the Bible in almost 1,200 different languages that are spoken as a native language by approximately 6 billion people (more than 80% of the world population), we present large-scale evidence for a statistical trade-off between the amount of information conveyed by the ordering of words and the amount of information conveyed by internal word structure: languages that rely more strongly on word order information tend to rely less on word structure information and vice versa...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28278240/neural-correlates-of-conflict-between-gestures-and-words-a-domain-specific-role-for-a-temporal-parietal-complex
#5
J Adam Noah, Swethasri Dravida, Xian Zhang, Shaul Yahil, Joy Hirsch
The interpretation of social cues is a fundamental function of human social behavior, and resolution of inconsistencies between spoken and gestural cues plays an important role in successful interactions. To gain insight into these underlying neural processes, we compared neural responses in a traditional color/word conflict task and to a gesture/word conflict task to test hypotheses of domain-general and domain-specific conflict resolution. In the gesture task, recorded spoken words ("yes" and "no") were presented simultaneously with video recordings of actors performing one of the following affirmative or negative gestures: thumbs up, thumbs down, head nodding (up and down), or head shaking (side-to-side), thereby generating congruent and incongruent communication stimuli between gesture and words...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277017/the-relationship-of-education-and-acculturation-with-vigorous-intensity-leisure-time-physical-activity-by-gender-in-latinos
#6
Erick B López, Takashi Yamashita
OBJECTIVES: Latinos have poorer health outcomes among certain conditions (e.g. diabetes, obesity, mental health) compared to non-Latino Whites in the U.S., in part due to difference in the amount of physical activity, which are heavily influenced by sociocultural factors such as educational attainment and acculturation. Vigorous-intensity leisure time physical activity (VLTPA) may provide health benefits with a shorter amount of time than moderate-to-light physical activity. However, VLTPA has been significantly understudied compared to LTPA in general...
February 28, 2017: Ethnicity & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271537/oral-health-conceptual-knowledge-and-its-relationships-with-oral-health-outcomes-findings-from-a-multi-site-health-literacy-study
#7
Mark D Macek, Kathryn A Atchison, Haiyan Chen, William Wells, Don Haynes, Ruth M Parker, Shurouk Azzo
OBJECTIVES: In 2010, a health literacy instrument designed to measure oral health conceptual knowledge was introduced. This developmental work was limited in that it included a relatively small and homogeneous study population and few oral health measures against which to test concurrent validity. The purpose of the present investigation is to expand upon the earlier work by utilizing a larger study sample and additional outcome variables. METHODS: Data for this report came from the Multi-site Oral Health Literacy Research Study (MOHLRS), a large, cross-sectional survey conducted at two university-based dental clinics in the United States...
March 7, 2017: Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28268720/s2ni-a-mobile-platform-for-nutrition-monitoring-from-spoken-data
#8
Niloofar Hezarjaribi, Cody A Reynolds, Drew T Miller, Naomi Chaytor, Hassan Ghasemzadeh
Diet and physical activity are important lifestyle and behavioral factors in self-management and prevention of many chronic diseases. Mobile sensors such as accelerometers have been used in the past to objectively measure physical activity or detect eating time. Diet monitoring, however, still relies on self-recorded data by end users where individuals use mobile devices for recording nutrition intake by either entering text or taking images. Such approaches have shown low adherence in technology adoption and achieve only moderate accuracy...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28268224/eawe-examination-of-anomalous-world-experience
#9
Louis Sass, Elizabeth Pienkos, Borut Škodlar, Giovanni Stanghellini, Thomas Fuchs, Josef Parnas, Nev Jones
The "EAWE: Examination of Anomalous World Experience" is a detailed semi-structured interview format whose aim is to elicit description and discussion of a person's experience of various aspects of their lived world. The instrument is grounded in the tradition of phenomenological psychopathology and aims to explore, in a qualitatively rich manner, six key dimensions of subjectivity - namely, a person's experience of: (1) Space and objects, (2) Time and events, (3) Other persons, (4) Language (whether spoken or written), (5) Atmosphere (overall sense of reality, familiarity, vitality, meaning, or relevance), and (6) Existential orientation (values, attitudes, and worldviews)...
March 8, 2017: Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263637/the-effect-of-simultaneous-text-on-the-recall-of-noise-degraded-speech
#10
Irina Grossman, Ramesh Rajan
Written and spoken language utilize the same processing system, enabling text to modulate speech processing. We investigated how simultaneously presented text affected speech recall in babble noise using a retrospective recall task. Participants were presented with text-speech sentence pairs in multitalker babble noise and then prompted to recall what they heard or what they read. In Experiment 1, sentence pairs were either congruent or incongruent and they were presented in silence or at 1 of 4 noise levels...
March 6, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257584/semantic-processing-of-sentences-in-preschoolers-with-specific-language-impairment-evidence-from-the-n400-effect
#11
Judith Pijnacker, Nina Davids, Marjolijn van Weerdenburg, Ludo Verhoeven, Harry Knoors, Petra van Alphen
Purpose: Given the complexity of sentence processing and the specific problems that children with specific language impairment (SLI) experience, we investigated the time course and characteristics of semantic processing at the sentence level in Dutch preschoolers with SLI. Method: We measured N400 responses to semantically congruent and incongruent spoken sentences (e.g., "My father is eating an apple/*blanket") in a group of 37 Dutch preschoolers with SLI and in a group of 25 typically developing (TD) peers...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28255199/differential-lexical-predictors-of-reading-comprehension-in-fourth-graders
#12
Nicole M Swart, Marloes M L Muijselaar, Esther G Steenbeek-Planting, Mienke Droop, Peter F de Jong, L Verhoeven
The mental lexicon plays a central role in reading comprehension (Perfetti & Stafura, 2014). It encompasses the number of lexical entries in spoken and written language (vocabulary breadth), the semantic quality of these entries (vocabulary depth), and the connection strength between lexical representations (semantic relatedness); as such, it serves as an output for the decoding process and as an input for comprehension processes. Although different aspects of the lexicon can be distinguished, research on the role of the mental lexicon in reading comprehension often does not take these individual aspects of the lexicon into account...
