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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630655/neural-patterns-elicited-by-sentence-processing-uniquely-characterize-typical-development-sli-recovery-and-sli-persistence
#1
Eileen Haebig, Christine Weber, Laurence B Leonard, Patricia Deevy, J Bruce Tomblin
BACKGROUND: A substantial amount of work has examined language abilities in young children with specific language impairment (SLI); however, our understanding of the developmental trajectory of language impairment is limited. Along with studying the behavioral changes that occur across development, it is important to examine the neural indices of language processing for children with different language trajectories. The current study sought to examine behavioral and neural bases of language processing in adolescents showing three different trajectories: those with normal language development (NL), those exhibiting persistent SLI (SLI-Persistent), and those with a history of SLI who appear to have recovered (SLI-Recovered)...
2017: Journal of Neurodevelopmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618823/effects-of-rhythm-and-phrase-final-lengthening-on-word-spotting-in-korean
#2
Hae-Sung Jeon, Amalia Arvaniti
A word-spotting experiment was conducted to investigate whether rhythmic consistency and phrase-final lengthening facilitate performance in Korean. Listeners had to spot disyllabic and trisyllabic words in nonsense strings organized in phrases with either the same or variable syllable count; phrase-final lengthening was absent, or occurring either in all phrases or only in the phrase immediately preceding the target. The results show that, for disyllabic targets, inconsistent syllable count and lengthening before the target led to fewer errors...
June 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614810/assessing-a-tool-for-self-monitoring-hydration-using-urine-color-in-pregnant-and-breastfeeding-women-a-cross-sectional-online-survey
#3
Marion Rigaud, Camila Sevalho Corçao, Erica T Perrier, Sabine Boesen-Mariani
BACKGROUND: Pregnant and breastfeeding women experience great changes in their total body water content and water dynamics. To support the accretion of total body water during pregnancy and compensate for the water lost through breast milk during breastfeeding, increased adequate intakes (AI) for total water have been established by various health authorities. Despite this widespread advice, several studies suggest that pregnant and breastfeeding women do not meet the AI for total water, suggesting the need to raise women's awareness on the importance of adequate water intake, particularly during pregnancy and breastfeeding, as well as to provide them with a simple means of monitoring their hydration on a day-to-day basis...
2017: Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28613135/pupillary-responses-to-words-that-convey-a-sense-of-brightness-or-darkness
#4
Sebastiaan Mathôt, Jonathan Grainger, Kristof Strijkers
Theories about embodiment of language hold that when you process a word's meaning, you automatically simulate associated sensory input (e.g., perception of brightness when you process lamp) and prepare associated actions (e.g., finger movements when you process typing). To test this latter prediction, we measured pupillary responses to single words that conveyed a sense of brightness (e.g., day) or darkness (e.g., night) or were neutral (e.g., house). We found that pupils were largest for words conveying darkness, of intermediate size for neutral words, and smallest for words conveying brightness...
June 1, 2017: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612696/-abbreviations-in-daily-language-stop-it
#5
A C Girbes, A R J Girbes
Abbreviations are used more and more in physician common parlance and it seems they are on the way to becoming a new jargon. However, identical abbreviations may have different meanings, especially in different medical specialties. Moreover, many physicians do not know the meaning of specific abbreviations or are attributing the wrong meaning to the abbreviation. This will lead to misunderstanding and therefore danger to the patient. The authors are calling for a stop on the use of spoken abbreviations and for minimising the use of abbreviations in clinical notes and medical prescriptions...
2017: Nederlands Tijdschrift Voor Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602134/the-effects-of-early-auditory-based-intervention-on-adult-bilateral-cochlear-implant-outcomes
#6
Stacey R Lim
OBJECTIVES: The goal of this exploratory study was to determine the types of improvement that sequentially implanted auditory-verbal and auditory-oral adults with prelingual and childhood hearing loss received in bilateral listening conditions, compared to their best unilateral listening condition. METHODS: Five auditory-verbal adults and five auditory-oral adults were recruited for this study. Participants were seated in the center of a 6-loudspeaker array. BKB-SIN sentences were presented from 0° azimuth, while multi-talker babble was presented from various loudspeakers...
June 12, 2017: Cochlear Implants International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600922/the-object-of-my-desire-five-year-olds-rapidly-reason-about-a-speaker-s-desire-during-referential-communication
#7
Valerie San Juan, Craig G Chambers, Jared Berman, Chelsea Humphry, Susan A Graham
Two experiments examined whether 5-year-olds draw inferences about desire outcomes that constrain their online interpretation of an utterance. Children were informed of a speaker's positive (Experiment 1) or negative (Experiment 2) desire to receive a specific toy as a gift before hearing a referentially ambiguous statement ("That's my present") spoken with either a happy or sad voice. After hearing the speaker express a positive desire, children (N=24) showed an implicit (i.e., eye gaze) and explicit ability to predict reference to the desired object when the speaker sounded happy, but they showed only implicit consideration of the alternate object when the speaker sounded sad...
