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Ketamine AND child AND sedation

Julius Z Wermelt, Richard K Ellerkmann
Emergence Delirium in children after general anesthesia is a common and self limitating event. Although it might be seen as being harmless it can cause other serious complications and might leave both parents and other caregivers with a negative impression behind. Although the cause may still not be clear, potential predictors can be named: preschool age, the use of fast acting volatile anesthestics, higher preoperative anxiety levels and postoperative pain.A child-focused approach to reduce preoperative anxiety focusing on distraction methods rather than pharmacological sedation may be the key as well as sufficient postoperative pain control and the use of total intravenous anesthesia...
July 2016: Anästhesiologie, Intensivmedizin, Notfallmedizin, Schmerztherapie: AINS
Orit Rubinstein, Shiri Barkan, Rachelle Breitbart, Sofia Berkovitch, Michal Toledano, Giora Weiser, Natali Karadi, Anat Nassi, Eran Kozer
OBJECTIVE: To assess the efficacy of oral ketamine versus oral midazolam for sedation during laceration repair at a pediatric emergency department. METHODS: Children between 1 and 10 years requiring laceration repair were randomly assigned to 2 groups, treated either with oral midazolam (0.7 mg/kg) or with oral ketamine (5 mg/kg).Main outcomes measured were level of pain during local anesthesia, as assessed by the parent on a 10-cm visual analog scale (VAS) and the number of children who required intravenous sedation...
June 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Parul Uppal Malhotra, Seema Thakur, Parul Singhal, Deepak Chauhan, Cheranjeevi Jayam, Ritu Sood, Yagyeshwar Malhotra
BACKGROUND: Pharmacological methods have been used as an adjunct to enhance child cooperativeness and facilitate dental treatment. OBJECTIVE: Purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the effect of sedation by intranasal dexmedetomidine and oral combination drug midazolam-ketamine in a group of children with uncooperative behavior requiring dental treatment. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a prospective, randomized, double-blind study that included patients 3-9 years old with American Society of Anesthesiologists-I status...
April 2016: Contemporary Clinical Dentistry
Amber Thomas, Jamie L Miller, Kevin Couloures, Peter N Johnson
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to describe the method of delivery, dosage regimens, and outcomes of sedatives administered by extravascular route for imaging procedures in children. METHODS: Medline, Embase, International Pharmaceutical Abstracts, and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews were searched using keywords "child", "midazolam", "ketamine", dexmedetomidine", "fentanyl", "nitrous oxide", and "imaging." Articles evaluating the use of extravascular sedation in children for imaging procedures published in English between 1946 and March 2015 were included...
November 2015: Journal of Pediatric Pharmacology and Therapeutics: JPPT: the Official Journal of PPAG
Cristelle Chow, Chew Thye Choong
INTRODUCTION: Adequate procedural sedation and analgesia (PSA) is essential to reduce pain and distress for children undergoing intramuscular botulinum toxin (BoNT-A) injections. This study describes our institution's experience with ketamine-based PSA in terms of safety and efficacy in children with cerebral palsy receiving BoNT-A injections. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This is an analysis of ketamine-based PSA for children undergoing BoNT-A injections between January 2000 and October 2014...
March 2016: European Journal of Paediatric Neurology: EJPN
Robert H Friesen, Mark D Twite, Christopher S Nichols, Kathryn A Cardwell, Zhaoxing Pan, Jeffrey R Darst, Neil Wilson, Thomas E Fagan, Shelley D Miyamoto, D Dunbar Ivy
BACKGROUND: The safety of ketamine in children with pulmonary hypertension has been debated because of conflicting results of prior studies in which changes in mean pulmonary artery pressure (mPAP) and pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) have been widely variable. The goal of this prospective study was to quantitate the effects of ketamine on pulmonary hemodynamics in a cohort of children with pulmonary hypertension under conditions in which variables such as airway/ventilatory management, FiO(2), and use of vasodilating anesthetics were controlled...