2017: Reading and Writing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28253679/language-independent-talker-specificity-in-first-language-and-second-language-speech-production-by-bilingual-talkers-l1-speaking-rate-predicts-l2-speaking-rate
#13
Ann R Bradlow, Midam Kim, Michael Blasingame
Second-language (L2) speech is consistently slower than first-language (L1) speech, and L1 speaking rate varies within- and across-talkers depending on many individual, situational, linguistic, and sociolinguistic factors. It is asked whether speaking rate is also determined by a language-independent talker-specific trait such that, across a group of bilinguals, L1 speaking rate significantly predicts L2 speaking rate. Two measurements of speaking rate were automatically extracted from recordings of read and spontaneous speech by English monolinguals (n = 27) and bilinguals from ten L1 backgrounds (n = 86): speech rate (syllables/second), and articulation rate (syllables/second excluding silent pauses)...
February 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28253637/the-influence-of-lexical-characteristics-and-talker-accent-on-the-recognition-of-english-words-by-speakers-of-japanese
#14
Kiyoko Yoneyama, Benjamin Munson
Whether or not the influence of listeners' language proficiency on L2 speech recognition was affected by the structure of the lexicon was examined. This specific experiment examined the effect of word frequency (WF) and phonological neighborhood density (PND) on word recognition in native speakers of English and second-language (L2) speakers of English whose first language was Japanese. The stimuli included English words produced by a native speaker of English and English words produced by a native speaker of Japanese (i...
February 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241307/rhythm-perception-and-its-role-in-perception-and-learning-of-dysrhythmic-speech
#15
Stephanie A Borrie, Kaitlin L Lansford, Tyson S Barrett
Purpose: The perception of rhythm cues plays an important role in recognizing spoken language, especially in adverse listening conditions. Indeed, this has been shown to hold true even when the rhythm cues themselves are dysrhythmic. This study investigates whether expertise in rhythm perception provides a processing advantage for perception (initial intelligibility) and learning (intelligibility improvement) of naturally dysrhythmic speech, dysarthria. Method: Fifty young adults with typical hearing participated in 3 key tests, including a rhythm perception test, a receptive vocabulary test, and a speech perception and learning test, with standard pretest, familiarization, and posttest phases...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241202/prosody-and-spoken-word-recognition-in-early-and-late-spanish-english-bilingual-individuals
#16
Frank R Boutsen, Justin D Dvorak, Derick D Deweber
Purpose: This study was conducted to compare the influence of word properties on gated single-word recognition in monolingual and bilingual individuals under conditions of native and nonnative accent and to determine whether word-form prosody facilitates recognition in bilingual individuals. Method: Word recognition was assessed in monolingual and bilingual participants when English words were presented with English and Spanish accents in 3 gating conditions: onset only, onset plus prosody/word length only, and onset plus prosody...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28240979/does-language-matter-when-using-a-graphical-method-for-calculating-the-speech-intelligibility-index
#17
In-Ki Jin, James M Kates, Kathryn H Arehart
BACKGROUND: Graphical methods for calculating the speech intelligibility index (SII), such as the count-the-dot audiogram, are useful tools in quantifying how much weighted audibility is restored when amplification is used for individuals with hearing loss. The band-importance function (BIF), which is an important component of the SII, depends on the language. Thus, language may affect the prediction of weighted audibility using the graphical SII. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to apply language-specific BIFs to develop and compare graphical SIIs for English, Korean, and Mandarin...
February 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Audiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238976/investigating-black-asl-a-systematic-review
#18
Andrea Toliver-Smith, Betholyn Gentry
The authors reviewed the literature regarding linguistic variations seen in American Sign Language. These variations are influenced by region and culture. Features of spoken languages have also influenced sign languages as they intersected, e.g., Black ASL has been influenced by African American English. A literature review was conducted to investigate the existence of Black ASL and to document empirical studies on this topic. The included articles were (a) published between 1970 and 2012 in scholarly journals, (b) included a hypothesis, (c) described the participants, and (d) described the research design...
2017: American Annals of the Deaf
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238975/written-forms-of-signed-languages-a-route-to-literacy-for-deaf-learners
#19
Connie Mayer
While there have been attempts to develop written systems for signed languages, none have been widely used or adopted. In his article in an American Annals of the Deaf special issue that also includes the present article, Grushkin makes a case not only for why, but how efforts should be renewed to develop a written signed language, suggesting that increased written-English competence will be a consequence of increased competence in written and signed American Sign Language, with literacy-related skills transferring across languages...
2017: American Annals of the Deaf
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238971/writing-signed-languages-what-for-what-form
#20
Donald A Grushkin
Signed languages around the world have tended to maintain an "oral," unwritten status. Despite the advantages of possessing a written form of their language, signed language communities typically resist and reject attempts to create such written forms. The present article addresses many of the arguments against written forms of signed languages, and presents the potential advantages of writing signed languages. Following a history of the development of writing in spoken as well as signed language populations, the effects of orthographic types upon literacy and biliteracy are explored...
2017: American Annals of the Deaf
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