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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164254/effect-of-oral-insulin-on-prevention-of-diabetes-in-relatives-of-patients-with-type-1-diabetes-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#1
Jeffrey P Krischer, Desmond A Schatz, Brian Bundy, Jay S Skyler, Carla J Greenbaum
Importance: Type 1 diabetes requires major lifestyle changes and carries increased morbidity and mortality. Prevention or delay of diabetes would have major clinical effect. Objective: To determine whether oral insulin delays onset of type 1 diabetes in autoantibody-positive relatives of patients with type 1 diabetes. Design, Setting, and Participants: Between March 2, 2007, and December 21, 2015, relatives with at least 2 autoantibodies, including insulin autoantibodies and normal glucose tolerance, were enrolled in Canada, the United States, Australia, New Zealand, the United Kingdom, Italy, Sweden, Finland, and Germany...
November 21, 2017: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163743/comparison-of-endovascular-treatment-with-intravenous-thrombolysis-for-isolated-m2-segment-of-middle-cerebral-artery-occlusion-in-acute-ischemic-stroke
#2
Adnan I Qureshi, Muhammad A Saleem, Emrah Aytac
Background: The benefit of endovascular treatment for distal large artery ischemic occlusions such as M2 segment of middle cerebral artery is not clear. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed data from 51 subjects who had an isolated M2 segment occlusion on baseline computed tomographic (CT) angiogram who were randomized to either intravenous (IV) recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA) followed by endovascular treatment or IV rt-PA alone in a multicenter trial...
October 2017: Journal of Vascular and Interventional Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163289/network-approach-to-understanding-emotion-dynamics-in-relation-to-childhood-trauma-and-genetic-liability-to-psychopathology-replication-of-a-prospective-experience-sampling-analysis
#3
Laila Hasmi, Marjan Drukker, Sinan Guloksuz, Claudia Menne-Lothmann, Jeroen Decoster, Ruud van Winkel, Dina Collip, Philippe Delespaul, Marc De Hert, Catherine Derom, Evert Thiery, Nele Jacobs, Bart P F Rutten, Marieke Wichers, Jim van Os
Background: The network analysis of intensive time series data collected using the Experience Sampling Method (ESM) may provide vital information in gaining insight into the link between emotion regulation and vulnerability to psychopathology. The aim of this study was to apply the network approach to investigate whether genetic liability (GL) to psychopathology and childhood trauma (CT) are associated with the network structure of the emotions "cheerful," "insecure," "relaxed," "anxious," "irritated," and "down"-collected using the ESM method...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162147/a-systematic-review-describing-incidence-rate-and-prevalence-of-dysvascular-partial-foot-amputation-how-both-have-changed-over-time-and-compare-to-transtibial-amputation
#4
Michael P Dillon, Matthew Quigley, Stefania Fatone
BACKGROUND: Partial foot amputation (PFA) is a common consequence of advanced peripheral vascular disease. Given the different ways incidence rate and prevalence data have been measured and reported, it is difficult to synthesize data and reconcile variation between studies. As such, there is uncertainty in whether the incidence rates and prevalence of PFA have increased over time compared to the decline in transtibial amputation (TTA). The aims of this systematic review were to describe the incidence rate and prevalence of dysvascular PFA over time, and how these compare to TTA...
November 21, 2017: Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161767/effects-of-different-endurance-exercise-modalities-on-migraine-days-and-cerebrovascular-health-in-episodic-migraineurs-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#5
Henner Hanssen, Alice Minghetti, Stefano Magon, Anja Rossmeissl, Maria Rasenack, Athina Papadopoulou, Christopher Klenk, Oliver Faude, Lukas Zahner, Till Sprenger, Lars Donath
BACKGROUND: Aerobic exercise training is a promising complementary treatment option in migraine and can reduce migraine days and improve retinal microvascular function. Our aim was to elucidate whether different aerobic exercise programs at high vs. moderate intensities distinctly affect migraine days as primary outcome and retinal vessel parameters as a secondary. METHODS: In this randomized controlled trial, migraine days were recorded by a validated migraine diary in 45 migraineurs of which 36 (female: 28; age: 36 (SD:10)/ BMI: 23...
