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translational VOR

Nancie M Archin, Jennifer L Kirchherr, Julia Am Sung, Genevieve Clutton, Katherine Sholtis, Yinyan Xu, Brigitte Allard, Erin Stuelke, Angela D Kashuba, Joann D Kuruc, Joseph Eron, Cynthia L Gay, Nilu Goonetilleke, David M Margolis
BACKGROUND: The histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor vorinostat (VOR) can increase HIV RNA expression in vivo within resting CD4+ T cells of aviremic HIV+ individuals. However, while studies of VOR or other HDAC inhibitors have reported reversal of latency, none has demonstrated clearance of latent infection. We sought to identify the optimal dosing of VOR for effective serial reversal of HIV latency. METHODS: In a study of 16 HIV-infected, aviremic individuals, we measured resting CD4+ T cell-associated HIV RNA ex vivo and in vivo following a single exposure to VOR, and then in vivo after a pair of doses separated by 48 or 72 hours, and finally following a series of 10 doses given at 72-hour intervals...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
Qadeer Arshad
Neuroscientific research has made a concerted effort to determine cortical localization using various functional imaging techniques. This approach has undoubtedly yielded important novel anatomical knowledge, albeit at times contradictory, regarding the structural organization of the vestibular cortex. Unfortunately however, this knowledge has not translated to our understanding regarding how neural mechanisms control vestibular function. Based upon recent functional imaging, lesion and neuro-physiological data that have demonstrated (i) the close behavioral and neuro-anatomical relationship between cortical processing of vestibular and spatial attention signals, and (ii) that inducing interhemispheric competition can in-turn strongly modulate vestibular function akin to that observed in cortical lesion patients, I herewith propose the hypothesis that vestibular cortical processing is controlled, as per for spatial attention, via dynamic interhemispheric competition...
June 14, 2017: Neuroscience
Francisco Branoner, Boris P Chagnaud, Hans Straka
Vestibulo-ocular reflexes (VOR) ensure gaze stability during locomotion and passively induced head/body movements. In precocial vertebrates such as amphibians, vestibular reflexes are required very early at the onset of locomotor activity. While the formation of inner ears and the assembly of sensory-motor pathways is largely completed soon after hatching, angular and translational/tilt VOR display differential functional onsets and mature with different time courses. Otolith-derived eye movements appear immediately after hatching, whereas the appearance and progressive amelioration of semicircular canal-evoked eye movements is delayed and dependent on the acquisition of sufficiently large semicircular canal diameters...
2016: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
Shin C Beh, Teresa C Frohman, Elliot M Frohman
BACKGROUND: The cerebellum plays a central role in the online, real-time control, and long-term modulation of eye movements. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: We reviewed the latest (fifth) edition of Leigh and Zee's textbook, The Neurology of Eye Movements, and literature in PUBMED using the following terms: cerebellum, flocculus, paraflocculus, vermis, oculomotor vermis, dorsal vermis, caudal fastigial nucleus, fastigial oculomotor region, uvula, nodulus, ansiform lobule, eye movements, saccades, ipsipulsion, contrapulsion, smooth pursuit, vergence, convergence, divergence, gaze-holding, down beat nystagmus, vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR), angular VOR, translational VOR, skew deviation, velocity storage...
March 2017: Journal of Neuro-ophthalmology: the Official Journal of the North American Neuro-Ophthalmology Society
Courtney Stewart, Yue Yu, Jun Huang, Adel Maklad, Xuehui Tang, Jerome Allison, William Mustain, Wu Zhou, Hong Zhu
Some individuals with noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) also report balance problems. These accompanying vestibular complaints are not well understood. The present study used a rat model to examine the effects of noise exposure on the vestibular system. Rats were exposed to continuous broadband white noise (0-24 kHz) at an intensity of 116 dB sound pressure level (SPL) via insert ear phones in one ear for three hours under isoflurane anesthesia. Seven days after the exposure, a significant increase in ABR threshold (43...
