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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535528/chronic-allograft-injury-an-overview-of-pathogenesis-and-treatment-strategies
#1
Hector M Madariaga, Leonardo V Riella
Chronic allograft injury (CAI) remains one of the biggest challenges in transplantation as it directly affects the long-term allograft survival, an area in which the scientific and transplantation communities have struggled to improve outcomes. Therefore, understanding the mechanisms of CAI is paramount to implement preventive measures and novel therapeutic options. In this review, we will address the latest evidence on CAI, potential etiologies and risk factors including non-adherence, antibody-mediated rejection, recurrence of glomerular disease, BK nephropathy, and calcineurin nephrotoxicity...
2017: Contributions to Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535477/the-effect-of-crash-characteristics-on-cyclist-injuries-an-analysis-of-virginia-automobile-bicycle-crash-data
#2
Erin Robartes, T Donna Chen
This paper examines bicyclist, automobile driver, vehicle, environmental, and roadway characteristics that influence cyclist injury severity in order to determine which factors should be addressed to mitigate the worst bicyclist injuries. An ordered probit model is used to examine single bicycle-single vehicle crashes from Virginia police crash report data from 2010 to 2014. Five injury severity levels are considered: fatalities, severe injuries, minor or possible injuries, no apparent injuries, and no injury...
May 20, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535182/characterization-of-liver-injury-oval-cell-proliferation-and-cholangiocarcinogenesis-in-glutathione-s-transferase-a3-knockout-mice
#3
Dana R Crawford, Zoran Ilic, Ian Guest, Ginger L Milne, John D Hayes, Stewart Sell
We recently generated glutathione S-transferase (GST) A3 knockout (KO) mice as a novel model to study the risk factors for liver cancer. GSTA3 KO mice are sensitive to the acute cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), confirming the crucial role of GSTA3 in resistance to AFB1. We now report histopathological changes, tumor formation, biochemical changes and gender response following AFB1 treatment as well as the contribution of oxidative stress. Using a protocol of weekly 0.5 mg AFB1/kg administration, we observed extensive oval (liver stem) cell (OC) proliferation within 1-3 weeks followed by microvesicular lipidosis, megahepatocytes, nuclear inclusions, cholangiomas, and small nodules...
May 23, 2017: Carcinogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534715/knowledge-attitudes-and-behaviors-related-to-child-safety-restraint-in-citizens-of-shenzhen-municipality-china-and-the-associations-between-these-factors
#4
Shengyuan Liu, Haibin Zhou, Jianping Ma, Changyi Wang, Zhongwei Chen, Sihan Chen, Yingzhou Yang, Xiaoli Liu, Ji Peng, Leilei Duan, Xiao Deng
Objective-A child safety restraint (CSR) is an effective measure to reduce the risk of child injury from traffic collisions. This study aims to explore knowledge, attitudes and behaviors regarding CSR in a Chinese population. Methods-A cross-sectional survey regarding CSR use was conducted from April to May 2014 in Shenzhen Municipality. Respondents were parents who had at least one child 0 to 6 years of age and simultaneously owned a car. These parents provided a self-report of demographic characteristics as well as information about their knowledge, attitudes and behaviors toward CSR use...
May 23, 2017: Traffic Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534471/management-of-acetabular-fractures-in-the-geriatric-patient
#5
Marc Hanschen, Sebastian Pesch, Stefan Huber-Wagner, Peter Biberthaler
INTRODUCTION: Open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) is standard care for most acetabular fractures. With increasing numbers of acetabular fractures in the elderly, the risk of revision surgery and conversion to total hip replacement (THR) is increasing. Alarmingly, about 20-25% of acetabular fractures in the elderly following ORIF needed revision and conversion to delayed THR. METHODS: Recently, prognostic factors have been identified, which correlate with an increased risk of worse outcomes following ORIF of acetabular fractures in the elderly patient...