November 21, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160558/simpson-s-paradox-in-the-integrated-discrimination-improvement
#6
J Chipman, D Braun
The integrated discrimination improvement (IDI) is commonly used to compare two risk prediction models; it summarizes the extent a new model increases risk in events and decreases risk in non-events. The IDI averages risks across events and non-events and is therefore susceptible to Simpson's paradox. In some settings, adding a predictive covariate to a well calibrated model results in an overall negative (positive) IDI. However, if stratified by that same covariate, the strata-specific IDIs are positive (negative)...
December 10, 2017: Statistics in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160448/availability-of-essential-medicines-in-primary-health-care-of-the-brazilian-unified-health-system
#7
Renata Cristina Rezende Macedo do Nascimento, Juliana Álvares, Augusto Afonso Guerra, Isabel Cristina Gomes, Ediná Alves Costa, Silvana Nair Leite, Karen Sarmento Costa, Orlando Mario Soeiro, Ione Aquemi Guibu, Margô Gomes de Oliveira Karnikowski, Francisco de Assis Acurcio
OBJECTIVE: To characterize the availability of tracer medicines in pharmaceutical services in primary health care of the Brazilian Unified Health System (SUS). METHODS: This is a cross-sectional and evaluative study, part of the Pesquisa Nacional Sobre Acesso, Utilização e Promoção do Uso Racional de Medicamentos - Serviços, 2015 (PNAUM - National Survey on Access, Use and Promotion of Rational Use of Medicines - Services, 2015). To analyze the availability of medicines, we verified 50 items selected from the Relação Nacional de Medicamentos Essenciais (Rename - National List of Essential Medicines) of 2012...
November 13, 2017: Revista de Saúde Pública
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160437/access-and-adherence-to-medication-among-people-with-diabetes-in-brazil-evidences-from-pnaum
#8
Micheline Marie Milward de Azevedo Meiners, Noemia Urruth Leão Tavares, Luciano Santos Pinto Guimarães, Andréa Dâmaso Bertoldi, Tatiane da Silva Dal Pizzol, Vera Lucia Luiza, Sotero Serrate Mengue, Edgar Merchan-Hamann
OBJECTIVE: To describe people with diabetes in Brazil and to compare their sociodemographic characteristics, access and self-reported adherence to diabetes prescribed drugs. METHODS: Data analysis from the National Survey on Access, Use and Promotion of the Rational Use of Medicines, a household survey, with sampling by clusters, according to sex and age domains and national and macro-regional representativeness. Adults (≥ 20 years old) who reported having diabetes constituted the sample...
July 2017: Revista Brasileira de Epidemiologia, Brazilian Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158421/urban-rural-comparisons-in-hospital-admission-treatments-and-outcomes-for-st-segment-elevation-myocardial-infarction-in-china-from-2001-to-2011-a-retrospective-analysis-from-the-china-peace-study-patient-centered-evaluative-assessment-of-cardiac-events
#9
Xi Li, Karthik Murugiah, Jing Li, Frederick A Masoudi, Paul S Chan, Shuang Hu, John A Spertus, Yongfei Wang, Nicholas S Downing, Harlan M Krumholz, Lixin Jiang
BACKGROUND: In response to urban-rural disparities in healthcare resources, China recently launched a healthcare reform with a focus on improving rural care during the past decade. However, nationally representative studies comparing medical care and patient outcomes between urban and rural areas in China during this period are not available. METHODS AND RESULTS: We created a nationally representative sample of patients in China admitted for ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction in 2001, 2006, and 2011, using a 2-stage random sampling design in 2 urban and 3 rural strata...
November 2017: Circulation. Cardiovascular Quality and Outcomes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158102/human-papillomavirus-types-from-infection-to-cancer-in-the-anus-according-to-sex-and-hiv-status-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#10
Chunqing Lin, Silvia Franceschi, Gary M Clifford
BACKGROUND: Data on carcinogenicity of human papillomavirus (HPV) types in the anus are needed to inform anal cancer prevention through vaccination and screening. This is particularly the case for people infected with HIV, who are at an increased risk of anal cancer. METHODS: We did a systematic review of studies published from January, 1986, to July, 2017, in MEDLINE, Embase, and the Cochrane Library on anal HPV infection, without any language restrictions. Eligible studies reported type-specific HPV prevalence by strata of cytopathological or histopathological anal diagnosis, sex, and HIV status...
