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Pleural infection

Ahmed A Aljohaney
OBJECTIVES: To determine the mortality rates and predictors among patients hospitalized with active tuberculosis (TB) at King Abdulaziz University Hospital (KAUH) in Jeddah. METHODS: A retrospective study was performed on 291 active TB patients hospitalized in KAUH, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia from December 2011 to December 2016. Medical records were collected and evaluated using a dedicated data extraction sheet. The records included demographics, clinical, radiological, laboratory, and drug resistance data...
March 2018: Saudi Medical Journal
Nicholas Agyepong, Usha Govinden, Alex Owusu-Ofori, Sabiha Yusuf Essack
Background: Multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria have emerged as major clinical and therapeutic dilemma in hospitals in Ghana.To describe the prevalence and profile of infections attributable to multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria among patients at the Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital in the Ashanti region of Ghana. Methods: Bacterial cultures were randomly selected from the microbiology laboratory from February to August, 2015. Bacterial identification and minimum inhibitory concentrations were conducted using standard microbiological techniques and the Vitek-2 automated system...
2018: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
A Skiada, C Lass-Floerl, N Klimko, A Ibrahim, E Roilides, G Petrikkos
The diagnosis and treatment of mucormycosis are challenging. The incidence of the disease seems to be increasing. Hematological malignancies are the most common underlying disease in countries with high income and uncontrolled diabetes in developing countries. Clinical approach to diagnosis lacks sensitivity and specificity. Radiologically, multiple (≥10) nodules and pleural effusion are reportedly associated with pulmonary mucormycosis. Another finding on computerized tomography (CT) scan, which seems to indicate the presence of mucormycosis, is the reverse halo sign...
April 1, 2018: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
Ka Pang Chan, Deirdre B Fitzgerald, Y C Gary Lee
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Pleural infection remains an important pulmonary disease, causing significant morbidity and mortality. There is a resurgence of disease burden despite introduction of antibiotics and pneumococcal vaccines. A revisit of the pathogenesis and update on intervention may improve the care of pleural infection. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent studies have uncovered the prognostic implication of the presence of a pleural effusion in patients with pneumonia. Identifying where the bacteria lives may have diagnostic and therapeutic implications...
March 13, 2018: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine
Sijan Basnet, Izza Mir, Elan Mohanty, Rashmi Dhital, Biswaraj Tharu, Dilli Ram Poudel
Empyema caused by clostridial infections is rare especially in the absence of invasive thoracic procedures. We present the case of an 81-year-old man without a history of preceding trauma who presented with shortness of breath and nonproductive cough and grew Clostridium perfringens only in the pleural cavity. He was predisposed to the infection due to his swallowing dysfunction. He was treated with penicillin and chest tube placement for drainage and subsequently improved.
2018: Case Reports in Infectious Diseases
D Yao, L Zhang, P L Wu, X L Gu, Y F Chen, L X Wang, X Y Huang
BACKGROUND: The primary pulmonary lymphoma (PPL), with a low incidence, was highly misdiagnosed in clinic. The present study analyzes the clinical features, laboratory and imaging data, pathologic characteristics, and summarizes misdiagnosis reasons of PPL cases, aims to provide a better understanding and increase the accuracy of early diagnosis and minimize the misdiagnosis of PPL. METHODS: The clinical data of 19 cases were collected from the first affiliated hospital of Wenzhou medical university (PRC) from April 2010 to May 2016...
March 12, 2018: BMC Cancer
Duneesha de Fonseka, Nick A Maskell
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Pleural infection is a common problem associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Systemic or pleural fluid markers for reliably identifying pleural infection are limited. Procalcitonin (PCT) is known to be elevated in bacterial infection and is currently used for diagnosis and decision-making regarding antibiotic duration in respiratory infections. This review investigates if there is a role for serum and pleural fluid PCT (pf-PCT) in diagnosis and management of pleural infection...
March 9, 2018: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine
Xia Yang, Xin Ye, Licheng Zhang, Dianzhong Geng, Zhenli Du, Guohua Yu, Haipeng Ren, Jiao Wang, Guanghui Huang, Zhigang Wei, Yang Ni, Wenhong Li, Xiaoying Han
BACKGROUND: The study was conducted to retrospectively evaluate the safety and effectiveness of computed tomography (CT)-guided percutaneous microwave ablation (MWA) for peripheral non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in 11 patients with a single lung after pneumonectomy. METHODS: From May 2011 to March 2015, 11 single-lung patients (8 men and 3 women; mean age 60.3 years, range 46-71) with peripheral NSCLC underwent 12 sessions of MWA. Eleven tumors measuring 13-52 mm (mean 30...
