keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

spoken language

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525641/erp-correlates-of-motivating-voices-quality-of-motivation-and-time-course-matters
#1
Konstantina Zougkou, Netta Weinstein, Silke Paulmann
Here, we conducted the first study to explore how motivations expressed through speech are processed in real-time. Participants listened to sentences spoken in two types of well-studied motivational tones (autonomy-supportive and controlling), or a neutral tone of voice. To examine this, listeners were presented with sentences that either signaled motivations through prosody (tone of voice) and words simultaneously (e.g., "You absolutely have to do it my way" spoken in a controlling tone of voice), or lacked motivationally biasing words (e...
May 19, 2017: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523758/iconicity-in-the-speech-of-children-and-adults
#2
Lynn K Perry, Marcus Perlman, Bodo Winter, Dominic W Massaro, Gary Lupyan
Iconicity - the correspondence between form and meaning - may help young children learn to use new words. Early-learned words are higher in iconicity than later learned words. However, it remains unclear what role iconicity may play in actual language use. Here, we ask whether iconicity relates not just to the age at which words are acquired, but also to how frequently children and adults use the words in their speech. If iconicity serves to bootstrap word learning, then we would expect that children should say highly iconic words more frequently than less iconic words, especially early in development...
May 18, 2017: Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513102/how-bilingualism-protects-the-brain-from-aging-insights-from-bimodal-bilinguals
#3
Le Li, Jubin Abutalebi, Karen Emmorey, Gaolang Gong, Xin Yan, Xiaoxia Feng, Lijuan Zou, Guosheng Ding
Bilingual experience can delay cognitive decline during aging. A general hypothesis is that the executive control system of bilinguals faces an increased load due to controlling two languages, and this increased load results in a more "tuned brain" that eventually creates a neural reserve. Here we explored whether such a neuroprotective effect is independent of language modality, i.e., not limited to bilinguals who speak two languages but also occurs for bilinguals who use a spoken and a signed language. We addressed this issue by comparing bimodal bilinguals to monolinguals in order to detect age-induced structural brain changes and to determine whether we can detect the same beneficial effects on brain structure, in terms of preservation of gray matter volume (GMV), for bimodal bilinguals as has been reported for unimodal bilinguals...
May 17, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504532/orthography-affects-second-language-speech-double-letters-and-geminate-production-in-english
#4
Bene Bassetti
Second languages (L2s) are often learned through spoken and written input, and L2 orthographic forms (spellings) can lead to non-native-like pronunciation. The present study investigated whether orthography can lead experienced learners of EnglishL2 to make a phonological contrast in their speech production that does not exist in English. Double consonants represent geminate (long) consonants in Italian but not in English. In Experiment 1, native English speakers and EnglishL2 speakers (Italians) were asked to read aloud English words spelled with a single or double target consonant letter, and consonant duration was compared...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503845/the-specificity-of-the-neural-response-to-speech-at-birth
#5
Lillian May, Judit Gervain, Manuel Carreiras, Janet F Werker
In this work we ask whether at birth, the human brain responds uniquely to speech, or if similar activation also occurs to a non-speech surrogate 'language'. We compare neural activation in newborn infants to the language heard in utero (English), to an unfamiliar language (Spanish), and to a whistled surrogate language (Silbo Gomero) that, while used by humans to communicate, is not speech. Anterior temporal areas of the neonate cortex are activated in response to both familiar and unfamiliar spoken language, but these classic language areas are not activated to the whistled surrogate form...
May 15, 2017: Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502406/steering-the-conversation-a-linguistic-exploration-of-natural-language-interactions-with-a-digital-assistant-during-simulated-driving
#6
David R Large, Leigh Clark, Annie Quandt, Gary Burnett, Lee Skrypchuk
Given the proliferation of 'intelligent' and 'socially-aware' digital assistants embodying everyday mobile technology - and the undeniable logic that utilising voice-activated controls and interfaces in cars reduces the visual and manual distraction of interacting with in-vehicle devices - it appears inevitable that next generation vehicles will be embodied by digital assistants and utilise spoken language as a method of interaction. From a design perspective, defining the language and interaction style that a digital driving assistant should adopt is contingent on the role that they play within the social fabric and context in which they are situated...
September 2017: Applied Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497530/short-term-memory-in-childhood-dyslexia-deficient-serial-order-in-multiple-modalities
#7
Nelson Cowan, Tiffany P Hogan, Mary Alt, Samuel Green, Kathryn L Cabbage, Shara Brinkley, Shelley Gray
In children with dyslexia, deficits in working memory have not been well-specified. We assessed second-grade children with dyslexia, with and without concomitant specific language impairment, and children with typical development. Immediate serial recall of lists of phonological (non-word), lexical (digit), spatial (location) and visual (shape) items were included. For the latter three modalities, we used not only standard span but also running span tasks, in which the list length was unpredictable to limit mnemonic strategies...