November 17, 2017: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157474/private-and-institutionalised-patients-use-of-homeopathy-in-the-early-nineteenth-century
#11
Silvia Waisse
Medicine underwent a major crisis in the 18th century and several approaches, including homeopathy, were formulated to fill the void left by the fall of traditional Galenic medicine. While most of the literature deals with the reasons doctors had to shift to homeopathy, the patients' views became the focus of increasing scholarly attention along the past 20 years. In this article I present and discuss the current knowledge about the socio-demographic characteristics and medical complaints of patients who sought homeopathic care in the early 19th century in both private and institutional settings...
November 2017: Homeopathy: the Journal of the Faculty of Homeopathy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156004/obesity-modulates-the-association-between-systolic-blood-pressure-and-albuminuria
#12
James Fotheringham, Bisher Kawar, William McKane, Timothy Ellam
Background: Obesity is associated with albuminuria and incident kidney disease. Increased vulnerability of the glomerular microcirculation to elevated systemic blood pressure is postulated to contribute to adverse effects of obesity on the kidney. We therefore hypothesized that obesity would modulate the association between systolic blood pressure (sBP) and albuminuria. Methods: The relationship between obesity and albuminuria [fractional albumin excretion (FE alb ) or albumin:creatinine ratio (ACR)] was modelled using linear/logistic regression in the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2010 cohorts ( N  = 23 710)...
May 30, 2017: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152414/vegetation-structure-of-plantain-based-agrosystems-determines-numerical-dominance-in-community-of-ground-dwelling-ants
#13
Anicet Gbéblonoudo Dassou, Philippe Tixier, Sylvain Dépigny, Dominique Carval
In tropics, ants can represent an important part of animal biomass and are known to be involved in ecosystem services, such as pest regulation. Understanding the mechanisms underlying the structuring of local ant communities is therefore important in agroecology. In the humid tropics of Africa, plantains are cropped in association with many other annual and perennial crops. Such agrosystems differ greatly in vegetation diversity and structure and are well-suited for studying how habitat-related factors affect the ant community...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151475/coffee-consumption-and-lung-cancer-risk-the-japan-public-health-center-based-prospective-study
#14
Saki Narita, Eiko Saito, Norie Sawada, Taichi Shimazu, Taiki Yamaji, Motoki Iwasaki, Shizuka Sasazuki, Mitsuhiko Noda, Manami Inoue, Shoichiro Tsugane
BACKGROUND: Many epidemiological studies have indicated a positive association between coffee intake and lung cancer risk, but such findings were suggested to be confounded by smoking. Furthermore, only a few of these studies have been conducted in Asia. Here, we investigated the association between coffee intake and lung cancer risk in one of the largest prospective cohort studies in Japan. METHODS: We investigated the association of coffee drinking and subsequent incidence of lung cancer among 41,727 men and 45,352 women in the Japan Public Health Center-based Prospective Study using Cox proportional hazards regression, with adjustment for potential confounders and by strata of smoking status...
November 18, 2017: Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151198/high-substance-use-and-hiv-risk-behavior-among-young-argentine-men-who-have-sex-with-men
#15
Iván C Balán, Timothy Frasca, María A Pando, Rubén O Marone, Victoria Barreda, Curtis Dolezal, Alex Carballo-Diéguez, María M Ávila
In the United States young men who have sex with men have higher rates of substance use, higher HIV incidence, and less frequent HIV testing than their heterosexual counterparts and older MSM. Less is known about comparable populations in Latin America. As part of an epidemiological study, MSM were recruited through Respondent Driven Sampling in the metropolitan area of Buenos Aires, Argentina and answered a computerized behavioral survey. From the total of 500 MSM enrolled, a sub-sample of 233 aged 18-25 was analyzed...