March 12, 2018: Thoracic Cancer
Go Saito, Masato Kono, Akari Tsutsumi, Yu Koyanagi, Koichi Miyashita, Takeshi Kobayashi, Hironao Hozumi, Yoshihiro Miki, Yoshifumi Arai, Yoshiro Otsuki, Dai Hashimoto, Tomoyuki Fujisawa, Toru Nakamura, Takafumi Suda, Hidenori Nakamura
A 68-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital with fever and pleural effusion. Her thoracentesis showed eosinophilic pleural effusion (EPE) without any evidence of malignancy, infection, or trauma. Pleural biopsy revealed pleuritis and intercostal myositis. Characteristic skin manifestations, including Gottron's sign, interstitial lung disease, and pericardial effusion, appeared later in the clinical course. She was finally diagnosed with anti-PL-7 antisynthetase syndrome (ASS) based on the presence of anti-PL-7 antibody, and she fulfilled the diagnostic criteria for dermatomyositis...
March 9, 2018: Internal Medicine
Piotr Cierpikowski, Adam Rzechonek, Piotr Błasiak, Hanna Lisowska, Grzegorz Pniewski, Patric Le Pivert
Pectus excavatum is the most common congenital deformity of the chest. The Nuss procedure is minimally invasive surgical correction of this defect, using retrosternal metal bars. The purpose of the present study was to describe a 15-year experience with the Nuss surgery, and to evaluate the long-term clinical results of the procedure. We retrospectively evaluated 239 patients, aged 14-34, who underwent the Nuss surgery in the years 2002-2016. Postoperative complications were observed in 40/236 (16.9%) patients...
March 11, 2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Ioannis Psallidas, Nikolaos I Kanellakis, Rahul Bhatnagar, Rahul Ravindran, Ahmed Yousuf, Anthony J Edey, Rachel M Mercer, John P Corcoran, Robert J Hallifax, Rachelle Asciak, Prashanth Shetty, Tao Dong, Hania E G Piotrowska, Colin Clelland, Nick A Maskell, Najib M Rahman
BACKGROUND: Pleural infection is a common complication of pneumonia associated with high mortality and poor clinical outcome. Treatment of pleural infection relies on the use of broad-spectrum antibiotics, since reliable pathogen identification occurs infrequently. We performed a feasibility interventional clinical study assessing the safety and significance of ultrasound (US)-guided pleural biopsy culture to increase microbiological yield. In an exploratory investigation, the 16S rRNA technique was applied to assess its utility on increasing speed and accuracy versus standard microbiological diagnosis...
March 7, 2018: Chest
Xiu-Jing Han, Dan-Hong Su, Jian-Yun Yi, Ya-Wei Zou, Yu-Ling Shi
BACKGROUND: The typical manifestations of Penicillium marneffei (nowadays Talaromyces marneffei) infection in children without human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) remain unclear. The current work presents the case of a child without an underlying disease who was infected with P. marneffei comorbid with eosinophilia. CASE PRESENTATION: A 2-year-old male was infected with P. marneffei. A physical examination revealed a high-grade fever, ulcerated lesions in the oral mucosa, anemia, pruritic erythematous papules on the sac and thigh and watery diarrhea...
March 9, 2018: Mycopathologia
S Ben Saad, B Melki, L Douik El Gharbi, F Soraya, N Chaouch, H Aouina, J Cherif, A Hamzaoui, A Merghli, H Daghfous, F Tritar
BACKGROUND: Pneumothorax is a serious complication of cavitary pulmonary tuberculosis. The aim of this study was to describe clinical futures, to highlight challenges of its management. METHODS: A retrospective multicentric and descriptive study including 65 patients treated for PT (1999-2015) was conducted to figure out clinical futures and its work-up. RESULTS: The mean age was 37.8 years. The sex ratio was 3.6. Smoking history and incarceration were noted respectively in 67...
March 6, 2018: Revue de Pneumologie Clinique
Whittney A Warren, Domingo Franco-Palacios, Christopher S King, Oksana A Shlobin, Steven D Nathan, Shalika B Katugaha, Haresh Mani, A Whitney Brown
A 24-year-old woman with ΔF508/Y1092X cystic fibrosis (CF) complicated by severe obstructive lung disease (FEV1 of 30% predicted) was admitted for IV antibiotics for planned sinus surgery resulting from severe chronic sinusitis causing frequent exacerbations and declining lung function. She had persistent airway infection with multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, and growth of a fungus presumed to be an airway colonizer, identified as Stephanoascus ciferrii 1 year before presentation...