June 7, 2017: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599525/analysis-of-spanish-consonant-recognition-in-8-talker-babble
#8
Ignacio Moreno-Torres, Pablo Otero, Salvador Luna-Ramírez, Elena Garayzábal Heinze
This paper presents the results of a closed-set recognition task for 80 Spanish consonant-vowel sounds (16 C × 5 V, spoken by 2 talkers) in 8-talker babble (-6, -2, +2 dB). A ranking of resistance to noise was obtained using the signal detection d' measure, and confusion patterns were analyzed using a graphical method (confusion graphs). The resulting ranking indicated the existence of three resistance groups: (1) high resistance: /ʧ, s, ʝ/; (2) mid resistance: /r, l, m, n/; and (3) low resistance: /t, θ, x, ɡ, b, d, k, f, p/...
May 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598249/recall-and-decay-of-consent-information-among-parents-of-infants-participating-in-a-randomized-controlled-clinical-trial-using-an-audio-visual-tool-in-the-gambia
#9
Robert B Mboizi, Muhammed O Afolabi, Michael Okoye, Beate Kampmann, Anna Roca, Olubukola T Idoko
Communicating essential research information to low literacy research participants in Africa is highly challenging, since this population is vulnerable to poor comprehension of consent information. Several supportive materials have been developed to aid participant comprehension in these settings. Within the framework of a pneumococcal vaccine trial in The Gambia, we evaluated the recall and decay of consent information during the trial which used an audio-visual tool called 'Speaking Book', to foster comprehension among parents of participating infants...
June 9, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595666/a-brief-cognitive-behavioural-intervention-for-maladaptive-perfectionism-in-students-a-pilot-study
#10
Fernán G Arana, Mariana C Miracco, Marina S Galarregui, Eduardo G Keegan
BACKGROUND: Researchers focused on developing therapeutic strategies for perfectionism given its well-established link to the onset and maintenance of several mental disorders. Meta-analytical findings provided support for the efficacy of cognitive behavioural (CB) approaches. However, most studies have focused on the efficacy of interventions, without analysing their efficiency. AIMS: To explore the feasibility of a brief (five weekly sessions) CB group intervention focused on reducing perfectionistic concerns in Argentine students...
June 9, 2017: Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28590146/insensitivity-to-verb-conjugation-patterns-in-french-children-with-sli
#11
Phaedra Royle, Ariane St-Denis, Patrizia Mazzocca, Alexandra Marquis
Specific language impairment (SLI) is characterised by persistent difficulties that affect language abilities in otherwise normally developing children (Leonard, 2014). It remains challenging to identify young children affected by SLI in French. We tested oral production of the passé composé tense in 19 children in kindergarten and first grade with SLI aged from 5;6 to 7;4 years. All children were schooled in a French environment, but with different linguistic backgrounds. We used an Android application, Jeu de verbes (Marquis et al...
June 7, 2017: Clinical Linguistics & Phonetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28586433/speech-intelligibility-and-psychosocial-functioning-in-deaf-children-and-teens-with-cochlear-implants
#12
Valerie Freeman, David B Pisoni, William G Kronenberger, Irina Castellanos
Deaf children with cochlear implants (CIs) are at risk for psychosocial adjustment problems, possibly due to delayed speech-language skills. This study investigated associations between a core component of spoken-language ability-speech intelligibility-and the psychosocial development of prelingually deaf CI users. Audio-transcription measures of speech intelligibility and parent reports of psychosocial behaviors were obtained for two age groups (preschool, school-age/teen). CI users in both age groups scored more poorly than typically hearing peers on speech intelligibility and several psychosocial scales...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585056/time-course-of-syllabic-and-sub-syllabic-processing-in-mandarin-word-production-evidence-from-the-picture-word-interference-paradigm
#13
Jie Wang, Andus Wing-Kuen Wong, Hsuan-Chih Chen
The time course of phonological encoding in Mandarin monosyllabic word production was investigated by using the picture-word interference paradigm. Participants were asked to name pictures in Mandarin while visual distractor words were presented before, at, or after picture onset (i.e., stimulus-onset asynchrony/SOA = -100, 0, or +100 ms, respectively). Compared with the unrelated control, the distractors sharing atonal syllables with the picture names significantly facilitated the naming responses at -100- and 0-ms SOAs...