January 2016: Paediatric Anaesthesia
Razieh Fallah, Farzad Ferdosian, Ahmad Shajari
Procedural sedation may be needed in many diagnostic and therapeutic procedures in children. To make pediatric procedural sedation as safe as possible, protocols should be developed by institutions. Response to sedation in children is highly variable, while some become deeply sedated after minimal doses, others may need much higher doses. Child developmental status, clinical circumstances and condition of patient should be considered and then pharmacologic and non-pharmacologic interventions for sedation be selected...
2015: Iranian Journal of Child Neurology
Shahram Samadi, Mihan Jafari Javid, Maziar Maghsoudloo, Sorousg Faghihnasiri, Afshar Etemadi-Aleagha
Treatment of cancer in children often requires a combination of chemotherapy, surgery, and/or radiotherapy. Radiotherapy and chemotherapy are not painful processes, but children undergoing these procedures must be made motionless through anesthesia or sedation. There are a few reports of complications during these procedures in relation to the procedures themselves or to the anesthesia given. This report describes an unexpected pulseless radial artery which was preliminarily and unduly attributed to anesthesia...
August 2015: Electronic Physician
Chris O'Hara, Robert F Tamburro, Gary D Ceneviva
Agents used to control end-of-life suffering are associated with troublesome side effects. The use of dexmedetomidine for sedation during withdrawal of support in pediatrics is not yet described. An adolescent female with progressive and irreversible pulmonary deterioration was admitted. Despite weeks of therapy, she did not tolerate weaning of supplemental oxygen or continuous bilevel positive airway pressure. Given her condition and the perception that she was suffering, the family requested withdrawal of support...
2015: Palliative Care
Getachew Teshome, Janet L Braun, Richard Lichenstein
BACKGROUND: The American Academy of Pediatrics and American Society of Anesthesiologists have published consensus-based fasting guidelines intended to reduce the risk of pulmonary aspiration. The purpose of our study was to compare the rate of adverse events in patients sedated with ketamine within 2 hours of oral contrast intake to those who were nil per os (NPO). METHODS: A retrospective cohort review of a database of children between July 2008 and May 2011. The rate of adverse events in children sedated with ketamine after intake of oral contrast for an abdominal computed tomography were compared with those sedated without taking oral contrast...
September 2015: Hospital Pediatrics
D Flores-Castillo, R Martínez-Rider, S Ruiz-Rodríguez, A Garrocho-Rangel, J Lara-Guevara, A Pozos-Guillén
AIM: The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of subcutaneous (SC) sedation using midazolam with and without ketamine in non-cooperative pediatric patients undergoing dental treatment. STUDY DESIGN: A prospective, randomized, controlled, double-blind, crossover pilot clinical trial was carried out in 13 children, aged between 17-46 months, ASA l, Frankl 1. Two sedation schemes were administered SC: Midazolam alone (M), and a combination of Midazolam-Ketamine (MK)...
2015: Journal of Clinical Pediatric Dentistry
Senol Bicer, Ufuk Kuyrukluyildiz, Fethi Akyol, Murat Sahin, Orhan Binici, Didem Onk
BACKGROUND: Although male circumcision is a surgical intervention that is frequently performed in children, there is no consensus about the age at which it should be performed. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to determine the best age range for routine male circumcision with respect to a child's health and the cost. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This clinical trial was conducted in the affiliated hospital of the Erzincan University of Medical Sciences, Turkey, in 2014...
March 2015: Iranian Red Crescent Medical Journal
Mustafa Serinken, Cenker Eken
OBJECTIVE: Ketamine is a dissociative anesthetic agent that has an increased frequency of usage in the last years particularly in emergency departments. In the present study, we aimed to determine whether ketamine is related to myocardial injury in children undergoing minor procedures. METHOD: Children younger than 18 years undergoing procedural sedation secondary to minor trauma composed the study population. Patients were administered ketamine with a dose of 1...
