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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897005/strategies-for-equitable-pharmacogenomic-guided-warfarin-dosing-among-european-and-african-american-individuals-in-a-clinical-population
#1
Laura K Wiley, Jacob P Vanhouten, David C Samuels, Melinda C Aldrich, Dan M Roden, Josh F Peterson, Joshua C Denny
The blood thinner warfarin has a narrow therapeutic range and high inter- and intra-patient variability in therapeutic doses. Several studies have shown that pharmacogenomic variants help predict stable warfarin dosing. However, retrospective and randomized controlled trials that employ dosing algorithms incorporating pharmacogenomic variants under perform in African Americans. This study sought to determine if: 1) including additional variants associated with warfarin dose in African Americans, 2) predicting within single ancestry groups rather than a combined population, or 3) using percentage African ancestry rather than observed race, would improve warfarin dosing algorithms in African Americans...
2016: Pacific Symposium on Biocomputing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887587/experiences-of-support-in-working-toward-personal-recovery-goals-a-collaborative-qualitative-study
#2
Eva Biringer, Larry Davidson, Bengt Sundfør, Torleif Ruud, Marit Borg
BACKGROUND: Recovery can be understood as a subjective process guided by personal expectations, goals and hopes. The aim of the study was to explore how persons using a Community Mental Health Centre (CMHC) experienced that their expectations for treatment, and goals and hopes for recovery were supported by the health professionals during treatment. METHODS: Employing a hermeneutic-phenomenological approach, eight service users were interviewed about their expectations for treatment and their goals and hopes for recovery at the start of their contact with health professionals at a CMHC...
November 25, 2016: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869583/patient-facing-technology-for-identification-of-copd-in-primary-care
#3
David Kevin Ahern, Donna Parker, Charles Eaton, Caitlin Rafferty, Joseph Wroblewski, Roberta Goldman
BACKGROUND: The proliferation of mobile devices and emergence of interoperable 'mHealth' apps is accelerating development and deployment of patient-facing risk assessments in primary care. The present study describes a user-centered design and an agile development approach to creation of an app for assessing lungfunction as part of a randomized controlled trial for the   dentification of chronic obstructive lung disease in primary care. METHOD: Seventeen patients recruited from a hospital-based, ambulatory family medicine clinic agreed to be videotaped while using the app, Lung Age, on a first-generation iPad prior to their provideR encounter...
July 15, 2016: Journal of Innovation in Health Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836856/health-professional-perspectives-on-the-management-of-multimorbidity-and-polypharmacy-for-older-patients-in-australia
#4
Kevin Peter Mc Namara, Bianca Daphne Breken, Hamzah Tariq Alzubaidi, J Simon Bell, James A Dunbar, Christine Walker, Andrea Hernan
BACKGROUND: delivering appropriate care for patients with multimorbidity and polypharmacy is increasingly challenging. Challenges for individual healthcare professions are known, but only little is known about overall healthcare team implementation of best practice for these patients. OBJECTIVE: to explore current approaches to multimorbidity management, and perceived barriers and enablers to deliver appropriate medications management for community-dwelling patients with multimorbidity and polypharmacy, from a broad range of healthcare professional (HCP) perspectives in Australia...
November 10, 2016: Age and Ageing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833195/a-virtue-analysis-of-recreational-marijuana-use
#5
Ezra Sullivan, Nicanor Austriaco
: Several empirical studies suggest that recreational marijuana is popularly perceived as an essentially harmless rite of passage that ends as young people settle into their careers and their adult intimate relationships. Is this perception accurate? To answer this question, we evaluate the morality of recreational marijuana use from a virtue perspective guided by the theological synthesis of St. Thomas Aquinas. Since the medical data reveals that recreational marijuana use is detrimental to the well-being of the user, we conclude that it is a vicious activity, an instance of the vice of intoxication, and as such would be morally illicit...