2017: SICOT-J
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533626/nonhealing-progressive-stress-fractures-of-the-foot-in-a-13-year-old-basketball-player-is-vitamin-k-deficiency-a-risk-factor
#6
Meral Bayramoğlu, Nuray Ünlütürk
[Purpose] To report an adolescent male basketball player with nonhealing stress fractures of the foot and discuss the probable factors. [Subject and Methods] A 13-year-old basketball player presented with right foot pain. He had been playing basketball for three years and practicing 5 days/week. He denied any increase in daily training intensity. Magnetic resonance imaging confirmed stress fractures of the cuboid and cuneiform, with mild edema of the soft tissues between the tarsal bones and tenosynovitis of the flexor hallucis and flexor digitorum longi...
April 2017: Journal of Physical Therapy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533242/coadministration-of-liposomal-amphotericin-b-and-contrast-medium-does-not-increase-risk-of-kidney-injury
#7
John C O'Horo, Douglas R Osmon, Omar M Abu Saleh, Jasmine R Marcelin, Kamel A Gharaibeh, Abdurrahman M Hamadah, Amelia K Barwise, Bryce M Kayhart, Jennifer S McDonald, Robert J McDonald, Nelson Leung
Intravenous radiographic contrast medium and amphotericin B are commonly required in the care of patients with fungal infections. Both interventions have proposed nephrotoxicity through similar mechanisms. We systematically examined patients who received coadministration of liposomal amphotericin B (AmBisome; GE Healthcare) and intravenous contrast medium within a 24-hour period and compared them with patients who underwent non--contrast medium studies. We found 114 cases and 85 controls in our study period...
May 22, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532441/usefulness-of-clinical-predictors-for-preoperative-screening-of-deep-vein-thrombosis-in-hip-fractures
#8
Kitchai Luksameearunothai, Paphon Sa-Ngasoongsong, Noratep Kulachote, Sorawut Thamyongkit, Praman Fuangfa, Pongsthorn Chanplakorn, Patarawan Woratanarat, Chanyut Suphachatwong
BACKGROUND: Recent studies showed that preoperative deep vein thrombosis (DVT) was common after hip fracture (HF), and preoperative DVT screening has been recommended for preventing the fatal DVT-related complications, especially in elderly HF patients with high surgical risk. However, to our knowledge, no previous studies have demonstrated the correlation between the clinical risk predictors and preoperative DVT. Therefore, this study aimed to correlate those clinical predictors related to DVT risk assessment with the incidence of preoperative DVT...
May 22, 2017: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532189/non-selective-beta-blocker-treatment-does-not-impact-on-kidney-function-in-cirrhotic-patients-with-varices
#9
Bernhard Scheiner, Diego Parada-Rodriguez, Theresa Bucsics, Philipp Schwabl, Mattias Mandorfer, Nikolaus Pfisterer, Florian Riedl, Wolfgang Sieghart, Arnulf Ferlitsch, Michael Trauner, Markus Peck-Radosavljevic, Thomas Reiberger
GOALS AND BACKGROUND: Non-selective beta-blockers (NSBBs) are used for bleeding prophylaxis in cirrhotic patients with gastroesophageal varices (GEVs). Recent data suggested that NSBB treatment might increase the risk of renal dysfunction in patients with refractory ascites due to an impaired response to acute haemodynamic stress. STUDY: Retrospective longitudinal assessment of kidney function in a cohort of cirrhotic patients with GEVs with vs. without NSBB therapy...
May 22, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531894/evaluation-of-absolute-serum-creatinine-changes-in-staging-of-cirrhosis-induced-acute-renal-injury-and-its-association-with-long-term-outcomes
#10
Fangfang Zhou, Qun Luo, Lina Han, Huadong Yan, Wenhong Zhou, Zemin Wang, Yumei Li
BACKGROUND/AIMS: To assess the prognostic accuracy of absolute serum creatinine (sCr) changes ('Delta-sCr') on the long-term outcomes in cirrhotic patients, and evaluate the performance of the 'Delta-sCr' approach to stage acute kidney injury (AKI), compared with the Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) criteria. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective analysis of 333 hospitalized patients. We classified AKI stages using two methods: 1) KDIGO AKI criteria; 2) 'Delta-sCr' system, defined by the difference between the baseline and the peak sCr value during the hospitalization...