May 2016: Hearing Research
Soon-Lim Shin, Grace Q Zhao, Jennifer L Raymond
The learning of motor skills is thought to occur largely through trial and error; however, the error signals and rules controlling the induction of motor learning have not been fully elucidated. We evaluated the learning rules that translate the sensory and motor cues available during training into learned changes in the gain and phase of the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) of mice. Contrary to previous theories, neither the phase of retinal image motion relative to head motion nor the phase of retinal image motion relative to eye movement could consistently predict the direction of the learned change in the gain of the VOR across all training conditions tested...
August 6, 2014: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Angelica Perez Fornos, Nils Guinand, Raymond van de Berg, Robert Stokroos, Silvestro Micera, Herman Kingma, Marco Pelizzone, Jean-Philippe Guyot
The vestibular system plays a crucial role in the multisensory control of balance. When vestibular function is lost, essential tasks such as postural control, gaze stabilization, and spatial orientation are limited and the quality of life of patients is significantly impaired. Currently, there is no effective treatment for bilateral vestibular deficits. Research efforts both in animals and humans during the last decade set a solid background to the concept of using electrical stimulation to restore vestibular function...
2014: Frontiers in Neurology
Hans Straka, Bernd Fritzsch, Joel C Glover
Developmental and evolutionary data from vertebrates are beginning to elucidate the origin of the sensorimotor pathway that links gravity and motion detection to image-stabilizing eye movements--the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR). Conserved transcription factors coordinate the development of the vertebrate ear into three functional sensory compartments (graviception/translational linear acceleration, angular acceleration and sound perception). These sensory components connect to specific populations of vestibular and auditory projection neurons in the dorsal hindbrain through undetermined molecular mechanisms...
2014: Brain, Behavior and Evolution
Daniel Chim, David M Lasker, Americo A Migliaccio
The vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) acts to maintain images stable on the retina by rotating the eyes in exactly the opposite direction, but with equal magnitude, to head velocity. When viewing a near target, this reflex has an increased response to compensate for the translation of the eyes relative to the target that acts to reduce retinal image slip. Previous studies have shown that retinal velocity error provides an important visual feedback signal to increase the low-frequency (<1 Hz) VOR response during near viewing...
September 2013: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
Stig A Walsh, Andrew N Iwaniuk, Monja A Knoll, Estelle Bourdon, Paul M Barrett, Angela C Milner, Robert L Nudds, Richard L Abel, Patricia Dello Sterpaio
Extinct animal behavior has often been inferred from qualitative assessments of relative brain region size in fossil endocranial casts. For instance, flight capability in pterosaurs and early birds has been inferred from the relative size of the cerebellar flocculus, which in life protrudes from the lateral surface of the cerebellum. A primary role of the flocculus is to integrate sensory information about head rotation and translation to stabilize visual gaze via the vestibulo-occular reflex (VOR). Because gaze stabilization is a critical aspect of flight, some authors have suggested that the flocculus is enlarged in flying species...
2013: PloS One
Joyce Dits, Mark M J Houben, Johannes van der Steen
UNLABELLED: The vestibular organ is a sensor that measures angular and linear accelerations with six degrees of freedom (6DF). Complete or partial defects in the vestibular organ results in mild to severe equilibrium problems, such as vertigo, dizziness, oscillopsia, gait unsteadiness nausea and/or vomiting. A good and frequently used measure to quantify gaze stabilization is the gain, which is defined as the magnitude of compensatory eye movements with respect to imposed head movements...
May 23, 2013: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Qin Xu, Xianming Lin, Laura Andrews, Dakshesh Patel, Paul D Lampe, Richard D Veenstra
Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACIs) are being investigated as novel therapies for cancer, inflammation, neurodegeneration, and heart failure. The effects of HDACIs on the functional expression of cardiac gap junctions (GJs) are essentially unknown. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of trichostatin A (TSA) and vorinostat (VOR) on functional GJ expression in ventricular cardiomyocytes. The effects of HDAC inhibition on connexin43 (Cx43) expression and functional GJ assembly were examined in primary cultured neonatal mouse ventricular myocytes...
2013: Frontiers in Pharmacology
W M King
Compensatory counter-rotations of the eyes provoked by head turns are commonly attributed to the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR). A recent study in guinea pigs demonstrates, however, that this assumption is not always valid. During voluntary head turns, guinea pigs make highly accurate compensatory eye movements that occur with zero or even negative latencies with respect to the onset of the provoking head movements. Furthermore, the anticipatory eye movements occur in animals with bilateral peripheral vestibular lesions, thus confirming that they have an extra vestibular origin...
