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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788967/towards-a-culturally-competent-health-professional-a-south-african-case-study
#1
Margaret Matthews, Jacqueline Van Wyk
BACKGROUND: South Africa (SA) has a growing multilingual and multicultural population of approximately 55 million people, and faces service delivery challenges due to a shortage in skilled health professionals. Many health care facilities still depict distinct racial and ethnic characteristics that date back to the apartheid era, and there are reports of racial intolerance or preferential treatment at some facilities. There is limited literature in South Africa on cultural competence or on how to train health professionals to provide culturally competent care...
May 22, 2018: BMC Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785935/the-impact-of-dysphonic-voices-on-children-s-comprehension-of-spoken-language
#2
Johnny C-H Chui, Estella P-M Ma
BACKGROUND: This study investigated the effect of teachers' dysphonic voices on children's listening comprehension. METHODS: One hundred thirty-four grade three and four students were recruited from local primary schools in Hong Kong. They were required to listen to six passages, three in Cantonese and three in English, which were either read in normal, mildly dysphonic, or severely dysphonic voices. The students were required to complete six multiple-choice comprehension questions upon listening to each passage...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Voice: Official Journal of the Voice Foundation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783962/predictors-of-weight-stigma-experienced-by-middle-older-aged-general-practice-patients-with-obesity-in-disadvantaged-areas-of-australia-a-cross-sectional-study
#3
Catherine Spooner, Upali W Jayasinghe, Nighat Faruqi, Nigel Stocks, Mark F Harris
BACKGROUND: Rates of obesity have increased globally and weight stigma is commonly experienced by people with obesity. Feeling stigmatised because of one's weight can be a barrier to healthy eating, physical activity and to seeking help for weight management. The aim of this study was to identify predictors of perceived weight among middle-older aged patients with obesity attending general practices in socioeconomically disadvantaged urban areas of Australia. METHODS: As part of a randomised clinical trial in Australia, telephone interviews were conducted with 120 patients from 17 general practices in socioeconomically disadvantaged of Sydney and Adelaide...
May 21, 2018: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781701/intervention-for-bilingual-speech-sound-disorders-a-case-study-of-an-isixhosa-english-speaking-child
#4
Kate Rossouw, Michelle Pascoe
 Bilingualism is common in South Africa, with many children acquiring isiXhosa as a home language and learning English from a young age in nursery or crèche. IsiXhosa is a local language, part of the Bantu language family, widely spoken in the country. Aims: To describe changes in a bilingual child's speech following intervention based on a theoretically motivated and tailored intervention plan. Methods and procedures: This study describes a female isiXhosa-English bilingual child, named Gcobisa (pseudonym) (chronological age 4 years and 2 months) with a speech sound disorder...
March 19, 2018: South African Journal of Communication Disorders. die Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Kommunikasieafwykings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781173/discourse-and-cognition-in-speakers-with-acquired-brain-injury-abi-a-systematic-review
#5
REVIEW
Elizabeth Hill, Mary Claessen, Anne Whitworth, Mark Boyes, Roslyn Ward
BACKGROUND: Cognitive impairment, particularly of executive functioning, has been implicated in deficits in spoken discourse production following acquired brain injury (ABI). However, due to variation in the methodologies and heterogeneity of findings across studies, the nature and extent of this association is not well understood. AIMS: This review aims to synthesize the literature investigating associations between cognitive deficits and discourse impairment after ABI...
May 20, 2018: International Journal of Language & Communication Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780970/three-challenges-for-future-research-on-cochlear-implants
#6
REVIEW
David B Pisoni, William G Kronenberger, Michael S Harris, Aaron C Moberly
Cochlear implants (CIs) often work very well for many children and adults with profound sensorineural (SNHL) hearing loss. Unfortunately, while many CI patients display substantial benefits in recognizing speech and understanding spoken language following cochlear implantation, a large number of patients achieve poor outcomes. Understanding and explaining the reasons for poor outcomes following implantation is a very challenging research problem that has received little attention despite the pressing clinical significance...