May 25, 2017: Kidney & Blood Pressure Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531884/pre-interventional-kynurenine-predicts-medium-term-outcome-after-contrast-media-exposure-due-to-coronary-angiography
#11
Christoph Reichetzeder, Fabian Heunisch, Gina von Einem, Oleg Tsuprykov, Karl-Heinz Kellner, Thomas Dschietzig, Axel Kretschmer, Berthold Hocher
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Contrast induced acute kidney injury (CI-AKI) remains a serious complication of contrast media enhanced procedures like coronary angiography. There is still a lack of established biomarkers that help to identify patients at high risk for short and long-term complications. The aim of the current study was to evaluate plasma kynurenine as a predictive biomarker for CI-AKI and long-term complications, measured by the combined endpoint "major adverse kidney events" (MAKE) up to 120 days after CM application...
May 25, 2017: Kidney & Blood Pressure Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531243/increased-postural-sway-during-quiet-stance-as-a-risk-factor-for-prospective-falls-in-community-dwelling-elderly-individuals
#12
Jonas Johansson, Anna Nordström, Yngve Gustafson, Göran Westling, Peter Nordström
Objective: fall-related injuries constitute major health risks in older individuals, and these risks are projected to increase in parallel with increasing human longevity. Impaired postural stability is a potential risk factor related to falls, although the evidence is inconclusive, partly due to the lack of prospective studies. This study aimed to investigate how objective measures of postural sway predict incident falls. Design, setting and participants: this prospectively observational study included 1,877 community-dwelling individuals aged 70 years who participated in the Healthy Ageing Initiative between June 2012 and December 2015...
May 22, 2017: Age and Ageing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529756/a-socioecological-framework-for-research-on-work-and-obesity-in-diverse-urban-transit-operators-based-on-gender-race-and-ethnicity
#13
REVIEW
BongKyoo Choi, Peter Schnall, Marnie Dobson, Haiou Yang, Dean Baker, YoungJu Seo
Urban transit (bus and rail) operators, totaling nearly 700,000 persons, are one of the heaviest occupational groups in the United States (US). Little is known about occupational risk factors for weight gain and obesity and their interrelationship with health-related behaviors, particularly among female minority (African Americans and Hispanics) transit operators who are at greater risk for obesity. As a step towards developing successful obesity interventions among urban transit operators, this paper aims to present a new socioecological framework for studying working conditions, chronic strain, health-related behaviors, weight gain/obesity, and obesity disparity in diverse urban transit operators based on gender, race, and ethnicity...
2017: Annals of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529513/ionizing-radiation-induced-immune-and-inflammatory-reactions-in-the-brain
#14
REVIEW
Katalin Lumniczky, Tünde Szatmári, Géza Sáfrány
Radiation-induced late brain injury consisting of vascular abnormalities, demyelination, white matter necrosis, and cognitive impairment has been described in patients subjected to cranial radiotherapy for brain tumors. Accumulating evidence suggests that various degrees of cognitive deficit can develop after much lower doses of ionizing radiation, as well. The pathophysiological mechanisms underlying these alterations are not elucidated so far. A permanent deficit in neurogenesis, chronic microvascular alterations, and blood-brain barrier dysfunctionality are considered among the main causative factors...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528862/crocetin-restores-diabetic-endothelial-progenitor-cell-dysfunction-by-enhancing-no-bioavailability-via-regulation-of-pi3k-akt-enos-and-ros-pathways
#15
Wei Cao, Jinjin Cui, Shufeng Li, Donghui Zhang, Yibo Guo, Qiannan Li, Ying Luan, Xian Liu
AIMS: Endothelial progenitor cell (EPC) dysfunction underlies a critical risk factor in diabetic vascular complications due to function defect in restoring endothelium injury. Crocetin has attracted increasing attention in several vascular-related diseases. In present study, we aimed to explore the role of crocetin in diabetic EPC dysfunction. MAIN METHODS: EPCs were isolated from bone marrow in diabetic mice and identified using the fluorescence staining and flow cytometry...
