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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634373/an-assessment-of-mobile-predator-populations-along-shallow-and-mesophotic-depth-gradients-in-the-hawaiian-archipelago
#1
Jacob Asher, Ivor D Williams, Euan S Harvey
Large-bodied coral reef roving predators (sharks, jacks, snappers) are largely considered to be depleted around human population centers. In the Hawaiian Archipelago, supporting evidence is primarily derived from underwater visual censuses in shallow waters (≤30 m). However, while many roving predators are present or potentially more abundant in deeper strata (30-100 m+), distributional information remains sparse. To partially fill that knowledge gap, we conducted surveys in the remote Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI) and populated Main Hawaiian Islands (MHI) from 2012-2014 using baited remote underwater stereo-video...
June 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633661/prevalence-of-arthritis-according-to-age-sex-and-socioeconomic-status-in-six-low-and-middle-income-countries-analysis-of-data-from-the-world-health-organization-study-on-global-ageing-and-adult-health-sage-wave-1
#2
Sharon L Brennan-Olsen, S Cook, M T Leech, S J Bowe, P Kowal, N Naidoo, I N Ackerman, R S Page, S M Hosking, J A Pasco, M Mohebbi
BACKGROUND: In higher income countries, social disadvantage is associated with higher arthritis prevalence; however, less is known about arthritis prevalence or determinants in low to middle income countries (LMICs). We assessed arthritis prevalence by age and sex, and marital status and occupation, as two key parameters of socioeconomic position (SEP), using data from the World Health Organization Study on global AGEing and adult health (SAGE). METHODS: SAGE Wave 1 (2007-10) includes nationally-representative samples of older adults (≥50 yrs), plus smaller samples of adults aged 18-49 yrs...
June 21, 2017: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630656/physical-activity-black-carbon-exposure-and-dna-methylation-in-the-foxp3-promoter
#3
Stephanie Lovinsky-Desir, Kyung Hwa Jung, Jacqueline R Jezioro, David Z Torrone, Mariangels de Planell-Saguer, Beizhan Yan, Frederica P Perera, Andrew G Rundle, Matthew S Perzanowski, Steven N Chillrud, Rachel L Miller
BACKGROUND: Physical activity is associated with improvement in lung function; however, pollution exposure during physical activity can lead to a transient reduction in lung function. This paradoxical relationship may be linked to altered T regulatory (Treg) cell activity, which increases with exercise and suppresses airway inflammation, but decreases in association with exposure to air pollution. To clarify these relationships, we investigated buccal cell DNA methylation of the forkhead box p3 (FOXP3) gene promoter, a proposed biomarker of Treg activity...
2017: Clinical Epigenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630585/identification-of-the-plasmodium-species-in-clinical-samples-from-children-residing-in-five-epidemiological-strata-of-malaria-in-cameroon
#4
Tebit Emmanuel Kwenti, Tayong Dizzle Bita Kwenti, Longdoh Anna Njunda, Andreas Latz, Kukwah Anthony Tufon, Theresa Nkuo-Akenji
BACKGROUND: Malaria in Cameroon was previously known to be caused solely by Plasmodium falciparum but today, evidence points to other Plasmodium species including P. vivax, P. ovale and P. malariae. The purpose of this study was to identify the Plasmodium species in clinical samples from children residing in five epidemiological strata of malaria in Cameroon, so as to advise control policies. METHODS: One thousand six hundred nine febrile children (≤15 years) were recruited from five epidemiological strata of malaria including the Sudano-sahelian (SS) strata, the High inland plateau (HIP) strata, the South Cameroonian Equatorial forest (SCEF) strata, the High western plateau (HWP) strata and the Coastal (C) strata...
2017: Tropical Medicine and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630332/evolutionary-strata-on-young-mating-type-chromosomes-despite-the-lack-of-sexual-antagonism
#5
Sara Branco, Hélène Badouin, Ricardo C Rodríguez de la Vega, Jérôme Gouzy, Fantin Carpentier, Gabriela Aguileta, Sophie Siguenza, Jean-Tristan Brandenburg, Marco A Coelho, Michael E Hood, Tatiana Giraud
Sex chromosomes can display successive steps of recombination suppression known as "evolutionary strata," which are thought to result from the successive linkage of sexually antagonistic genes to sex-determining genes. However, there is little evidence to support this explanation. Here we investigate whether evolutionary strata can evolve without sexual antagonism using fungi that display suppressed recombination extending beyond loci determining mating compatibility despite lack of male/female roles associated with their mating types...