December 2017: World Journal of Otorhinolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778278/new-evidence-of-a-rhythmic-priming-effect-that-enhances-grammaticality-judgments-in-children
#7
Alexander Chern, Barbara Tillmann, Chloe Vaughan, Reyna L Gordon
Musical rhythm and the grammatical structure of language share a surprising number of characteristics that may be intrinsically related in child development. The current study aimed to understand the potential influence of musical rhythmic priming on subsequent spoken grammar task performance in children with typical development who were native speakers of English. Participants (ages 5-8 years) listened to rhythmically regular and irregular musical sequences (within-participants design) followed by blocks of grammatically correct and incorrect sentences upon which they were asked to perform a grammaticality judgment task...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776372/curation-of-microarray-oligonucleotides-and-corresponding-ests-cdnas-used-for-gene-expression-analysis-in-zebra-finches
#8
Peter V Lovell, Nicole A Huizinga, Abel Getachew, Brianna Mees, Samantha R Friedrich, Morgan Wirthlin, Claudio V Mello
OBJECTIVES: Zebra finches are a major model organism for investigating mechanisms of vocal learning, a trait that enables spoken language in humans. The development of cDNA collections with expressed sequence tags (ESTs) and microarrays has allowed for extensive molecular characterizations of circuitry underlying vocal learning and production. However, poor database curation can lead to errors in transcriptome and bioinformatics analyses, limiting the impact of these resources. Here we used genomic alignments and synteny analysis for orthology verification to curate and reannotate ~ 35% of the oligonucleotides and corresponding ESTs/cDNAs that make-up Agilent microarrays for gene expression analysis in finches...
May 18, 2018: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767759/comparing-auditory-only-and-audiovisual-word-learning-for-children-with-hearing-loss
#9
Jena McDaniel, Stephen Camarata, Paul Yoder
Although reducing visual input to emphasize auditory cues is a common practice in pediatric auditory (re)habilitation, the extant literature offers minimal empirical evidence for whether unisensory auditory-only (AO) or multisensory audiovisual (AV) input is more beneficial to children with hearing loss for developing spoken language skills. Using an adapted alternating treatments single case research design, we evaluated the effectiveness and efficiency of a receptive word learning intervention with and without access to visual speechreading cues...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765620/reducing-language-to-rhythm-amazonian-bora-drummed-language-exploits-speech-rhythm-for-long-distance-communication
#10
Frank Seifart, Julien Meyer, Sven Grawunder, Laure Dentel
Many drum communication systems around the world transmit information by emulating tonal and rhythmic patterns of spoken languages in sequences of drumbeats. Their rhythmic characteristics, in particular, have not been systematically studied so far, although understanding them represents a rare occasion for providing an original insight into the basic units of speech rhythm as selected by natural speech practices directly based on beats. Here, we analyse a corpus of Bora drum communication from the northwest Amazon, which is nowadays endangered with extinction...
April 2018: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765350/cognitive-and-personality-components-underlying-spoken-idiom-comprehension-in-context-an-exploratory-study
#11
Cristina Cacciari, Paola Corrardini, Fabio Ferlazzo
In this exploratory study, we investigated whether and to what extent individual differences in cognitive and personality variables are associated with spoken idiom comprehension in context. Language unimpaired participants were enrolled in a cross-modal lexical decision study in which semantically ambiguous Italian idioms (i.e., strings with both a literal and an idiomatic interpretation as, for instance, break the ice ), predictable or unpredictable before the string offset, were embedded in idiom-biasing contexts...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761835/attention-to-speech-and-spoken-language-development-in-deaf-children-with-cochlear-implants-a-10-year-longitudinal-study
#12
Yuanyuan Wang, Carissa L Shafto, Derek M Houston
Early auditory/language experience plays an important role in language development. In this study, we examined the effects of severe-to-profound hearing loss and subsequent cochlear implantation on the development of attention to speech in children with cochlear implants (CIs). In addition, we investigated the extent to which attention to speech may predict spoken language development in children with CIs. We tested children with CIs and compared them to chronologically age-matched peers with normal hearing (NH) on their attention to speech at four time points post implantation; specifically, less than 1 month, 3 to 6 months, 12 months, and 18 months post implantation...
May 15, 2018: Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761598/the-effects-of-enactment-on-communicative-competence-in-aphasic-casual-conversation-a-functional-linguistic-perspective
#13
Rimke Groenewold, Elizabeth Armstrong
BACKGROUND: Previous research has shown that speakers with aphasia rely on enactment more often than non-brain-damaged language users. Several studies have been conducted to explain this observed increase, demonstrating that spoken language containing enactment is easier to produce and is more engaging to the conversation partner. This paper describes the effects of the occurrence of enactment in casual conversation involving individuals with aphasia on its level of conversational assertiveness...
May 14, 2018: International Journal of Language & Communication Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760059/nouns-slow-down-speech-across-structurally-and-culturally-diverse-languages
#14
Frank Seifart, Jan Strunk, Swintha Danielsen, Iren Hartmann, Brigitte Pakendorf, Søren Wichmann, Alena Witzlack-Makarevich, Nivja H de Jong, Balthasar Bickel
By force of nature, every bit of spoken language is produced at a particular speed. However, this speed is not constant-speakers regularly speed up and slow down. Variation in speech rate is influenced by a complex combination of factors, including the frequency and predictability of words, their information status, and their position within an utterance. Here, we use speech rate as an index of word-planning effort and focus on the time window during which speakers prepare the production of words from the two major lexical classes, nouns and verbs...