May 2016: Linacre Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833071/cognitive-behavior-therapy-for-anxious-and-depressed-youth-improving-homework-adherence-through-mobile-technology
#6
Pamela Wilansky, J Mikael Eklund, Tracy Milner, David Kreindler, Amy Cheung, Tim Kovacs, Shahin Shooshtari, Arlene Astell, Arto Ohinmaa, Joanna Henderson, John Strauss, Rosemary Sl Mills
BACKGROUND: Anxiety and mood disorders are the most common mental illnesses, peaking during adolescence and affecting approximately 25% of Canadians aged 14-17 years. If not successfully treated at this age, they often persist into adulthood, exerting a great social and economic toll. Given the long-term impact, finding ways to increase the success and cost-effectiveness of mental health care is a pressing need. Cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) is an evidence-based treatment for mood and anxiety disorders throughout the lifespan...
November 10, 2016: JMIR Research Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27814722/implementation-of-the-tobacco-tactics-intervention-versus-usual-care-in-trinity-health-community-hospitals
#7
Sonia A Duffy, David L Ronis, Lee A Ewing, Andrea H Waltje, Stephanie V Hall, Patricia L Thomas, Christine M Olree, Kimberly A Maguire, Lisa Friedman, Sue Klotz, Neil Jordan, Gay L Landstrom
BACKGROUND: Guided by the Reach, Effectiveness, Adoption, Implementation, and Maintenance (RE-AIM) implementation framework, a National Institutes of Health-sponsored study compared the nurse-administered Tobacco Tactics intervention to usual care. A prior paper describes the effectiveness of the Tobacco Tactics intervention. This subsequent paper provides data describing the remaining constructs of the RE-AIM framework. METHODS: This pragmatic study used a mixed methods, quasi-experimental design in five Michigan community hospitals of which three received the nurse-administered Tobacco Tactics intervention and two received usual care...
November 4, 2016: Implementation Science: IS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27795777/systematic-reviews-in-context-highlighting-systematic-reviews-relevant-to-africa-in-the-pan-african-medical-journal
#8
Charles Shey Wiysonge, Raoul Kamadjeu, Landry Tsague
Health research serves to answer questions concerning health and to accumulate facts (evidence) required to guide healthcare policy and practice. However, research designs vary and different types of healthcare questions are best answered by different study designs. For example, qualitative studies are best suited for answering questions about experiences and meaning; cross-sectional studies for questions concerning prevalence; cohort studies for questions regarding incidence and prognosis; and randomised controlled trials for questions on prevention and treatment...
2016: Pan African Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27790469/student-project-in-anatomy-spa-making-the-first-year-medical-students-responsible-and-creative
#9
Satheesha B Nayak, Snigdha Mishra, Bincy M George, Naveen Kumar
INTRODUCTION: Creativity is a combination of ones' capacity to think outside the box, the gained knowledge and the passion for creating something. It very easily and effectively provides the creator a chance to be responsible for his/her creation and acts as a confidence booster for him/her. Creativity is inherent, but needs to be polished and nurtured. If nurtured well through proper motivation, the creator excels leaps and bounds. It develops an empathetic behaviour in the creator, when he allows his creations to be used by others...
September 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27745720/-can-we-do-therapy-without-a-therapist-active-components-of-computer-based-cbt-for-depression
#10
G Iakimova, S Dimitrova, T Burté
OBJECTIVES: Computer-delivered Cognitive Behavioral Therapies (C-CBT) are emerging as therapeutic techniques which contribute to overcome the barriers of health care access in adult populations with depression. The C-CBTs provide CBT techniques in a highly structured format comprising a number of educational lessons, homework, multimedia illustrations and supplementary materials via interactive computer interfaces. Programs are often administrated with a minimal or regular support provided by a clinician or a technician via email, telephone, online forums, or during face-to-face consultations...
October 10, 2016: L'Encéphale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27697230/inpatient-satisfaction-and-usage-patterns-of-personalized-smart-bedside-station-system-for-patient-centered-service-at-a-tertiary-university-hospital
#11
Borim Ryu, Seok Kim, Kee-Hyuck Lee, Hee Hwang, Sooyoung Yoo
OBJECTIVE: Bedside stations, also known as bedside terminals, are in place to enhance the quality and experience of a hospital's healthcare service delivery. The purpose of this study was to identify information needs and overall satisfaction with the personalized patient bedside system, called Smart Bedside Station (SBS) system, embedded in a tertiary general university hospital. METHODS: End-user responses on the satisfaction survey and system usage logs of the SBS system were collected and analyzed...
