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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785698/specific-parasites-indirectly-influence-niche-occupation-of-non-hosts-community-members
#1
João Custódio Fernandes Cardoso, Radek Michalko, Marcelo Oliveira Gonzaga
The coexistence of phylogenetically related species is an attractive topic because of the potentially intense interspecific competition. The most often investigated mechanisms mediating coexistence of these species are environmental filtering and niche partitioning. However, the role of other factors, such as species-specific parasites, is still poorly understood. Along the riparian understory of a tropical forest, we explored niche occupation and coexistence between Chrysso intervales and Helvibis longicauda, two related syntopic web-building spiders...
May 22, 2018: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784936/multiple-convergent-supergene-evolution-events-in-mating-type-chromosomes
#2
Sara Branco, Fantin Carpentier, Ricardo C Rodríguez de la Vega, Hélène Badouin, Alodie Snirc, Stéphanie Le Prieur, Marco A Coelho, Damien M de Vienne, Fanny E Hartmann, Dominik Begerow, Michael E Hood, Tatiana Giraud
Convergent adaptation provides unique insights into the predictability of evolution and ultimately into processes of biological diversification. Supergenes (beneficial gene linkage) are striking examples of adaptation, but little is known about their prevalence or evolution. A recent study on anther-smut fungi documented supergene formation by rearrangements linking two key mating-type loci, controlling pre- and post-mating compatibility. Here further high-quality genome assemblies reveal four additional independent cases of chromosomal rearrangements leading to regions of suppressed recombination linking these mating-type loci in closely related species...
May 21, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784525/sample-allocation-balancing-overall-representativeness-and-stratum-precision
#3
Fredi Alexander Diaz-Quijano
PURPOSE: In large-scale surveys, it is often necessary to distribute a preset sample size among a number of strata. Researchers must make a decision between prioritizing overall representativeness or precision of stratum estimates. Hence, I evaluated different sample allocation strategies based on stratum size. METHODS: The strategies evaluated herein included allocation proportional to stratum population; equal sample for all strata; and proportional to the natural logarithm, cubic root, and square root of the stratum population...
May 7, 2018: Annals of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783965/unmet-basic-needs-negatively-affect-health-related-quality-of-life-in-people-aging-with-hiv-results-from-the-positive-spaces-healthy-places-study
#4
Phan Sok, Sandra Gardner, Tsegaye Bekele, Jason Globerman, Mary V Seeman, Saara Greene, Michael Sobota, Jay J Koornstra, LaVerne Monette, Keith Hambly, Stephen W Hwang, James Watson, Glen Walker, Sean B Rourke
BACKGROUND: Basic needs (e.g., food security and stable housing) are important determinants of health and well-being, yet their impact on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in the context of HIV and aging has not been systematically investigated. METHODS: Multiple linear regression models examined the relationship between unmet basic needs, and physical and mental HRQoL by age strata (20-34, 35-49 and 50+) in a cross-sectional sample of 496 people living with HIV in Ontario, Canada...
May 21, 2018: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782524/leucocytes-telomere-length-and-breast-cancer-risk-susceptibility-a-case-control-study
#5
Sofia Pavanello, Liliana Varesco, Viviana Gismondi, Paolo Bruzzi, Claudia Bolognesi
BACKGROUND: Telomere length in peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL-TL) was proposed as a biomarker of cancer risk. Recent scientific evidence suggested PBL-TL plays a diverse role in different cancers. Inconsistent results were obtained on PBL-TL in relation to breast cancer risk and specifically to the presence of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations. The aim of the present case-control study was to analyse the correlation between family history of breast cancer or presence of a BRCA mutation and PBL-TL in the hypothesis that TL is a modifier of cancer risk...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778610/a-decade-of-tevar-in-new-york-state-volumes-outcomes-and-implications-for-the-dissemination-of-endovascular-technology
#6
Jordan R Stern, Tianyi Sun, Jialin Mao, Art Sedrakyan, Andrew J Meltzer
INTRODUCTION: /Objectives: The purpose of this study was to characterize utilization and outcomes of TEVAR in New York State during the first decade of commercial availability, with respect to evolving indications, results, and costs. Of specific interest was evaluation of the volume-outcome relationship for this relatively uncommon procedure. METHODS: The New York Statewide Planning and Research Cooperative System (SPARCS) database was queried to identify patients undergoing TEVAR from 2005-2014 for aortic dissection (AD), non-ruptured aneurysm (NRA), and ruptured aneurysm (RA)...
