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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749953/approaches-to-detect-genetic-effects-that-differ-between-two-strata-in-genome-wide-meta-analyses-recommendations-based-on-a-systematic-evaluation
#1
Thomas W Winkler, Anne E Justice, L Adrienne Cupples, Florian Kronenberg, Zoltán Kutalik, Iris M Heid
Genome-wide association meta-analyses (GWAMAs) conducted separately by two strata have identified differences in genetic effects between strata, such as sex-differences for body fat distribution. However, there are several approaches to identify such differences and an uncertainty which approach to use. Assuming the availability of stratified GWAMA results, we compare various approaches to identify between-strata differences in genetic effects. We evaluate type I error and power via simulations and analytical comparisons for different scenarios of strata designs and for different types of between-strata differences...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749402/coverage-of-childhood-vaccination-among-children-aged-12-23-months-tamil-nadu-2015-india
#2
Manoj V Murhekar, P Kamaraj, K Kanagasabai, G Elavarasu, T Daniel Rajasekar, K Boopathi, Sanjay Mehendale
BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: District-Level Household Survey-4 (DLHS-4) indicated that during 2012-2013, only 56 per cent of children aged 12-23 months in Tamil Nadu were fully vaccinated, which were lesser than those reported in earlier national surveys. We, therefore, conducted cluster surveys to estimate coverage of childhood vaccination in the State, and also to identify the factors associated with low coverage. METHODS: Cross-sectional surveys were conducted in 15 strata [municipal corporation non-slum (n=1), municipal corporation slum (n=1), hilly (n=1), rural (n=6) and urban (n=6)]...
March 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748718/diabetes-drugs-and-the-incidence-of-solid-cancers-a-survey-of-the-current-evidence
#3
Marco Tuccori, Irma Convertino, Maria Teresa Galiulo, Alessandra Marino, Alice Capogrosso-Sansone, Corrado Blandizzi
The evaluation of the relationship between the use of antidiabetic drug and the occurrence of cancer is extremely challenging, both from the clinical and pharmacoepidemiological standpoint. This narrative review described the current evidence supporting a relationship between the use of antidiabetic drugs and the incidence of solid cancers. Areas Covered: Data from pharmacoepidemiological studies on cancer incidence were presented for the main antidiabetic drugs and drug classes, including human insulin and insulin analogues, metformin, sulfonylureas, glinides, alpha-glucosidase inhibitors, thiazolidinediones, incretin mimetics, and sodium glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitors...
July 27, 2017: Expert Opinion on Drug Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747321/the-affordable-care-act-reduced-socioeconomic-disparities-in-health-care-access
#4
Kevin Griffith, Leigh Evans, Jacob Bor
The United States has the largest socioeconomic disparities in health care access of any wealthy country. We assessed changes in these disparities in the United States under the Affordable Care Act (ACA). We used survey data for the period 2011-15 from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System to assess trends in insurance coverage, having a personal doctor, and avoiding medical care due to cost. All analyses were stratified by household income, education level, employment status, and home ownership status...
July 26, 2017: Health Affairs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747202/knowledge-of-non-communicable-diseases-and-practices-related-to-healthy-lifestyles-among-adolescents-in-state-schools-of-a-selected-educational-division-in-sri-lanka
#5
A U Gamage, P L Jayawardana
BACKGROUND: Behaviors established during the adolescence have life-long consequences to the onset of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) in later life. Therefore, it is essential to understand adolescents' knowledge and practices with the intention of developing preventive programs focusing on this age group. The objective of the study was to assess knowledge about selected NCDs, and lifestyle choices among school students aged 17-19 years in state schools of the Maharagama Educational Division, Sri Lanka...