June 19, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626610/tiny-pollen-grains-first-evidence-of-saururaceae-from-the-late-cretaceous-of-western-north-america
#6
Friðgeir Grímsson, Guido W Grimm, Reinhard Zetter
BACKGROUND: The Saururaceae, a very small family of Piperales comprising only six species in four genera, have a relatively scanty fossil record outside of Europe. The phylogenetic relationships of the four genera to each other are resolved, with the type genus Saururus occurring in both eastern North America and East Asia. No extant species occurs in western Eurasia. The most exceptional find so far has been an inflorescence with in-situ pollen, Saururus tuckerae S.Y.Sm. & Stockey from Eocene of North America with strong affinities to extant species of Saururus...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622475/racial-differences-in-the-association-between-maternal-antenatal-depression-and-preterm-birth-risk-a-prospective-cohort-study
#7
Collette N Ncube, Daniel A Enquobahrie, Amelia R Gavin
BACKGROUND: In the United States, racial/ethnic disparities in preterm birth (PTB) are well documented, but explanations for why the disparity persists remain to be fully explored. We examined racial/ethnic differences in the association of maternal antenatal depression with PTB (<37 completed weeks of gestation) risk. METHODS: In a prospective cohort study, participants (n = 2073) included non-Hispanic (NH) black, NH white, Asian, and Hispanic women who received prenatal care at a university obstetric clinic January 2004-March 2010, and delivered at the university's hospital...
June 16, 2017: Journal of Women's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621206/baseline-population-health-conditions-ahead-of-a-health-system-strengthening-program-in-rural-madagascar
#8
Ann C Miller, Ranto H Ramananjato, Andres Garchitorena, Victor R Rabeza, Djordje Gikic, Amber Cripps, Laura Cordier, Hery-Tiana Rahaniraka Razanadrakato, Marius Randriamanambintsoa, Lara Hall, Megan Murray, Felicite Safara Razanavololo, Michael L Rich, Matthew H Bonds
BACKGROUND: A model health district was initiated through a program of health system strengthening (HSS) in Ifanadiana District of southeastern Madagascar in 2014. We report population health indicators prior to initiation of the program. METHODS: A representative household survey based on the Demographic Health Survey was conducted using a two-stage cluster sampling design in two strata - the initial program catchment area and the future catchment area. Chi-squared and t-tests were used to compare data by stratum, using appropriate sampling weights...
2017: Global Health Action
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616444/incidence-of-hepatitis-c-virus-infection-in-the-human-immunodeficiency-virus-outpatient-study-cohort-2000-2013
#9
Taraz Samandari, Ellen Tedaldi, Carl Armon, Rachel Hart, Joan S Chmiel, John T Brooks, Kate Buchacz
BACKGROUND: There are few recent studies of incident hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients in the United States. METHODS: We studied HIV Outpatient Study (HOPS) participants seen in 9 HIV-specialty clinics who had ≥1 clinical encounter during 2000-2013 and ≥2 HCV-related tests, the first of which was a negative HCV antibody test (Ab). Hepatitis C virus incident cases were identified by first positive HCV Ab, viral load, or genotype...