May 18, 2017: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528753/healthcare-access-and-quality-index-based-on-mortality-from-causes-amenable-to-personal-health-care-in-195-countries-and-territories-1990-2015-a-novel-analysis-from-the-global-burden-of-disease-study-2015
#16
(no author information available yet)
BACKGROUND: National levels of personal health-care access and quality can be approximated by measuring mortality rates from causes that should not be fatal in the presence of effective medical care (ie, amenable mortality). Previous analyses of mortality amenable to health care only focused on high-income countries and faced several methodological challenges. In the present analysis, we use the highly standardised cause of death and risk factor estimates generated through the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study (GBD) to improve and expand the quantification of personal health-care access and quality for 195 countries and territories from 1990 to 2015...
May 18, 2017: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528493/clinical-investigation-of-chronic-subdural-hematoma-with-impending-brain-herniation-on-arrival
#17
Hiroaki Matsumoto, Hiroaki Hanayama, Takashi Okada, Yasuo Sakurai, Hiroaki Minami, Atsushi Masuda, Shogo Tominaga, Katsuya Miyaji, Ikuya Yamaura, Yasuhisa Yoshida
Chronic subdural hematoma (CSDH) with brain herniation signs is rarely seen in the emergent department. As such, there are few cumulative data to analyze such cases. In this study, we evaluated the clinical features, risk factors, and rates of completion with impending brain herniation on arrival in a cohort study. We analyzed 492 consecutive patients with CSDH between January 2010 and October 2015. First, we analyzed the clinical factors and compared them between patients with or without brain herniation signs on admission...
May 20, 2017: Neurosurgical Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528465/contrast-induced-nephropathy-cin-of-patients-with-renal-dysfunction-in-ct-examination
#18
Yasuhiro Fukushima, Hitomi Miyazawa, Junpei Nakamura, Ayako Taketomi-Takahashi, Takayuki Suto, Yoshito Tsushima
PURPOSE: To investigate the incidence and risk factors of contrast induced nephropathy (CIN) after contrast enhanced (CE) computed tomography (CT) in patients with renal dysfunction. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two hundred sixteen inpatients with estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFR) <60 ml/min/1.73 m(2) underwent CE CT using iodine doses of 420 or 480 mg I/kg. Data of all enrolled patients was collected for baseline serum creatinine level (SCr), post-CE CT SCr within 3 days after CE CT, and conditions considered risk factors for CIN [renal dysfunction, contrast media dose, advanced age, diabetes mellitus, no intravenous hydration, cardiac dysfunction (left ventricular ejection fraction <60%) and intensive-care unit (ICU) admission]...
May 20, 2017: Japanese Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527918/cytochrome-p450-eicosanoids-in-cerebrovascular-function-and-disease
#19
REVIEW
Catherine M Davis, Xuehong Liu, Nabil J Alkayed
Cytochrome P450 eicosanoids play important roles in brain function and disease through their complementary actions on cell-cell communications within the neurovascular unit (NVU) and mechanisms of brain injury. Epoxy- and hydroxyeicosanoids, respectively formed by cytochrome P450 epoxygenases and ω-hydroxylases, play opposing roles in cerebrovascular function and in pathological processes underlying neural injury, including ischemia, neuroinflammation and oxidative injury. P450 eicosanoids also contribute to cerebrovascular disease risk factors, including hypertension and diabetes...
May 17, 2017: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527914/impact-of-hepatic-p450-mediated-biotransformation-on-the-disposition-and-respiratory-tract-toxicity-of-inhaled-naphthalene
#20
Nataliia Kovalchuk, Jacklyn Kelty, Lei Li, Matthew Hartog, Qing-Yu Zhang, Patricia Edwards, Laura Van Winkle, Xinxin Ding
We determined whether a decrease in hepatic microsomal cytochrome P450 activity would impact lung toxicity induced by inhalation exposure to naphthalene (NA), a ubiquitous environmental pollutant. The liver-Cpr-null (LCN) mouse showed decreases in microsomal metabolism of NA in liver, but not lung, compared to wild-type (WT) mouse. Plasma levels of NA and NA-glutathione conjugates (NA-GSH) were both higher in LCN than in WT mice after a 4-h nose-only NA inhalation exposure at 10ppm. Levels of NA were also higher in lung and liver of LCN, compared to WT, mice, following exposure to NA at 5 or 10ppm...
May 17, 2017: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
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