May 17, 2018: Annals of Vascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776750/safety-and-immunogenicity-of-a-vi-dt-typhoid-conjugate-vaccine-phase-i-trial-in-healthy-filipino-adults-and-children
#7
Maria Rosario Capeding, Samuel Teshome, Tarun Saluja, Khalid Ali Syed, Deok Ryun Kim, Ju Yeon Park, Jae Seung Yang, Yang Hee Kim, Jiwook Park, Sue-Kyoung Jo, Yun Chon, Sudeep Kothari, Seon-Young Yang, Dong Soo Ham, Ji Hwa Ryu, Hee-Seong Hwang, Ju-Hwan Mun, Julia Lynch, Jerome Kim, Hun Kim, Jean-Louis Excler, Sushant Sahastrabuddhe
BACKGROUND: Typhoid fever remains a major public health problem in low- and middle-income countries where children aged 2-14 years bear the greatest burden. Vi polysaccharide is poorly immunogenic in children <2 years of age, and protection in adults is modest. The limitations of Vi polysaccharide vaccines can be overcome by conjugation of the Vi to a carrier protein. A typhoid conjugate vaccine composed of Vi polysaccharide conjugated to diphtheria toxoid (Vi-DT) has been developed...
May 15, 2018: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776454/determination-of-three-chromium-textile-azo-dyes-in-wastewater-by-spe-lc-esi-ms-ms
#8
Florina-Maria Copaciu, Dorina Simedru, Maria-Virginia Coman
In the present work, a procedure to determine three textile azo dyes, chromium-complexes [Nylosan Dark Brown (NDB), Lanasyn Dark Brown (LDB), and Lanasyn Red (LR)], from wastewater using solid-phase extraction (SPE) followed by LC-electrospray ionization negative mode tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI(-)-MS/MS) has been developed. The extraction/concentration and recovery degree of these dyes from liquid matrices were done on Strata WAX/NH₂ cartridges. The chromatographic separation was performed using a Luna C18 (2) 100Å column by isocratic elution with a methanol-acetonitrile-water (0...
May 18, 2018: Journal of AOAC International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775146/setting-pressure-can-change-the-size-and-shape-of-mri-artifacts-caused-by-adjustable-shunt-valves-a-study-of-the-4-newest-models
#9
Daiki Uchida, Yuki Amano, Hirokazu Nakatogawa, Takayuki Masui, Naoto Ando, Teiji Nakayama, Haruhiko Sato, Tetsuro Sameshima, Tokutaro Tanaka
OBJECTIVE Adjustable shunt valves that have been developed for the management of hydrocephalus all rely on intrinsically magnetic components, and artifacts with these valves on MRI are thus inevitable. The authors have previously reported that the shapes of shunt artifacts differ under different valve pressures with the proGAV 2.0 valve. In the present study the authors compared the size and shape of artifacts at different pressure settings with 4 new-model shunt valves. METHODS The authors attached 4 new models of MRI-resistant shunt valve to the temporal scalp of a healthy volunteer: the proGAV 2...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771192/fine-scale-population-genetic-structure-and-within-tree-distribution-of-mating-types-of-venturia-effusa-cause-of-pecan-scab-in-the-u-s-a
#10
Clive Bock, Carolyn Young, Katherine Stevenson, Nikki Charlton
Scab (caused by Venturia effusa) is the major disease of pecan in the southeastern U.S.A. There is no information available on the fine scale population genetic diversity, or the occurrence of clonal types at small spatial scales that provides insight into inoculum sources and dispersal mechanisms, and potential opportunity for sexual reproduction. To investigate fine scale genetic diversity, 4 trees (cv. Wichita = populations) were sampled hierarchically: within each tree canopy, 4 approximately evenly spaced terminals (subpopulations) were selected and up to 6 leaflets (sub-subpopulations) were sampled from different compound leaves on each terminal...