2017: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615377/after-mexico-implemented-a-tax-purchases-of-sugar-sweetened-beverages-decreased-and-of-water-increased-difference-by-place-of-residence-household-composition-and-income-level
#10
M Arantxa Colchero, Mariana Molina, Carlos M Guerrero-López
Background: In January 2014, Mexico implemented a tax on sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) purchases of 1 peso/L.Objective: We examined the heterogeneity of changes in nonalcoholic beverage (SSB and bottled water) purchases after the tax was implemented by household income, urban and rural strata, and household composition.Methods: We used 4 rounds of the National Income and Expenditure Surveys: 2008, 2010, 2012, and 2014. Changes in purchases in per capita liters per week were estimated with the use of 2-part models to adjust for nonpurchases...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615082/differential-responses-in-first-birth-behaviour-to-economic-recession-in-the-united-kingdom
#11
Mark Lyons-Amos, Ingrid Schoon
Economic conditions have dramatic influences on fertility. This paper evaluates the effect of the 2008 'Great Recession' in the UK on first birth rate, which is the fertility behaviour most susceptible to external economic conditions. The key aim of the study was to assess the effect of the recession on fertility by individual-level characteristics, enabling variation in responses to economic hardship to be observed. Data were from the nationally representative UK Household Longitudinal Study (UK-HLS). Cumulative transition models were used to model the probability of first birth for women between the ages of 17 and 30 in three UK birth cohorts...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Biosocial Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614582/effectiveness-and-safety-of-standard-dose-nonvitamin-k-antagonist-oral-anticoagulants-and-warfarin-among-patients-with-atrial-fibrillation-with-a-single-stroke-risk-factor-a-nationwide-cohort-study
#12
Gregory Y H Lip, Flemming Skjøth, Peter Brønnum Nielsen, Jette Nordstrøm Kjældgaard, Torben Bjerregaard Larsen
Importance: The randomized clinical trials comparing nonvitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs) vs warfarin largely focused on recruiting high-risk patients with atrial fibrillation with more than 2 stroke risk factors, with only the trials testing dabigatran or apixaban including few patients with 1 stroke risk factor. Despite this, regulatory approvals of all NOACs have been based on stroke prevention for patients with atrial fibrillation with 1 or more stroke risk factors...
June 14, 2017: JAMA Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614355/the-african-cynodont-aleodon-cynodontia-probainognathia-in-the-triassic-of-southern-brazil-and-its-biostratigraphic-significance
#13
Agustín G Martinelli, Christian F Kammerer, Tomaz P Melo, Voltaire D Paes Neto, Ana Maria Ribeiro, Átila A S Da-Rosa, Cesar L Schultz, Marina Bento Soares
In this contribution we report the first occurrence of the enigmatic African probainognathian genus Aleodon in the Middle-early Late Triassic of several localities from the state of Rio Grande do Sul in southern Brazil. Aleodon is unusual among early probainognathians in having transversely-expanded postcanine teeth, similar to those of gomphodont cynognathians. This genus was previously known from the Manda Beds of Tanzania and the upper Omingonde Formation of Namibia. The Brazilian record of this genus is based upon multiple specimens representing different ontogenetic stages, including three that were previously referred to the sectorial-toothed probainognathian Chiniquodon theotonicus...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612332/cocaine-levamisole-induced-vasculitis-vasculopathy-syndrome
#14
REVIEW
Javier Marquez, Lina Aguirre, Carolina Muñoz, Andres Echeverri, Mauricio Restrepo, Luis F Pinto
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To understand the clinical spectrum of cocaine-levamisole-induced vasculitis. Worldwide recreational drug consumption is high among the adult population from various social strata. The use of cocaine with levamisole, a frequently added antiparasitic diluent, favors the manifestations of vasculitic lesions, especially in the skin. RECENT FINDINGS: New insights into immunological mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of the disease. There are still many unknown aspects in the pathogenesis of this disease, such as the immune system interaction with p-ANCAs and the release of inflammatory NETs (neutrophil extracellular traps), which are the origin of auto-antigens and tissue damage, manifesting as vasculitic purpura on the skin...
June 2017: Current Rheumatology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608546/developing-potentiometric-surfaces-and-flow-fields-with-a-head-specified-modflow-model
#15
Daniel B Abrams, George S Roadcap, Devin Mannix
Investigating changes in an aquifer system often involves comparison of observed heads from different synoptic measurements, generally with potentiometric surfaces developed by hand or a statistical approach. Alternatively, head-specified MODFLOW models, in which constant head cells simulate observed heads, generate gridded potentiometric surfaces that explicitly account for Darcy's Law and mass balance. We developed a transient head-specified MODFLOW model for the stratified Cambrian-Ordovician sandstone aquifer system of northeastern Illinois to analyze flow within its 275 m deep cone of depression...