July 26, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747194/obesity-in-scotland-a-persistent-inequality
#6
Elaine Tod, Catherine Bromley, Andrew D Millard, Allan Boyd, Phil Mackie, Gerry McCartney
BACKGROUND: Obesity is a health problem in its own right and a risk factor for other conditions such as cardiovascular disease. The prevalence of overweight and obesity increased in Scotland between 1995 and 2008 with socio-economic inequalities persisting in adults over time and increasing in children. This paper explores changes in the underlying distribution of body mass index (BMI) which is less well understood. METHODS: Using data from the Scottish Health Survey (SHeS) between 1995 and 2014 for adults aged 18-64 years, we calculated population distributions for BMI for the population overall, and for age, sex and deprivation strata...
July 27, 2017: International Journal for Equity in Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746178/assessment-of-cytomegalovirus-and-cell-mediated-immunity-for-predicting-outcomes-in-non-hiv-infected-patients-with-pneumocystis-jirovecii-pneumonia
#7
Taeeun Kim, Se Yoon Park, Hyun-Jung Lee, Sun-Mi Kim, Heungsup Sung, Yong Pil Chong, Sang-Oh Lee, Sang-Ho Choi, Yang Soo Kim, Jun Hee Woo, Sung-Han Kim
The clinical importance of pulmonary cytomegalovirus (CMV) co-infection in patients with Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PCP) is uncertain. We therefore determined the association of CMV infection with outcomes in non-HIV-infected patients with PCP by assessing CMV viral load and CMV-specific T-cell response.We prospectively enrolled all non-HIV-infected patients with confirmed PCP, over a 2-year period. Real-time polymerase chain reaction from bronchoalveolar lavage was performed to measure CMV viral load, and CMV enzyme-linked immunospot assays of peripheral blood were used to measure CMV-specific T-cell responses...
July 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742825/impact-of-maternal-and-neonatal-health-initiatives-on-inequity-in-maternal-health-care-utilization-in-bangladesh
#8
Mohammad Rifat Haider, Mohammad Masudur Rahman, Md Moinuddin, Ahmed Ehsanur Rahman, Shakil Ahmed, M Mahmud Khan
BACKGROUND: Despite remarkable progress in maternal and child health, inequity persists in maternal care utilization in Bangladesh. Government of Bangladesh (GOB) with technical assistance from United Nation Population Fund (UNFPA), United Nation Children's Fund (UNICEF) and World Health Organization (WHO) started implementing Maternal and Neonatal Health Initiatives in selected districts of Bangladesh (MNHIB) in 2007 with an aim to reduce inequity in healthcare utilization. This study examines the effect of MNHIB on inequity in maternal care utilization...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742504/correlation-of-serum-anti-m%C3%A3-llerian-hormone-levels-with-positive-in-vitro-fertilization-outcome-using-a-short-agonist-protocol
#9
Spyridon D Mantzavinos, Nikolaos P Vlahos, Demetrios Rizos, Demetrios Botsis, Theodoros N Sergentanis, Efthimios Deligeoroglou, Themistoklis Mantzavinos
OBJECTIVE: We examined the predictive ability of anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) for clinical pregnancy in women who underwent in vitro fertilization (IVF) cycles in a short agonist protocol. DESIGN: This is a retrospective cohort study of 222 women undergoing their first IVF attempt between June 2010 and March 2016. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to evaluate the independent associations between clinical pregnancy and its possible predictors...
April 2017: Hormones: International Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741360/influence-of-chemical-mechanical-and-transport-processes-on-wellbore-leakage-from-geologic-co2-storage-reservoirs
#10
Susan A Carroll, Jaisree Iyer, Stuart D C Walsh
Wells are considered to be high-risk pathways for fluid leakage from geologic CO2 storage reservoirs, because breaches in this engineered system have the potential to connect the reservoir to groundwater resources and the atmosphere. Given these concerns, a few studies have assessed leakage risk by evaluating regulatory records, often self-reported, documenting leakage in gas fields. Leakage is thought to be governed largely by initial well-construction quality and the method of well abandonment. The geologic carbon storage community has raised further concerns because acidic fluids in the CO2 storage reservoir, alkaline cement meant to isolate the reservoir fluids from the overlying strata, and steel casings in wells are inherently reactive systems...