March 2018: Chest
S Li, H Huang, K Xu, Z J Xu
Objective: To describe the clinical characteristics of respiratory manifestations of yellow nail syndrome. Methods: We conducted a retrospective analysis of 2 patients with respiratory diseases associated with yellow nail syndrome. Their clinical and chest radiological data were collected. We searched PubMed, Wanfang and CNKI databases with the keywords "yellow nail syndrome, yellow nail and lung" in Chinese and English. And the relevant literatures, including 6 articles in Chinese and 81 articles in English, were reviewed...
March 12, 2018: Chinese Journal of Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
Meng-Chen Tsai, Chun-Chi Kuo, Ying-Zhen Su, Yen-Chuan Hsieh, Shih-Sung Chuang
Effusion-based lymphoma (EBL) is a rare but distinct entity of large B-cell lymphoma in effusion without association with human herpes virus-8 (HHV-8). Spontaneous regression after pleurocentesis has been observed; but to our knowledge, there are no reports on the morphological and molecular features of subsequent aspirations in regressing cases. Here, we report the case of a 92-year-old male with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, who presented with right pleural effusion. He had no human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis B virus, or hepatitis C virus infection, and CT scans revealed no mass lesion...
March 8, 2018: Diagnostic Cytopathology
Samanta Sarmento da Silva, Guilherme Eckert Peterson, Sérgio Luis Amantéa, Patrícia Miorelli, Jane Maria Ulbrich, Eliane Roesch, Paulo Roberto Sanches, Jose Carlos Fraga
PURPOSE: To evaluate the concentration of transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGFB1) levels in a rat pleural effusion obtained by inoculation of intrapleural bacteria or turpentine through thoracentesis. METHODS: Thirty-Nine Wistar rats were divided into three groups: Staphylococcus aureus (SA, n = 17); Streptococcus pneumoniae (SP, n = 12); and turpentine (control, n = 10). Pleural fluid was collected through ultrasound-guided thoracentesis 12 h, 24 h, and 36 h after instillation of bacteria or turpentine...
February 2018: Acta Cirúrgica Brasileira
Faith Jelagat Lelei-Mailu, Charles Muriuki Mariara
This case report is of a 32-year-old woman of African descent on follow-up for pregnancy in the background of portal hypertension due to liver cirrhosis. She had initially been treated for chronic hepatitis B infection with lamivudine and tenofovir, complicated by portal hypertension and variceal bleeding that thrice required banding. Her pregnancy was uneventful until 31 weeks gestation when she presented with dyspnoea. On examination and investigation, she had oedema, bilateral pleural effusions and ascites...
March 5, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
Natalia D Popowicz, Sean J O'Halloran, Deirdre Fitzgerald, Y C Gary Lee, David A Joyce
Piperacillin, in combination with tazobactam is a common first-line antibiotic used for the treatment of pleural infection, however its pleural pharmacokinetics and penetration has not previously been reported. The objective of this work was to develop and validate a rapid and sensitive liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) assay for quantification of piperacillin (PIP) and tazobactam (TAZ). PIP and TAZ were extracted from both human plasma and pleural fluid samples by protein precipitation in methanol containing the internal standards (IS) piperacillin-d5 (PIP-d5 ) and sulbactam (SUL)...
February 24, 2018: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
Gathsaurie Neelika Malavige, Ananda Wijewickrama, Samitha Fernando, Chandima Jeewandara, Anushka Ginneliya, Supun Samarasekara, Praveen Madushanka, Chameera Punchihewa, Shiran Paranavitane, Damayanthi Idampitiya, Chandanie Wanigatunga, Harsha Dissanayake, Shamini Prathapan, Laksiri Gomes, Siti A B Aman, Ashley St John, Graham S Ogg
Currently there are no specific treatments available for acute dengue infection. We considered that rupatadine, a platelet-activating factor receptor inhibitor, might modulate dengue-associated vascular leak. The effects of rupatadine were assessed in vitro, and in a dengue model, which showed that rupatadine significantly reduced endothelial permeability by dengue sera in vitro, and significantly inhibited the increased haematocrit in dengue-infected mice with dose-dependency. We conducted a randomised, placebo-controlled trial in 183 adult patients in Sri Lanka with acute dengue, which showed that rupatadine up to 40 mg daily appeared safe and well-tolerated with similar proportions of adverse events with rupatadine and placebo...
March 1, 2018: Scientific Reports
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