June 13, 2017: Ground Water
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606366/herd-level-seroprevalence-and-associated-risk-factors-for-bovine-cysticercosis-in-the-state-of-para%C3%A3-ba-northeastern-brazil
#16
Amanda R A Maia, Leise G Fernandes, Paulo S A Pinto, Rafaella P M Guimarães-Peixoto, Letícia F Silva, Carolina S A B Santos, Clebert J Alves, Inácio J Clementino, Sérgio S Azevedo
This study focused on estimating the herd-level and animal-level prevalences, and identifying risk factors associated with bovine cysticercosis in the State of Paraíba, Northeastern Brazil. The state was divided into three sampling strata: Sertao, Borborema and Zona da Mata/Agreste. For each sampling stratum, herd-level and animal-level prevalences were estimated by a two-stage sampling survey. First, a pre-established number of herds (primary sampling units) were randomly selected; second, within each herd a pre-established number of cows aged ≥24months were systematically selected (secondary sampling units)...
July 1, 2017: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604556/immunologic-response-elicited-in-breast-cancer-patients-receiving-a-neugcgm3-based-vaccine-as-adjuvant-therapy
#17
Anet Valdes-Zayas, Zuyen Gonzalez, Vladimir Mulens, Aliz M Vega, Kirenia Perez, Patricia Lorenzo-Luaces, Maria C Rubio, Anabely Estevez, Idelmis Curbelo, Luis E Fernandez, Tania Crombet, Zaima Mazorra
This study aimed to investigate the immunogenicity of a cancer vaccine consisting of the NeuGcGM3 ganglioside combined with the outer membrane protein complex of Neisseria meningitides to form very small size particles. The vaccine is administered together with Montanide ISA51, as adjuvant treatment for breast cancer patients. After surgical resection and standard first-line chemo/radiotherapy, breast cancer patients in stage II-III were enrolled in a phase III clinical trial and allocated into 2 strata, according to the number of positive lymph nodes [stratum I (0-3); stratum II (≥4)]...
June 9, 2017: Journal of Immunotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602826/an-alternative-didactic-functional-and-topographic-systematization-of-the-spinal-muscles
#18
Vivianne Izabelle de Araújo Baptista, William Paganini Mayer, Ricardo Eustáquio da Silva, Ricardo Bragança de Vasconcellos Fontes, Josemberg da Silva Baptista
Back muscles are commonly described in a topographically-oriented manner without necessarily following morphological criteria. In this manner, non-standard terms may be employed which convey incorrect morphological concepts and demanding more time from both faculty and students to transmit knowledge. We propose a classification system for spinal muscles incorporating morphological concepts with the goal of facilitating knowledge transfer and suggest the term "spinal muscles". Paraspinal muscles were systematically divided and classified in seven strata from anterior to posterior: vertebro-appendicular (VA), transversarium (Tr), deep post-transversarium (DPT), middle post-transversarium (MPT), superficial post-transversarium (SPT), deep spino-appendicular (DSA) and superficial spino-appendicular (SSA)...
June 7, 2017: Annals of Anatomy, Anatomischer Anzeiger: Official Organ of the Anatomische Gesellschaft
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600443/prevalence-risk-factors-and-consequences-of-cerebral-small-vessel-diseases-data-from-three-asian-countries
#19
Saima Hilal, Vincent Mok, Young Chul Youn, Adrian Wong, Mohammad Kamran Ikram, Christopher Li-Hsian Chen
BACKGROUND: Cerebral small vessel disease (SVD) has been suggested to be more common in Asians compared with Caucasians. However, data from population-based studies in Asia are lacking. We report on the prevalence, risk factors and consequences of SVD from contemporary studies in three Asian countries using 3-Tesla MRI for the evaluation of SVD. METHODS: Clinical, cognitive and 3-Tesla brain MRI assessments were performed among participants of three studies from Singapore, Hong Kong and Korea...
June 9, 2017: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598045/soft-drinks-consumption-and-the-risk-of-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#20
Zeba Siddiqi, Ritu Karoli, Jalees Fatima, Sachin Khanduri, Shishir Varshneya, Sara Sabina Ahmad
INTRODUCTION: The increased consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) has been implicated in the increased incidence of obesity and metabolic syndrome Little of the research on sugar-sweetened beverage intake has examined the consumption patterns of sugared beverages by college students, despite the vulnerabilities of this population to weight gain. The current study sought to characterize sugar-sweetened beverage intake of undergraduate students who belong to high socio-economic strata and to study its correlation with presence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease...
May 2017: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
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