July 2015: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
Mohamed Ibrahim
BACKGROUND: For optimum magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) image quality and to ensure precise diagnosis, patients have to remain motionless. We studied the effects of intranasal dexmedetomidine and ketamine with intravenous midazolam for pre-procedural and procedural sedation in school aged children. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Children were randomly allocated to one of two groups: (Group D) received intranasal dexmedetomidine 3 μg kg(-1) and (Group K) received intranasal ketamine 7 mg kg(-1)...
May 2014: Anesthesia, Essays and Researches
Ola M Zanaty, Shahira Ahmed El Metainy
BACKGROUND: This study was designed to evaluate and compare the efficacy and safety of nebulized dexmedetomidine, nebulized ketamine, and the combination of these drugs for premedication in pediatric outpatient dental surgeries. METHODS: A prospective, randomized, double-blinded study was conducted in the Alexandria Main University Hospital after approval of the Medical Ethics Committee. Informed written consent was obtained from the patient's parents. Sixty children classified as ASA physical status I and II and aged 3 to 6 years were enrolled in the study...
July 2015: Anesthesia and Analgesia
Eric Scheier, Chen Gadot, Ronit Leiba, Itai Shavit
BACKGROUND: Literature to date has suggested advantages of sedation with the combination of ketamine and propofol over ketamine alone or propofol alone. However, there is a paucity of data regarding sedation with the combination of ketamine and propofol in pediatric emergency medicine. METHODS: A retrospective case series analysis of children who underwent sedation with the combination of ketamine and propofol in a pediatric emergency department was conducted. Study covariates were extracted from the emergency department medical records...
June 2015: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
Alper Yenigun, Tayfun Et, Sirin Aytac, Betul Olcay
OBJECTIVES: Tonsillectomy is the oldest and most frequently performed surgical procedure practiced by ear, nose, and throat physicians. In this study, our aim was to compare the analgesic effects of peritonsillar, rectal, as well as intravenous infiltration of ketamine and intravenous tramadol hydrochloride infiltration for postoperative pain relief and sedation after tonsillectomy in children. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This randomized controlled study evaluated the effects of peritonsillar, intravenous, and rectal infiltration of ketamine in children undergoing adenotonsillectomy...
January 2015: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
Chanchai Traivaree, Wanchana Jindakam, Chalinee Monsereenusorn, Piya Rujkijyanont, Rachata Lumkul
BACKGROUND: The pain and its complication during sedation with ketamine remain a significant problem for children with hematologic malignancy. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the present study was to evaluate further the parental satisfaction for procedural sedation and analgesia during pediatric hematology/oncology procedures perfonned by pediatrician in the Department of Pediatrics, Phramongkutklao Hospital. MATERIAL AND METHOD: The authors prospectively evaluated our experience using intravenous ketamine 1 mg/kg for oncology patients undergoing procedures at Department ofPediatrics, Phramongkutklao Hospital...
February 2014: Journal of the Medical Association of Thailand, Chotmaihet Thangphaet
Ke Peng, Shao-ru Wu, Fu-hai Ji, Jian Li
Premedication is important in pediatric anesthesia. This meta-analysis aimed to investigate the role of dexmedetomidine as a premedicant for pediatric patients. A systematic literature search was conducted to identify randomized controlled trials comparing dexmedetomidine premedication with midazolam or ketamine premedication or placebo in children. Two reviewers independently performed the study selection, quality assessment and data extraction. The original data were pooled for the meta-analysis with Review Manager 5...
November 2014: Clinics
Itai Shavit, Noam Bar-Yaakov, Lelah Grossman, Giora Weiser, Ruth Edry, Ivan P Steiner
OBJECTIVE: Intraoral procedures (IOPs) are performed within the oral cavity of a spontaneously breathing, deeply sedated child. The objective of this study was to retrospectively evaluate the safety of sedation for IOP in a pediatric emergency department. METHODS: An unmatched, case-control study was conducted. The records of patients who had an IOP between January 1, 2012, and December 31, 2012, were analyzed. We evaluated the rate of serious adverse events during sedation (SAEDS) in patients who had an IOP (case subjects) and in patients who had a closed reduction of a forearm fracture (controls) and compared the 2 cohorts...
November 2014: Pediatric Emergency Care
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