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Samiksha Singh, Pat Doyle, Oona M R Campbell, G V R Rao, G V S Murthy
BACKGROUND: The transport of pregnant women to an appropriate health facility plays a pivotal role in preventing maternal deaths. In India, state-run call-centre based ambulance systems ('108' and '102'), along with district-level Janani Express and local community-based innovations, provide transport services for pregnant women. We studied the role of '108' ambulance services in transporting pregnant women routinely and obstetric emergencies in India. METHODS: This study was an analysis of '108' ambulance call-centre data from six states for the year 2013-14...
October 21, 2016: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
IJsbrand T Klip, Adriaan A Voors, Dorine W Swinkels, Stephan J L Bakker, Jenny E Kootstra-Ros, Carolyn S Lam, Pim van der Harst, Dirk J van Veldhuisen, Peter van der Meer
AIMS: Heart failure (HF) is a common manifestation of patients with primary and secondary causes of iron overload, whereas in patients with established HF iron deficiency impairs outcome. Whether iron stores, either depleted or in overload, amplify the risk for new-onset HF among healthy individuals is unknown. The present study aimed to assess whether markers of iron status or the iron-regulatory hormone hepcidin are associated with new-onset HF or cardiovascular (CV) events in the general population...
October 19, 2016: European Journal of Heart Failure
Emmanuelle Kesse-Guyot, Karen Assmann, Valentina Andreeva, Katia Castebon, Caroline Méjean, Mathilde Touvier, Benoît Salanave, Valérie Deschamps, Sandrine Péneau, Léopold Fezeu, Chantal Julia, Benjamin Allès, Pilar Galan, Serge Hercberg
BACKGROUND: Traditional epidemiological research methods exhibit limitations leading to high logistics, human, and financial burden. The continued development of innovative digital tools has the potential to overcome many of the existing methodological issues. Nonetheless, Web-based studies remain relatively uncommon, partly due to persistent concerns about validity and generalizability. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this viewpoint is to summarize findings from methodological studies carried out in the NutriNet-Santé study, a French Web-based cohort study...
October 18, 2016: JMIR Public Health and Surveillance
Sandy Middleton, Chris Levi, Simeon Dale, N Wah Cheung, Elizabeth McInnes, Julie Considine, Catherine D'Este, Dominique A Cadilhac, Jeremy Grimshaw, Richard Gerraty, Louise Craig, Verena Schadewaldt, Patrick McElduff, Mark Fitzgerald, Clare Quinn, Greg Cadigan, Sonia Denisenko, Mark Longworth, Jeanette Ward
BACKGROUND: Internationally recognised evidence-based guidelines recommend appropriate triage of patients with stroke in emergency departments (EDs), administration of tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), and proactive management of fever, hyperglycaemia and swallowing before prompt transfer to a stroke unit to maximise outcomes. We aim to evaluate the effectiveness in EDs of a theory-informed, nurse-initiated, intervention to improve multidisciplinary triage, treatment and transfer (T(3)) of patients with acute stroke to improve 90-day death and dependency...
October 18, 2016: Implementation Science: IS
Shauna M Baillie, Andrew M Muir, Michael J Hansen, Charles C Krueger, Paul Bentzen
BACKGROUND: Adaptive radiation involving a colonizing phenotype that rapidly evolves into at least one other ecological variant, or ecotype, has been observed in a variety of freshwater fishes in post-glacial environments. However, few studies consider how phenotypic traits vary with regard to neutral genetic partitioning along ecological gradients. Here, we present the first detailed investigation of lake trout Salvelinus namaycush that considers variation as a cline rather than discriminatory among ecotypes...