November 18, 2017: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149680/modification-of-the-association-between-high-ambient-temperature-and-health-by-urban-microclimate-indicators-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#16
REVIEW
Leah H Schinasi, Tarik Benmarhnia, Anneclaire J De Roos
BACKGROUND: Landscape characteristics, including vegetation and impervious surfaces, influence urban microclimates and may lead to within-city differences in the adverse health effects of high ambient temperatures. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to quantitatively summarize the epidemiologic literature that assessed microclimate indicators as effect measure modifiers (EMM) of the association between ambient temperature and mortality or morbidity. METHODS: We systematically identified papers and abstracted relative risk estimates for hot and cool microclimate indicator strata...
November 14, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149467/geophysical-assessment-of-groundwater-potential-a-case-study-from-mian-channu-area-pakistan
#17
Muhammad Hasan, Yanjun Shang, Gulraiz Akhter, Weijun Jin
An integrated study using geophysical method in combination with pumping tests and geochemical method was carried out to delineate groundwater potential zones in Mian Channu area of Pakistan. Vertical electrical soundings (VES) using Schlumberger configuration with maximum current electrode spacing (AB/2 = 200 m) were conducted at 50 stations and 10 pumping tests at borehole sites were performed in close proximity to 10 of the VES stations. The aim of this study is to establish a correlation between the hydraulic parameters obtained from geophysical method and pumping tests so that the aquifer potential can be estimated from the geoelectrical surface measurements where no pumping tests exist...
November 17, 2017: Ground Water
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148111/being-overweight-or-obese-as-a-risk-factor-for-acute-liver-injury-secondary-to-acute-acetaminophen-overdose
#18
Summon Chomchai, Chulathida Chomchai
PURPOSE: Increased incidences of hepatotoxicity have been observed in obese patients with acute acetaminophen overdose. We evaluate whether the status of being overweight or obese is associated with increase in the development of hepatotoxicity and acute liver injury (ALI) in patients with acute acetaminophen overdose. METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study comparing the risk of hepatotoxicity and ALI between overweight or obese patients (body mass index [BMI] ≥ 25) and normal BMI patients (BMI ≤ 24...
November 17, 2017: Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147026/leveraging-genome-characteristics-to-improve-gene-discovery-for-putamen-subcortical-brain-structure
#19
Chi-Hua Chen, Yunpeng Wang, Min-Tzu Lo, Andrew Schork, Chun-Chieh Fan, Dominic Holland, Karolina Kauppi, Olav B Smeland, Srdjan Djurovic, Nilotpal Sanyal, Derrek P Hibar, Paul M Thompson, Wesley K Thompson, Ole A Andreassen, Anders M Dale
Discovering genetic variants associated with human brain structures is an on-going effort. The ENIGMA consortium conducted genome-wide association studies (GWAS) with standard multi-study analytical methodology and identified several significant single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Here we employ a novel analytical approach that incorporates functional genome annotations (e.g., exon or 5'UTR), total linkage disequilibrium (LD) scores and heterozygosity to construct enrichment scores for improved identification of relevant SNPs...
November 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146490/educational-inequalities-in-cardiovascular-risk-factor-and-blood-pressure-control-in-elderly-adults-comparison-of-mesa-cohort-and-chilean-nhs-survey-outcome-measures
#20
Carolina Nazzal, Steven Shea, Cecilia Castro-Diehl, Tania Alfaro, Patricia Frenz, Carlos J Rodriguez
BACKGROUND: Social determinants differ between countries, which is not always considered when adapting health policies and interventions to face inequalities in noncommunicable diseases and their risk factors. OBJECTIVES: The study sought to analyze educational inequalities in controlled blood pressure (CBP), obesity, and smoking in study populations from Chile and the United States in 2 periods, both countries with large social inequalities. METHODS: The study used data from the first and fifth waves of the MESA (Multiethnic Study of Atherosclerosis) cohort, and the 2003 and 2009 to 2010 Chilean National Health Survey (CNHS) survey outcome measures...
November 13, 2017: Global Heart
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