May 12, 2017: Dyslexia: the Journal of the British Dyslexia Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28496393/subtlety-of-ambient-language-effects-in-babbling-a-study-of-english-and-chinese-learning-infants-at-8-10-and-12-months
#8
Chia-Cheng Lee, Yuna Jhang, Li-Mei Chen, George Relyea, D Kimbrough Oller
Prior research on ambient-language effects in babbling has often suggested infants produce language-specific phonological features within the first year. These results have been questioned in research failing to find such effects and challenging the positive findings on methodological grounds. We studied English- and Chinese-learning infants at 8, 10, and 12 months and found listeners could not detect ambient-language effects in the vast majority of infant utterances, but only in items deemed to be words or to contain canonical syllables that may have made them sound like words with language-specific shapes...
2017: Language Learning and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492843/spoken-language-production-in-young-adults-examining-syntactic-complexity
#9
Marilyn A Nippold, Megan W Frantz-Kaspar, Laura M Vigeland
Purpose: In this study, we examined syntactic complexity in the spoken language samples of young adults. Its purpose was to contribute to the expanding knowledge base in later language development and to begin building a normative database of language samples that potentially could be used to evaluate young adults with known or suspected language impairment. Method: Forty adults (mean age = 22 years, 10 months) with typical language development participated in an interview that consisted of 3 speaking tasks: a general conversation about common, everyday topics; a narrative retelling task that involved fables; and a question-and-answer, critical-thinking task about the fables...
May 10, 2017: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492189/restoring-the-voids-of-voices-by-signs-and-gestures-in-dentistry-a-cross-sectional-study
#10
Suyog Jain, Vijay Duggi, Alok Avinash, Alok Dubey, Sambodhi Fouzdar, Mylavarapu Krishna Sagar
AIMS: To help dentists to communicate with the hearing impaired patients, reach an accurate diagnosis and explain the treatment plan by learning some signs and gestures used in the nonverbal communication (NVC) and by devising some new signs and gestures related to dentistry which shall be easy to learn and understand both by the hearing impaired patients and the dentists. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: The study was carried out on 100 hearing impaired students in the age group of 10-14 years in two special schools for hearing impaired children located in two different states of India, where different spoken languages and different sign languages are used...
April 2017: Journal of the Indian Society of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488302/the-big-d-eal-professional-identity-through-discursive-constructions-of-patient
#11
Brett Schrewe, Joanna Bates, Dan Pratt, Claudia W Ruitenberg, William H McKellin
CONTEXT: Professional identity formation has become a key focus for medical education. Who one becomes as a physician is contingent upon learning to conceptualise who the other is as a patient, yet, at a time when influential ideologies such as patient-centred care have become espoused values, there has been little empirical investigation into assumptions of 'patient' that trainees take up as they progress through their training. METHODS: Our team employed a critical discourse analysis approach to transcripts originally produced from a micro-ethnography of medical student learning on an acute care in-patient paediatric ward...
June 2017: Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473590/dispersals-and-genetic-adaptation-of-bantu-speaking-populations-in-africa-and-north-america
#12
Etienne Patin, Marie Lopez, Rebecca Grollemund, Paul Verdu, Christine Harmant, Hélène Quach, Guillaume Laval, George H Perry, Luis B Barreiro, Alain Froment, Evelyne Heyer, Achille Massougbodji, Cesar Fortes-Lima, Florence Migot-Nabias, Gil Bellis, Jean-Michel Dugoujon, Joana B Pereira, Verónica Fernandes, Luisa Pereira, Lolke Van der Veen, Patrick Mouguiama-Daouda, Carlos D Bustamante, Jean-Marie Hombert, Lluís Quintana-Murci
Bantu languages are spoken by about 310 million Africans, yet the genetic history of Bantu-speaking populations remains largely unexplored. We generated genomic data for 1318 individuals from 35 populations in western central Africa, where Bantu languages originated. We found that early Bantu speakers first moved southward, through the equatorial rainforest, before spreading toward eastern and southern Africa. We also found that genetic adaptation of Bantu speakers was facilitated by admixture with local populations, particularly for the HLA and LCT loci...
May 5, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28468265/verbs-in-mothers-input-to-six-month-olds-synchrony-between-presentation-meaning-and-actions-is-related-to-later-verb-acquisition
#13
Iris Nomikou, Monique Koke, Katharina J Rohlfing
In embodied theories on language, it is widely accepted that experience in acting generates an expectation of this action when hearing the word for it. However, how this expectation emerges during language acquisition is still not well understood. Assuming that the intermodal presentation of information facilitates perception, prior research had suggested that early in infancy, mothers perform their actions in temporal synchrony with language. Further research revealed that this synchrony is a form of multimodal responsive behavior related to the child's later language development...