October 19, 2016: BMC Evolutionary Biology
Jitendra Meena, Pankaja Raghav, Neeti Rustagi
OBJECTIVE: To study the treatment compliance and adverse effects among hypertensive patients receiving treatment at Hypertension clinic, UHTC Pratap Nagar, Jodhpur, India. DESIGN AND METHOD: A longitudinal study was conducted on 1036 hypertensive patients enrolled at Hypertension clinic, Pratap Nagar, Jodhpur, India. Patients attendees to the clinic during inception (Nov 2013) were selected for study purpose and quarterly follow-ups were done. The participants were asked about their socio-demographic status, therapy, side effects, and compliance with physicians' instructions...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Paul Whelton
BACKGROUND: Choice of the optimal target for blood pressure (BP) reduction during treatment of patients with hypertension, including those with underlying co-morbid conditions, is an important challenge in clinical practice. The Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial (SPRINT) was designed to provide guidance in selection of a Systolic BP target during treatment of hypertension. METHODS: Adults ≥50 years old with hypertension and at least one additional risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD), but excluding persons with diabetes mellitus, prior stroke, or advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD) were randomly assigned to intensive therapy (intensive), targeting a systolic BP (SBP) <120 mmHg, or standard therapy (standard), targeting a SBP <140 mmHg...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Anna Dominiczak
Human primary or essential hypertension is a complex, polygenic trait with some 50% contribution from genes and environment. Richard Lifton and colleagues provided elegant dissection of several rare Mendelian forms of hypertension, exemplified by the glucocorticoid remediable aldosteronism and Liddle's syndrome. These discoveries illustrate that a single gene mutation can explain the entire pathogenesis of severe, early onset hypertension as well as dictating the best treatment.The dissection of the much more common polygenic hypertension has proven much more difficult...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Fengcai Zhu, Henri Deckx, Raphaele Roten, Bart Michiels, Michal Sarnecki
AIM: Compare efficacy, immunogenicity and safety of Hepavax-Gene TF (thimerosal free) vaccine with comparator in Chinese neonates. METHODS: Double-blind, randomized, parallel-group, stratified study was conducted at multiple sites in China in healthy neonates, consisting of three doses of Hepavax-Gene TF or Engerix-B vaccines administered at birth, one and six months of age, with a six month follow-up after vaccination. Based on hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection status of mothers, infants were assigned to one of two study strata for mothers positive for HBV infection (Stratum 1), with or without active replicating virus (Substrata 1a, 1b) and for HBV negative mothers (Stratum 2)...
October 6, 2016: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Mario I Fernández, Stephen B Williams, Daniel L Willis, Rebecca S Slack, Rian J Dickstein, Sahil Parikh, Edmund Chiong, Arlene O Siefker-Radtke, Charles C Guo, Bogdan A Czerniak, David J McConkey, Jay B Shah, Louis L Pisters, H Barton Grossman, Colin P N Dinney, Ashish M Kamat
OBJECTIVE: To analyze survival in clinically localized, surgically resectable micropapillary bladder cancer patients undergoing radical cystectomy with and without neoadjuvant chemotherapy and develop risk strata based on outcome data. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A review of our database identified 103 patients with surgically resectable (≤cT4acN0cM0) micropapillary bladder cancer who underwent radical cystectomy. Survival estimates were calculated using Kaplan-Meier method and compared using log-rank tests...
October 18, 2016: BJU International
Matthew P Deek, Sinae Kim, Ning Yue, Rekha Baby, Inaya Ahmed, Wei Zou, John Langenfeld, Joseph Aisner, Salma K Jabbour
BACKGROUND: To investigate the impact of advances in image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT) on the outcomes of patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treated with chemoradiation therapy (CRT). METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed 91 patients with NSCLC treated with definitive CRT using image guidance with daily orthogonal kilovoltage (kV) imaging compared to standard weekly megavoltage (MV) portal verifications. Kaplan-Meier curves for overall survival and locoregional failure were computed and stratified by image guidance techniques...
September 2016: Journal of Thoracic Disease
Stefano C Meliga, Jacob W Coffey, Michael L Crichton, Christopher Flaim, Martin Veidt, Mark A F Kendall
: In-depth understanding of skin elastic and rupture behavior is fundamental to enable next-generation biomedical devices to directly access areas rich in cells and biomolecules. However, the paucity of skin mechanical characterization and lack of established fracture models limits their rational design. We present an experimental and numerical study of skin mechanics during dynamic interaction with individual and arrays of micro-penetrators. Initially, micro-indentation of individual skin strata revealed hyperelastic moduli were dramatically rate-dependent, enabling extrapolation of stiffness properties at high velocity regimes (>1ms(-1))...
October 13, 2016: Acta Biomaterialia
Heidi P Fransen, Jolanda M A Boer, Joline W J Beulens, G Ardine de Wit, H Bas Bueno-de-Mesquita, Jeljer Hoekstra, Anne M May, Petra H M Peeters
BACKGROUND: Unhealthy dietary patterns have been associated with other unhealthy lifestyle factors such as smoking and physical inactivity. Whether these associations are similar in high- and low-educated individuals is currently unknown. METHODS: We used information of the EPIC-NL cohort, a prospective cohort of 39 393 men and women, aged 20-70 years at recruitment. A lifestyle questionnaire and a validated food frequency questionnaire were administered at recruitment (1993-97)...