November 2016: International Journal of Medical Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27687855/adolescent-female-text-messaging-preferences-to-prevent-pregnancy-after-an-emergency-department-visit-a-qualitative-analysis
#12
Lauren Stephanie Chernick, Rebecca Schnall, Melissa S Stockwell, Paula M Castaño, Tracy Higgins, Carolyn Westhoff, John Santelli, Peter S Dayan
BACKGROUND: Over 15 million adolescents use the emergency department (ED) each year in the United States. Adolescent females who use the ED for medical care have been found to be at high risk for unintended pregnancy. Given that adolescents represent the largest users of text messaging and are receptive to receiving text messages related to their sexual health, the ED visit represents an opportunity for intervention. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this qualitative study was to explore interest in and preferences for the content, frequency, and timing of an ED-based text message intervention to prevent pregnancy for adolescent females...
September 29, 2016: Journal of Medical Internet Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27687552/a-computer-human-interaction-model-to-improve-the-diagnostic-accuracy-and-clinical-decision-making-during-12-lead-electrocardiogram-interpretation
#13
Andrew W Cairns, Raymond R Bond, Dewar D Finlay, Cathal Breen, Daniel Guldenring, Robert Gaffney, Anthony G Gallagher, Aaron J Peace, Pat Henn
INTRODUCTION: The 12-lead Electrocardiogram (ECG) presents a plethora of information and demands extensive knowledge and a high cognitive workload to interpret. Whilst the ECG is an important clinical tool, it is frequently incorrectly interpreted. Even expert clinicians are known to impulsively provide a diagnosis based on their first impression and often miss co-abnormalities. Given it is widely reported that there is a lack of competency in ECG interpretation, it is imperative to optimise the interpretation process...
December 2016: Journal of Biomedical Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27660042/a-medical-device-grade-t1-and-ecv-phantom-for-global-t1-mapping-quality-assurance-the-t1-mapping-and-ecv-standardization-in-cardiovascular-magnetic-resonance-t1mes-program
#14
Gabriella Captur, Peter Gatehouse, Kathryn E Keenan, Friso G Heslinga, Ruediger Bruehl, Marcel Prothmann, Martin J Graves, Richard J Eames, Camilla Torlasco, Giulia Benedetti, Jacqueline Donovan, Bernd Ittermann, Redha Boubertakh, Andrew Bathgate, Celine Royet, Wenjie Pang, Reza Nezafat, Michael Salerno, Peter Kellman, James C Moon
BACKGROUND: T1 mapping and extracellular volume (ECV) have the potential to guide patient care and serve as surrogate end-points in clinical trials, but measurements differ between cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) scanners and pulse sequences. To help deliver T1 mapping to global clinical care, we developed a phantom-based quality assurance (QA) system for verification of measurement stability over time at individual sites, with further aims of generalization of results across sites, vendor systems, software versions and imaging sequences...
September 22, 2016: Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27606263/phantom-study-of-a-new-laser-etched-needle-for-improving-visibility-during-ultrasonography-guided-lumbar-medial-branch-access-with-novices
#15
Jung Wook Park, Min Woo Cheon, Min Hong Lee
OBJECTIVE: To compare the visibility and procedural parameters between a standard spinal needle and a new laser-etched needle (LEN) in real-time ultrasonography guided lumbar medial branch access in a phantom of the lumbosacral spine. METHODS: We conducted a prospective single-blinded observational study at a rehabilitation medicine center. A new model of LEN was manufactured with a standard 22-gauge spinal needle and a laser etching machine. Thirty-two inexperienced polyclinic medical students performed ultrasonography-guided lumbar medial branch access using both a standard spinal needle and a LEN with scanning protocol...