May 17, 2018: Phytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769360/multiple-large-inversions-and-breakpoint-rewiring-of-gene-expression-in-the-evolution-of-the-fire-ant-social-supergene
#11
Yu-Ching Huang, Viet Dai Dang, Ni-Chen Chang, John Wang
Supergenes consist of co-adapted loci that segregate together and are associated with adaptive traits. In the fire ant Solenopsis invicta , two 'social' supergene variants regulate differences in colony queen number and other traits. Suppressed recombination in this system is maintained, in part, by a greater than 9 Mb inversion, but the supergene is larger. Has the supergene in S. invicta undergone multiple large inversions? The initial gene content of the inverted allele of a supergene would be the same as that of the wild-type allele...
May 16, 2018: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765888/disability-measurement-for-korean-community-dwelling-adults-with-stroke-item-level-psychometric-analysis-of-the-korean-longitudinal-study-of-ageing
#12
Ickpyo Hong, Young Joo Kim, Mandi L Sonnenfeld, Emily Grattan, Timothy A Reistetter
Objective: To investigate the psychometric properties of the activities of daily living (ADL) instrument used in the analysis of Korean Longitudinal Study of Ageing (KLoSA) dataset. Methods: A retrospective study was carried out involving 2006 KLoSA records of community-dwelling adults diagnosed with stroke. The ADL instrument used for the analysis of KLoSA included 17 items, which were analyzed using Rasch modeling to develop a robust outcome measure. The unidimensionality of the ADL instrument was examined based on confirmatory factor analysis with a one-factor model...
April 2018: Annals of Rehabilitation Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765698/the-epidemiology-of-hepatitis-c-virus-in-pakistan-systematic-review-and-meta-analyses
#13
Zaina Al Kanaani, Sarwat Mahmud, Silva P Kouyoumjian, Laith J Abu-Raddad
To characterize hepatitis C virus (HCV) epidemiology in Pakistan and estimate the pooled mean HCV antibody prevalence in different risk populations, we systematically reviewed all available records of HCV incidence and/or prevalence from 1989 to 2016, as informed by the Cochrane Collaboration Handbook. This systematic review was reported following the PRISMA guidelines. Populations were classified into six categories based on the risk of exposure to HCV infection. Meta-analyses were performed using DerSimonian and Laird random-effects models with inverse variance weighting...
April 2018: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765459/the-number-of-strata-in-propensity-score-stratification-for-a-binary-outcome
#14
Markus Neuhäuser, Matthias Thielmann, Graeme D Ruxton
Introduction: Non-interventional and other observational studies have become important in medical research. In such observational, non-randomized studies, groups usually differ in some baseline covariates. Propensity scores are increasingly being used in the statistical analysis of these studies. Stratification, also called subclassification, based on propensity scores is one of the possible methods. There is the quasi-standard of using five strata. In this paper we focus on a binary outcome and evaluate the above-mentioned standard of using five strata...
April 2018: Archives of Medical Science: AMS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761766/factors-associated-with-the-rapid-and-durable-decline-in-malaria-incidence-in-el-salvador-1980-2017
#15
Robert A Burton, José Eduardo Romero Chévez, Mauricio Sauerbrey, Caterina Guinovart, Angela Hartley, Geoffrey Kirkwood, Matthew Boslego, Mirna Elizabeth Gavidia, Jaime Enrique Alemán Escobar, Rachel Turkel, Richard W Steketee, Laurence Slutsker, Kammerle Schneider, Carlos C Kent Campbell
A decade after the Global Malaria Eradication Program, El Salvador had the highest burden of malaria in Mesoamerica, with approximately 20% due to Plasmodium falciparum . A resurgence of malaria in the 1970s led El Salvador to alter its national malaria control strategy. By 1995, El Salvador recorded its last autochthonous P. falciparum case with fewer than 20 Plasmodium vivax cases annually since 2011. By contrast, its immediate neighbors continue to have the highest incidences of malaria in the region. We reviewed and evaluated the policies and interventions implemented by the Salvadoran National Malaria Program that likely contributed to this progress toward malaria elimination...