October 15, 2016: European Journal of Public Health
Vishnuprasad Mullakkezhil Reghunathan, Sabu Joseph, C Unnikrishnan Warrier, A Shahul Hameed, Sheela Albert Moses
Environmental carrying capacity is a measure of competence of a lake to accommodate pollution inputs without degrading water quality. In the research reported here, we identified the factors influencing the environmental carrying capacity of Vellayani Lake or VL (a typical tropical freshwater lake), Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala State, India. R-mode factor analysis is used to identify the factors controlling the carrying capacity of the lake, whereas hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) helped to classify the lake...
November 2016: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Suneela Mehta, Sue Wells, Rod Jackson, Jeff Harrison, Andrew Kerr
AIM: Publicly-funded atorvastatin required prior approval until September 2010 whereas simvastatin did not. Our aim was to examine if overall statin dispensing and atorvastatin dispensing among patients hospitalised for cardiovascular disease (CVD) differed systematically across sociodemographic groups during and after special authority criteria. METHOD: National medication dispensing data were anonymously linked to patients hospitalised across New Zealand with CVD and discharged between 1/07/2009-31/12/2009 when special authority criteria applied and 1/09/2010-28/02/2011 after restrictions ceased...
October 14, 2016: New Zealand Medical Journal
Laura M Beskow, Li Lin, Carrie B Dombeck, Emily Gao, Kevin P Weinfurt
PURPOSE: To determine the individual and combined effects of a simplified form and a review/retest intervention on biobanking consent comprehension. METHODS: We conducted a national online survey in which participants were randomized within four educational strata to review a simplified or traditional consent form. Participants then completed a comprehension quiz; for each item answered incorrectly, they reviewed the corresponding consent form section and answered another quiz item on that topic...
October 13, 2016: Genetics in Medicine: Official Journal of the American College of Medical Genetics
S B Salagre, S M Itolikar, J J Churiwala
OBJECTIVE: (1) To study the prevalence and clinical attributes of metabolic syndrome in hypertensive subjects (2) To identify the factors determining the high prevalence of metabolic syndrome in hypertensive subjects. METHODS: After ethical considerations, this prospective observational study was conducted on 151 non-pregnant essential hypertensive adults. Diagnosis of metabolic syndrome was made as per the NCEP - ATP III criteria. The parameters were compared with those of hypertensive subjects without metabolic syndrome...
April 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
Ayman S Abutair, Ihab A Naser, Amin T Hamed
BACKGROUND: Water-soluble dietary fibers intake may help control blood glucose and body weight. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to determine whether soluble fiber supplementation from psyllium improves glycemic control indicators and body weight in type 2 diabetic patients. METHOD: Forty type 2 diabetes patients, non-smoker, aged >35 years were stratified to different strata according to sex, age, body mass index (BMI) and fasting blood sugar level (FBS) and randomly assigned into two groups; The intervention group which consists of 20 participants was on soluble fiber (10...
October 12, 2016: Nutrition Journal
Alex Salas-Lopez, Houadria Mickal, Florian Menzel, Jérôme Orivel
The diversity and functional identity of organisms are known to be relevant to the maintenance of ecosystem processes but can be variable in different environments. Particularly, it is uncertain whether ecosystem processes are driven by complementary effects or by dominant groups of species. We investigated how community structure (i.e., the diversity and relative abundance of biological entities) explains the community-level contribution of Neotropical ant communities to different ecosystem processes in different environments...
October 11, 2016: Oecologia
Jacques M Pasteels, Olivier Deparis, Sébastien R Mouchet, Donald M Windsor, Johan Billen
Charidotella ambita offers a unique opportunity for unambiguously locating its gold reflector by comparing the structure of reflecting and non-reflecting cuticle of the elytron and pronotum. Using light microscopy and TEM, the reflector was located underneath the macrofiber endocuticle just above the epidermis. The reflector is a multilayer comprising up to 50 bilayers alternating high and low density layers parallel to the surface of the cuticle. It is chirped, i.e., showing a progressive decrease in layer thickness from approximately 150 nm to 100 nm across its depth...
October 7, 2016: Arthropod Structure & Development
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