April 16, 2013: Neuroscience
N M Archin, A L Liberty, A D Kashuba, S K Choudhary, J D Kuruc, A M Crooks, D C Parker, E M Anderson, M F Kearney, M C Strain, D D Richman, M G Hudgens, R J Bosch, J M Coffin, J J Eron, D J Hazuda, D M Margolis
Despite antiretroviral therapy, proviral latency of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) remains a principal obstacle to curing the infection. Inducing the expression of latent genomes within resting CD4(+) T cells is the primary strategy to clear this reservoir. Although histone deacetylase inhibitors such as suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (also known as vorinostat, VOR) can disrupt HIV-1 latency in vitro, the utility of this approach has never been directly proven in a translational clinical study of HIV-infected patients...
July 26, 2012: Nature
Konrad P Weber, Sally M Rosengren, Rike Michels, Veit Sturm, Dominik Straumann, Klara Landau
Motor unit activity in human eye muscles during the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) is not well understood, since the associated head and eye movements normally preclude single unit recordings. Therefore we recorded single motor unit activity following bursts of skull vibration and sound, two vestibular otolith stimuli that elicit only small head and eye movements. Inferior oblique (IO) and inferior rectus (IR) muscle activity was measured in healthy humans with concentric needle electrodes. Vibration elicited highly synchronous, short-latency bursts of motor unit activity in the IO (latency: 10...
July 1, 2012: Journal of Physiology
Min Wei, Nan Lin, Shawn D Newlands
Translational motion induces retinal image slip which varies with object distance. The brain must know binocular eye position in real time in order to scale eye movements so as to minimize retinal slip. Two potential sources of eye position information are orbital proprioception and an internal representation of eye position derived from central ocular motor signals. To examine the role of orbital proprioceptive information, the position of the left eye was perturbed by microstimulation of the left abducens nerve during translational motion to the right or left along the interaural axis in two rhesus macaques...
November 2011: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
James A Sharpe, Sunil Kumar, Arun N Sundaram
PURPOSE: This article considers vertical misalignment and torsion of the eyes that arise from disorders of vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) pathways. RECENT FINDINGS: Infarction of the nodulus is one of the causes of skew deviation, a vertical strabismus accompanied by torsion of the eyes and tilt of the subjective visual vertical. Vertical components of childhood strabismus may arise from dysgenesis of vestibular projections in the brainstem. If vertical misalignment decreases greatly in the supine position compared to the erect poison one may conclude that skew deviation rather than a fourth nerve palsy is responsible for the strabismus...
February 2011: Current Opinion in Neurology
Kazuya Yoshimura, Hiro-Aki Takeuchi, Shigeto Sasaki
We simultaneously investigated eye and head movements and postural adjustment during orienting by measuring load force exerted by four limbs in cats. When light is moved from the fixation point to the target position, the head first begins moving towards the target position, and the eye moves in the opposite direction due to the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR). Later, the eye moves quickly in the target direction by saccade, synchronous with the remaining rapid head orientation movement. Head movement is classified as either 'head rotation' or 'head translation'...
November 2010: Zoological Science
Jean Laurens, Dominik Straumann, Bernhard J M Hess
The vestibular organs in the base of the skull provide important information about head orientation and motion in space. Previous studies have suggested that both angular velocity information from the semicircular canals and information about head orientation and translation from the otolith organs are centrally processed in an internal model of head motion, using the principles of optimal estimation. This concept has been successfully applied to model behavioral responses to classical vestibular motion paradigms...
September 2010: Journal of Neurophysiology
Teppei Akao, Sergei Kurkin, Junko Fukushima, Kikuro Fukushima
The smooth-pursuit system must interact with the vestibular system to maintain the accuracy of eye movements in space during head movement. Maintenance of a target image on the foveae is required not only during head rotation which activates primarily semi-circular canals but also during head translation which activates otolith organs. The caudal part of the frontal eye fields (FEF) contains pursuit neurons. The majority of them receive vestibular inputs induced by whole body rotation. However, it has not been tested whether FEF pursuit neurons receive otolith inputs...
March 2009: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
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