August 2016: Annals of Rehabilitation Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27583465/statistical-analysis-of-interactive-surgical-planning-using-shape-descriptors-in-mandibular-reconstruction-with-fibular-segments
#16
Megumi Nakao, Shimpei Aso, Yuichiro Imai, Nobuhiro Ueda, Toshihide Hatanaka, Mao Shiba, Tadaaki Kirita, Tetsuya Matsuda
This study was performed to quantitatively analyze medical knowledge of, and experience with, decision-making in preoperative virtual planning of mandibular reconstruction. Three shape descriptors were designed to evaluate local differences between reconstructed mandibles and patients' original mandibles. We targeted an asymmetrical, wide range of cutting areas including the mandibular sidepiece, and defined a unique three-dimensional coordinate system for each mandibular image. The generalized algorithms for computing the shape descriptors were integrated into interactive planning software, where the user can refine the preoperative plan using the spatial map of the local shape distance as a visual guide...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27582770/the-future-of-remote-ecg-monitoring-systems
#17
Shu-Li Guo, Li-Na Han, Hong-Wei Liu, Quan-Jin Si, De-Feng Kong, Fu-Su Guo
Remote ECG monitoring systems are becoming commonplace medical devices for remote heart monitoring. In recent years, remote ECG monitoring systems have been applied in the monitoring of various kinds of heart diseases, and the quality of the transmission and reception of the ECG signals during remote process kept advancing. However, there remains accompanying challenges. This report focuses on the three components of the remote ECG monitoring system: patient (the end user), the doctor workstation, and the remote server, reviewing and evaluating the imminent challenges on the wearable systems, packet loss in remote transmission, portable ECG monitoring system, patient ECG data collection system, and ECG signals transmission including real-time processing ST segment, R wave, RR interval and QRS wave, etc...
September 2016: Journal of Geriatric Cardiology: JGC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27579792/european-consensus-based-s2k-guideline-on-the-management-of-herpes-zoster-guided-by-the-european-dermatology-forum-edf-in-cooperation-with-the-european-academy-of-dermatology-and-venereology-eadv-part-2-treatment
#18
R N Werner, A F Nikkels, B Marinović, M Schäfer, M Czarnecka-Operacz, A M Agius, Z Bata-Csörgő, J Breuer, G Girolomoni, G E Gross, S Langan, R Lapid-Gortzak, T H Lesser, U Pleyer, J Sellner, G M Verjans, P Wutzler, C Dressler, R Erdmann, S Rosumeck, A Nast
BACKGROUND: Herpes zoster (HZ, shingles) is a frequent medical condition which may severely impact the quality of life of affected patients. Different therapeutic approaches to treat acute HZ are available. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this European project was the elaboration of a consensus-based guideline on the management of patients who present with HZ, considering different patient populations and different localisations. This interdisciplinary guideline aims at an improvement of the outcomes of the acute HZ management concerning disease duration, acute pain and quality of life of the affected patients and at a reduction of the incidence of PHN and other complications...
August 31, 2016: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology: JEADV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27568822/community-pharmacist-experiences-of-providing-needle%C3%A2-and-syringe-programmes-in-ireland
#19
Jim McVeigh, Evelyn Hearne, Geoff Bates, Marie Claire Van Hout
BACKGROUND: Community pharmacists are increasingly acknowledged as under-utilized, important and accessible health providers in providing harm reduction support to drug users via needle and syringe programmes (NSP), provision of advice, HIV/Hepatitis testing and as referral mechanism to social, medical and treatment services. We report here on qualitative findings as part of the evaluation of the pilot Pharmacy Needle Exchange (PNEX) programme in Ireland. OBJECTIVES: The aim was to understand and illustrate pharmacist experiences of providing NSP...
August 3, 2016: Research in Social & Administrative Pharmacy: RSAP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27557676/intention-to-treat-and-transparency-of-related-practices-in-randomized-controlled-trials-of-anti-infectives
#20
Robert D Beckett, Kathryn C Loeser, Kathryn R Bowman, Trent G Towne
BACKGROUND: Intention-to-treat (ITT) analysis is commonly recommended for use, due to its benefits on external validity, in randomized, controlled trials (RCTs). No published reports describe how ITT analysis, as well as alternative approaches, are used in anti-infective RCTs. The purpose of this study is to describe the extent to which ITT analysis and alternative data approaches are used, the practices used to handle missing subject data, and whether non-inferiority trials present both ITT and per protocol (PP) analyses...
2016: BMC Medical Research Methodology
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