May 14, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29759955/translation-cross-cultural-adaptation-and-validation-of-the-malay-version-of-the-system-usability-scale-questionnaire-for-the-assessment-of-mobile-apps
#15
Muhamad Fadhil Mohamad Marzuki, Nor Azwany Yaacob, Najib Majdi Yaacob
BACKGROUND: A mobile app is a programmed system designed to be used by a target user on a mobile device. The usability of such a system refers not only to the extent to which product can be used to achieve the task that it was designed for, but also its effectiveness and efficiency, as well as user satisfaction. The System Usability Scale is one of the most commonly used questionnaires used to assess the usability of a system. The original 10-item version of System Usability Scale was developed in English and thus needs to be adapted into local languages to assess the usability of a mobile apps developed in other languages...
May 14, 2018: JMIR Human Factors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755718/categorisation-of-colour-terms-using-new-validation-tools-a-case-study-and-implications
#16
Shabnam Arbab, Jonathan A Brindle, Barbara S Matusiak, Christian A Klöckner
This article elaborates on the results of a field experiment conducted among speakers of the Chakali language, spoken in northern Ghana. In the original study, the Color-aid Corporation Chart was used to perform the focal task in which consultants were asked to point at a single colour tile on the chart. However, data from the focal task could not be analysed since the Color-aid tiles had not yet been converted into numerical values set forth by the Commission internationale de l'éclairage (CIE). In this study, the full set of 314 Color-aid tiles were measured for chromaticity and converted into the CIE values at the Daylight Laboratory of the Norwegian University of Science and Technology...
March 2018: I-Perception
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29733368/comparing-semantic-fluency-in-american-sign-language-and-english
#17
Zed Sevcikova Sehyr, Marcel R Giezen, Karen Emmorey
This study investigated the impact of language modality and age of acquisition on semantic fluency in American Sign Language (ASL) and English. Experiment 1 compared semantic fluency performance (e.g., name as many animals as possible in 1 min) for deaf native and early ASL signers and hearing monolingual English speakers. The results showed similar fluency scores in both modalities when fingerspelled responses were included for ASL. Experiment 2 compared ASL and English fluency scores in hearing native and late ASL-English bilinguals...
May 4, 2018: Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29731472/the-impact-of-language-input-on-deaf-and-hard-of-hearing-preschool-children-who-use-listening-and-spoken-language
#18
Ronda Rufsvold, Ye Wang, Maria C Hartman, Sonia B Arora, Elaine R Smolen
The researchers investigated the effects of adult language input on the quantity of language, vocabulary development, and understanding of basic concepts of deaf and hard of hearing (DHH) children who used listening and spoken language. Using audio recording and Language ENvironment Analysis (LENA) software, the study involved 30 preschool DHH children who used spoken language as their communication modality and 11 typically hearing same-age peers. The children's language and the language spoken to them during all waking hours over a 2-day period (16 hours per day) were recorded and analyzed quantitatively and were compared to the children's performance on the Boehm Test of Basic Concepts and the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test...
2018: American Annals of the Deaf
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29724506/final-analysis-of-a-study-assessing-genital-human-papillomavirus-genoprevalence-in-young-australian-women-following-eight-years-of-a-national-vaccination-program
#19
Suzanne M Garland, Alyssa M Cornall, Julia M L Brotherton, John D Wark, Michael J Malloy, Sepehr N Tabrizi
OBJECTIVES: The VACCINE [Vaccine Against Cervical Cancer Impact and Effectiveness] study evaluated the prevalence of quadrivalent vaccine-targeted human papillomavirus (HPV) genotypes (HPV 6, 11, 16, 18) amongst young women of vaccine-eligible age. METHODS: Between October 2011 - June 2015, women aged 18-25 years from Victoria, Australia, were recruited through targeted advertising on the social networking website Facebook. Participants completed an online questionnaire and provided a self-collected vaginal swab for HPV DNA detection and genotyping (Linear Array HPV genotyping assay)...
April 30, 2018: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29718280/early-communication-development-of-children-with-auditory-brainstem-implants
#20
Laurie S Eisenberg, Dianne Hammes Ganguly, Amy S Martinez, Laurel M Fisher, Margaret E Winter, Jamie L Glater, Debra K Schrader, Janice Loggins, Eric P Wilkinson
The auditory brainstem implant (ABI) is an auditory sensory device that is surgically placed on the cochlear nucleus of the brainstem for individuals who are deaf but unable to benefit from a cochlear implant (CI) due to anatomical abnormalities of the cochlea and/or eighth nerve, specific disease processes, or temporal bone fractures. In the United States, the Food and Drug Administration has authorized a Phase I clinical trial to determine safety and feasibility of the ABI in up to 10 eligible young children who are deaf and either derived no benefit from the CI or were anatomically unable to receive a CI...
April 26, 2018: Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education
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