April 29, 2017: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467888/auditory-object-perception-a-neurobiological-model-and-prospective-review
#14
Julie A Brefczynski-Lewis, James W Lewis
Interaction with the world is a multisensory experience, but most of what is known about the neural correlates of perception comes from studying vision. Auditory inputs enter cortex with its own set of unique qualities, and leads to use in oral communication, speech, music, and the understanding of emotional and intentional states of others, all of which are central to the human experience. To better understand how the auditory system develops, recovers after injury, and how it may have transitioned in its functions over the course of hominin evolution, advances are needed in models of how the human brain is organized to process real-world natural sounds and "auditory objects"...
April 30, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28462503/influences-of-speech-familiarity-on-immediate-perception-and-final-comprehension
#15
Lynn K Perry, Emily N Mech, Maryellen C MacDonald, Mark S Seidenberg
Unfamiliar speech-spoken in a familiar language but with an accent different from the listener's-is known to increase comprehension difficulty. However, there is evidence of listeners' rapid adaptation to unfamiliar accents (although perhaps not to the level of familiar accents). This paradox might emerge from prior focus on isolated word perception and/or use of single comprehension measures. We investigated processing of fluent connected speech spoken either in a familiar or unfamiliar accent, using participants' ability to "shadow" the speech as an immediate measure as well as a comprehension test at passage end...
May 1, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28455178/the-patient-experience-an-analysis-of-orthopedic-surgeon-quality-on-physician-rating-sites
#16
REVIEW
Prem N Ramkumar, Sergio M Navarro, Morad Chughtai, Ton La, Evan Fisch, Michael A Mont
BACKGROUND: With the advent of the Consensus Core of Orthopedic Measures, arthroplasty surgeons are increasingly subjected to public performance reviews on physician-rating sites. Therefore, we evaluated (1) web site details of physician-rating sites, (2) differences between sites and the Consensus Core, (3) published patient experiences, (4) search rank among sites, and (5) differences between academic vs nonacademic and arthroplasty vs nonarthroplasty surgeons. METHODS: The 5 busiest physician-rating sites were analyzed...
April 4, 2017: Journal of Arthroplasty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28452932/eating-like-a-rainbow-the-development-of-a-visual-aid-for-nutritional-treatment-of-ckd-patients-a-south-african-project
#17
Cecile Verseput, Giorgina Barbara Piccoli
Providing nutritional education for chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients in South Africa is complicated by several conditions: the population is composed of diverse ethnic groups, each with its own culture and food preferences; eleven languages are spoken and illiteracy is common in the lower socio-economic groups. Food preparation and storage are affected by the lack of electricity and refrigeration, and this contributes to a monotonous diet. In traditional African culture, two meals per day are often shared "from the pot", making portion control difficult...
April 28, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28451691/tool-supported-interactive-correction-and-semantic-annotation-of-narrative-clinical-reports
#18
Karel Zvára, Marie Tomečková, Jan Peleška, Vojtěch Svátek, Jana Zvárová
OBJECTIVES: Our main objective is to design a method of, and supporting software for, interactive correction and semantic annotation of narrative clinical reports, which would allow for their easier and less erroneous processing outside their original context: first, by physicians unfamiliar with the original language (and possibly also the source specialty), and second, by tools requiring structured information, such as decision-support systems. Our additional goal is to gain insights into the process of narrative report creation, including the errors and ambiguities arising therein, and also into the process of report annotation by clinical terms...
April 28, 2017: Methods of Information in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449279/review-of-the-strengths-and-difficulties-questionnaire-translated-into-languages-spoken-by-children-and-adolescents-of-refugee-background
#19
Yvonne Stolk, Ida Kaplan, Josef Szwarc
The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ), routinely used to screen for children's and adolescents' emotional and behavioural problems, has been translated into at least 80 languages. As children of refugee background are particularly vulnerable to mental health problems resulting from their refugee experiences, this review examines whether SDQs translated into languages spoken by major refugee groups are validated and culturally equivalent to the original SDQ and sensitive to change following interventions...
April 27, 2017: International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448766/cross-linguistic-adaptations-of-the-comprehensive-aphasia-test-challenges-and-solutions
#20
Valantis Fyndanis, Marianne Lind, Spyridoula Varlokosta, Maria Kambanaros, Efstathia Soroli, Klaudia Ceder, Kleanthes K Grohmann, Adrià Rofes, Hanne Gram Simonsen, Jovana Bjekić, Anna Gavarró, Jelena Kuvač Kraljević, Silvia Martínez-Ferreiro, Amaia Munarriz, Marie Pourquie, Jasmina Vuksanović, Lilla Zakariás, David Howard
Comparative research on aphasia and aphasia rehabilitation is challenged by the lack of comparable assessment tools across different languages. In English, a large array of tools is available, while in most other languages, the selection is more limited. Importantly, assessment tools are often simple translations and do not take into consideration specific linguistic and psycholinguistic parameters of the target languages. As a first step in meeting the needs for comparable assessment tools, the Comprehensive Aphasia Test is currently being adapted into a number of languages spoken in Europe...
April 27, 2017: Clinical Linguistics & Phonetics
keyword
keyword
89609
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"