May 14, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29759229/evaluation-of-polar-organic-chemical-integrative-and-hollow-fibre-samplers-for-the-determination-of-a-wide-variety-of-organic-polar-compounds-in-seawater
#16
Leire Mijangos, Haizea Ziarrusta, Ailette Prieto, Oihane Zugazua, Olatz Zuloaga, Maitane Olivares, Aresatz Usobiaga, Albrecht Paschke, Nestor Etxebarria
The calibration of two passive samplers for the determination of 20 emerging organic compounds in seawater is described in this work: i) a new version of polar organic chemical integrative sampler (POCIS) containing 100 mg of mixed-mode anion exchanger (Strata X-AW) and 100 mg of polymeric HLB (Plexa) sorbent materials and using a highly porous Nylon membrane (30-μm pore size) and ii) polyethersulfone (PES) hollow fibre. Among the studied contaminants, herbicides, hormones, life style products (stimulants and artificial sweeteners), industrial chemicals (corrosion inhibitor and fluorinated compounds), personal care products and several pharmaceuticals were included...
August 1, 2018: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758491/has-cancer-survival-improved-for-older-people-as-for-younger-people-new-south-wales-1980-2012
#17
Ming Li, Stephen Morrell, Nicola Creighton, Hanna Tervonen, Hui You, David Roder, David Currow
BACKGROUND: Cancer survival has improved markedly in Australia for all ages but it is still lower in older patients. We hypothesize that the survival gap by age has increased. Our rationale is that treatment constraints in older people and potentially their limited participation in trials may have limited opportunities for survival gain. METHODS: Post-diagnostic five-year cancer-specific mortality rates were analysed by age group for cancers recorded on the NSW Cancer Registry...
May 11, 2018: Cancer Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758219/prostate-specific-antigen-density-as-a-predictor-of-clinically-significant-prostate-cancer-when-the-psa-level-is-in-the-diagnostic-grey-zone-defining-the-optimum-cut-point-stratified-by-race-and-body-mass-index
#18
Alireza Aminsharifi, Lauren Howard, Yuan Wu, Amanda De Hoedt, Charlotte Bailey, Stephen J Freedland, Thomas J Polascik
PURPOSE: To assess the predictive value of prostate-specific antigen density (PSAD) to detect clinically significant prostate cancer (prostate cancer grade group (GrGp) ≥2) in a series of men undergoing prostate biopsy with PSA 4-10 ng/mL. We sought to define an optimum cut-point for PSAD and assess how race and body mass index (BMI) affects PSAD performance. METHODS: Data on men (n=2162 (56% black)) with serum PSA 4-10 ng/ml undergoing prostate biopsy were analyzed...
May 11, 2018: Journal of Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752005/large-mammal-diets-and-paleoecology-across-the-oldowan-acheulean-transition-at-olduvai-gorge-tanzania-from-stable-isotope-and-tooth-wear-analyses
#19
Kevin T Uno, Florent Rivals, Faysal Bibi, Michael Pante, Jackson Njau, Ignacio de la Torre
The well-dated Pleistocene sediments at Olduvai Gorge have yielded a rich record of hominin fossils, stone tools, and vertebrate faunal remains that, taken together, provide insight to hominin behavior and paleoecology. Since 2008, the Olduvai Geochronology and Archaeology Project (OGAP) has undertaken extensive excavations in Bed II that have yielded a large collection of early Pleistocene stone tools and fossils. The strata of Lower, Middle and Upper Bed II at Olduvai Gorge capture the critical transition from Oldowan to Acheulean technology and therefore provide an opportunity to explore the possible role of biotic and abiotic change during the transition...
May 8, 2018: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29749632/the-stability-paradox-why-expansion-of-women-s-education-has-not-delayed-early-union-formation-or-childbearing-in-latin-america
#20
Albert Esteve, Elizabeth Florez-Paredes
Despite substantial improvements in women's education, the age at which Latin American women marry (cohabit) or become mothers for the first time has barely decreased over the past four decades. We refer to this as the "stability paradox." We examine the relationship between years of schooling and transitions to first union or child, analyzing retrospective information from 50 cohorts of women born between 1940 and 1989 in 12 Latin American countries. Absolute and relative measures of schooling are compared...
May 11, 2018: Studies in Family Planning
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