July 25, 2017: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741335/cardiopulmonary-bypass-time-every-minute-counts
#11
Sudharsan Madhavan, Siew-Pang Chan, Wei-Chuan Tan, Jolane Eng, Bowen Li, Hai-Dong Luo, Leok-Kheng K Teoh
BACKGROUND: This study was conducted to examine the impact of CPB times on post-operative outcomes. We sought to determine the optimum cut-offs of CPB per graft time and cumulative CPB time and their predictive accuracy for mortality in conjunction with EuroSCORE II. METHODS: The de-identified data of 1,960 patients who had undergone isolated on-pump CABG from 2009 to 2014 were analyzed. The risk strata of CPB/graft and cumulative CPB times, identified with a decision tree, were added into an augmented model for predicting short- and intermediate-term post-operative clinical events...
July 24, 2017: Journal of Cardiovascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737360/-capacity-of-response-of-the-health-system-to-the-expectations-of-populations-in-zones-exposed-to-results-based-financing-in-benin-in-2015
#12
Lamidhi Salami, Edgard-Marius Dona Ouendo, Benjamin Fayomi
Introduction: The increased use of results-based financing (RBF) services was the basis for this study designed to evaluate the contribution of RBF to the capacity of response of the health system to the population’s expectations. Methods: This study, conducted in six Benin health zones randomly selected in two strata exposed to RBF (FBR_PRPSS and FBR_PASS) and one zone not exposed to RBF (Non_FBR), examined the seven dimensions of reactivity. A score, followed by weighting of their attributes, was used to calculate the index of reactivity (IR)...
July 10, 2017: Santé Publique: Revue Multidisciplinaire Pour la Recherche et L'action
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734539/evidence-based-thresholds-for-the-volume-value-relationship-in-shoulder-arthroplasty-outcomes-and-economies-of-scale
#13
Prem N Ramkumar, Sergio M Navarro, Heather S Haeberle, Eric T Ricchetti, Joseph P Iannotti
BACKGROUND: Whereas several studies suggest that high-volume surgeons and hospitals deliver superior patient outcomes with greater cost efficiency, no evidence-based thresholds separating high-volume surgeons and hospitals from those that are low or medium volume exist in shoulder arthroplasty. The objective of this study was to establish meaningful thresholds that take outcomes and cost into consideration for surgeons and hospitals performing shoulder arthroplasty. METHODS: Using 9546 patients undergoing primary shoulder arthroplasty for osteoarthritis from an administrative database, we created and applied 4 models using stratum-specific likelihood ratio (SSLR) analysis of a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve...
August 2017: Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732277/assessment-of-metal-and-pah-profiles-in-suds-soil-based-on-an-improved-experimental-procedure
#14
Damien Tedoldi, Ghassan Chebbo, Daniel Pierlot, Yves Kovacs, Marie-Christine Gromaire
The increasing use of infiltration-based systems for stormwater management questions the soil's ability to act as a long-term filter for runoff contaminants, and brings about operational matters regarding the most effective maintenance practices to enhance contaminant retention in SUDS. This paper reports the vertical extent of metal and PAH contamination in the soil of seven source-control devices in operation for more than 10 years, assessed via a two-step sampling strategy to optimize the representativeness of the contamination profiles...