June 5, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578869/social-interaction-facilitates-word-learning-in-preverbal-infants-word-object-mapping-and-word-segmentation
#14
Yoko Hakuno, Takahide Omori, Jun-Ichi Yamamoto, Yasuyo Minagawa
In natural settings, infants learn spoken language with the aid of a caregiver who explicitly provides social signals. Although previous studies have demonstrated that young infants are sensitive to these signals that facilitate language development, the impact of real-life interactions on early word segmentation and word-object mapping remains elusive. We tested whether infants aged 5-6 months and 9-10 months could segment a word from continuous speech and acquire a word-object relation in an ecologically valid setting...
August 2017: Infant Behavior & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28577636/acculturation-and-pediatric-minority-oral-health-interventions
#15
REVIEW
Tamanna Tiwari, Judith Albino
Immigrant populations are growing at a fast pace in the United States. Cultural variations can have implications on oral health of children from immigrant households. Length of stay in the United States and language spoken at home, proxies for measuring acculturation, are some of the crucial factors determining the level of acculturation in families. Higher acculturation generally has a positive impact on oral health utilization. Improving cultural competency of dental teams and involving the stakeholders in intervention design and implementation are some strategies that may increase the trust of ethnic minority patients and reduce barriers to access to care...
July 2017: Dental Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28576536/bilateral-cochlear-implantation-in-a-child-with-johanson-blizzard-syndrome
#16
Meredith A Holcomb, Habib G Rizk, Nevitte S Morris, Ted A Meyer
Sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) occurs in more than 80% of cases of Johanson Blizzard Syndrome (JBS). However, limited knowledge exists in medical literature of cochlear implantation (CI) outcomes in children with JBS. We report the case of a 5 year-old male with JBS and bilateral CI. While minimal progress in spoken language scores was noted after 4 years of bilateral CI use, substantial improvements in discrimination of speech sounds and audibility of spoken language and environmental sounds were documented...
April 2017: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28576292/a-country-wide-probability-sample-of-public-attitudes-toward-stuttering-in-portugal
#17
Ana Rita S Valente, Kenneth O St Louis, Margaret Leahy, Andreia Hall, Luis M T Jesus
BACKGROUND: Negative public attitudes toward stuttering have been widely reported, although differences among countries and regions exist. Clear reasons for these differences remain obscure. PURPOSE: Published research is unavailable on public attitudes toward stuttering in Portugal as well as a representative sample that explores stuttering attitudes in an entire country. This study sought to (a) determine the feasibility of a country-wide probability sampling scheme to measure public stuttering attitudes in Portugal using a standard instrument (the Public Opinion Survey of Human Attributes-Stuttering [POSHA-S]) and (b) identify demographic variables that predict Portuguese attitudes...
June 2017: Journal of Fluency Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575425/social-dominance-orientation-language-orientation-and-deaf-identity
#18
Marc Marschark, Ingo Zettler, Jesper Dammeyer
The notion of the Deaf community as a linguistic-cultural minority has been increasingly recognized and studied over the last two decades. However, significant differences of opinion and perspective within that population typically have been neglected in the literature. Social dominance orientation (SDO), a theoretical construct, typically focusing on intergroup perceptions and relations, is one aspect that has been left unexplored and might prove particularly enlightening. The present study investigated SDO among 119 deaf and 49 hearing young adults through a standardized SDO questionnaire...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28573050/right-hemisphere-grey-matter-volume-and-language-functions-in-stroke-aphasia
#19
Sladjana Lukic, Elena Barbieri, Xue Wang, David Caplan, Swathi Kiran, Brenda Rapp, Todd B Parrish, Cynthia K Thompson
The role of the right hemisphere (RH) in recovery from aphasia is incompletely understood. The present study quantified RH grey matter (GM) volume in individuals with chronic stroke-induced aphasia and cognitively healthy people using voxel-based morphometry. We compared group differences in GM volume in the entire RH and in RH regions-of-interest. Given that lesion site is a critical source of heterogeneity associated with poststroke language ability, we used voxel-based lesion symptom mapping (VLSM) to examine the relation between lesion site and language performance in the aphasic participants...
2017: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28562194/the-cart-before-the-horse-when-cognitive-neuroscience-precedes-cognitive-neuropsychology
#20
Daniel Agis, Argye E Hillis
Cognitive neuropsychology (CN) has had an immense impact on the understanding of the normal cognitive processes underlying reading, spelling, spoken language comprehension and production, spatial attention, memory, visual perception, and orchestration of actions, through detailed analysis of behavioural performance by neurologically impaired individuals. However, there are other domains of cognition and communication that have rarely been investigated with this approach. Many cognitive neuropsychologists have extended their work in language, perception, or attention by turning to functional neuroimaging or lesion-symptom mapping to identify the neural mechanisms underlying the cognitive mechanisms they have identified...
May 31, 2017: Cognitive Neuropsychology
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