July 18, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732187/do-genetic-markers-of-inflammation-modify-the-relationship-between-periodontitis-and-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-findings-from-the-ship-study
#15
A A Akinkugbe, C L Avery, A S Barritt, S R Cole, M Lerch, J Mayerle, S Offenbacher, A Petersmann, M Nauck, H Völzke, G D Slade, G Heiss, T Kocher, B Holtfreter
An association between periodontitis and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has been reported by experimental animal and epidemiologic studies. This study investigated whether circulating levels of serum C-reactive protein (CRP) and a weighted genetic CRP score representing markers of inflammatory burden modify the association between periodontitis and NAFLD. Data came from 2,481 participants of the Study of Health in Pomerania who attended baseline examination that occurred between 1997 and 2001. Periodontitis was defined as the percentage of sites (0%, <30%, ≥30%) with probing pocket depth (PD) ≥4 mm, and NAFLD status was determined using liver ultrasound assessment...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Dental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731001/economic-and-social-impact-of-out-of-pocket-expenditure-on-households-of-patients-attending-public-hospitals
#16
Vikas Bajpai, Namrata Singh, Hardik Sardana, Sanjana Kumari, Beth Vettiyil, Anoop Saraya
BACKGROUND: We aimed to generate evidence on the social and economic impact of out-of-pocket expenses incurred by households on illness. METHODS: We did a hospital-based cross-sectional study including a convenience sample of 374 inpatients and outpatients. RESULTS: The median illness expenditure was the same (₹62 500) for inpatients and outpatients. Of all respondents, 51.3% among the rural and 65.5% among the urban patients were employed before illness, but after illness only 24...
January 2017: National Medical Journal of India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729538/geometric-heterogeneity-of-continental-shale-in-the-yanchang-formation-southern-ordos-basin-china
#17
Lihui Li, Beixiu Huang, Yufang Tan, Xiaolong Deng, Yanyan Li, Hu Zheng
Favorable prospects for the exploration of shale gas have been demonstrated in the Ordos Basin, China. Outcrop and core observations indicate that there are abundant laminas in the shale strata, which exert a great influence on hydro-fracture propagation, gas storage and fluid flow. In this study, the continental shale of the Chang 72 Member, collected from the south of Ordos Basin, was investigated to characterize the geometric heterogeneity. Laminas at multiple scales were observed and measured using conventional logging, borehole TV, core analysis, scanning electron microscopy, and the Particle and Crack Analysis System...
July 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725953/prognostic-significance-of-low-systolic-blood-pressure-at-discharge-in-patients-with-heart-failure-and-preserved-ejection-fraction
#18
Shijun Li, Xiaoying Li
INTRODUCTION: Systolic blood pressure (SBP) is emerging as a predictor of outcome in chronic heart failure and low SBP has been shown to be related to higher mortality. AIM: To investigate the relationship between low SBP and long-term outcome in patients with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). METHODS: We use prospectively collected data and recruited 297 patients with chronic HFpEF to investigate the relationship between low SBP at discharge and long-term outcome...
July 19, 2017: High Blood Pressure & Cardiovascular Prevention: the Official Journal of the Italian Society of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721495/diversity-and-survival-of-artificial-lifeforms-under-sedimentation-and-random-motion
#19
Nicolas Glade, Olivier Bastien, Pascal Ballet
Cellular automata are often used to explore the numerous possible scenarios of what could have occurred at the origins of life and before, during the prebiotic ages, when very simple molecules started to assemble and organise into larger catalytic or informative structures, or to simulate ecosystems. Artificial self-maintained spatial structures emerge in cellular automata and are often used to represent molecules or living organisms. They converge generally towards homogeneous stationary soups of still-life creatures...
July 18, 2017: Theory in Biosciences, Theorie in Den Biowissenschaften
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720089/analysis-of-the-association-between-millennium-development-goals-4-5-and-the-physician-workforce-across-international-economic-strata
#20
Christopher P Morley, Dongliang Wang, Emily M Mader, Kyle P Plante, Lindsey N Kingston, Azadeh Rabiei
BACKGROUND: The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) are 8 international development goals voluntarily adopted by 189 nations. The goals included health related aims to reduce the under-five child mortality rate by two-thirds (MDG4), and to reduce the maternal mortality ratio by three-quarters (MDG5). To assess the relationship between the healthcare workforce and MDGs 4-5, we examined the physician workforces of countries around the globe, in terms of the Physician Density Level (PDL, or number of physicians per 1000 population), and compared this rate across a number of years to several indicator variables specified as markers of progress towards MDG4 and MDG5...
July 18, 2017: BMC International Health and Human Rights
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