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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217890/nontubercular-mycobacterial-infection-in-a-renal-allograft-recipient
#1
U Anandh, K Jayanna
A 71-year-old male, a renal allograft recipient, presented to us with a history of fever and right palm swelling. He had a history of fever 7 years back when he was treated with antitubercular treatment (ATT). Three years back, he was diagnosed to have gout and he was started on allopurinol. He developed severe bone marrow toxicity and allopurinol was changed to febuxostat. On admission, routine investigations did not reveal any focus of infection. The fluid aspirate from the palm revealed acid-fast bacilli (AFB)...
November 2017: Indian Journal of Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204974/effects-of-discontinuation-of-urate-lowering-therapy-a-systematic-review
#2
Virginie Beslon, Perrine Moreau, Annabel Maruani, Hubert Maisonneuve, Bruno Giraudeau, Jean-Pascal Fournier
BACKGROUND: Urate-lowering therapy (ULT) is associated with low rates of adherence, leading to a potential risk of relapse of gouty arthritis, tophi, or urolithiasis. Our main aim was to identify the recurrence of gouty arthritis, tophi, or urolithiasis after discontinuation of ULT. Secondary aims included an assessment of ULT reintroduction rates and factors associated with relapse. METHODS: We conducted a systematic literature review of clinical studies investigating the effect of discontinuing any ULT (allopurinol, febuxostat, probenecid, sulfinpyrazone, benzbromarone) in adults on long-term therapy...
December 4, 2017: Journal of General Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204859/improvement-in-diagnosis-and-treat-to-target-management-of-hyperuricemia-in-gout-results-from-the-gema-2-transversal-study-on-practice
#3
Fernando Perez Ruiz, Carlos A Sanchez-Piedra, Jesus T Sanchez-Costa, Mariano Andrés, Cesar Diaz-Torne, Mercedes Jimenez-Palop, Eugenio De Miguel, Carmen Moragues, Francisca Sivera
INTRODUCTION: The objective of the study was to evaluate changes regarding main European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) recommendations on diagnosis and treatment of gout compared to a previous assessment. METHODS: The GEMA-2 (Gout Evaluation and MAnagement) is a transversal assessment of practice for gout by rheumatologists. Main outcome variables were improvement of the previous GEMA assessment regarding the rate of crystal-proven diagnosis and that reaching therapeutic serum urate target below 6 mg/dl at last visit...
December 4, 2017: Rheumatology and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167547/crystal-arthritis-stepping-up-febuxostat-to-treat-gout-flares
#4
Joanna Collison
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 23, 2017: Nature Reviews. Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165620/comparative-effectiveness-of-allopurinol-febuxostat-and-benzbromarone-on-renal-function-in-chronic-kidney-disease-patients-with-hyperuricemia-a-13-year-inception-cohort-study
#5
Hsu-Wen Chou, Hsien-Tsai Chiu, Ching-Wei Tsai, I-Wen Ting, Hung-Chieh Yeh, Han-Chun Huang, Chin-Chi Kuo
Background: Direct comparisons of the effectiveness of allopurinol with that of other urate-lowering agents in chronic kidney disease (CKD) populations, as well as guideline recommendations for clinical practice, are lacking. Methods: We constructed a pharmacoepidemiology cohort study by including patients from Taiwan's long-term integrated CKD care program to compare the effectiveness among allopurinol, febuxostat and benzbromarone in reducing the risk of progression to dialysis...
November 17, 2017: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138678/febuxostat-modulates-mapk-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAbp65-tnf-%C3%AE-signaling-in-cardiac-ischemia-reperfusion-injury
#6
Sana Irfan Khan, Rajiv Kumar Malhotra, Neha Rani, Anil Kumar Sahu, Ameesha Tomar, Shanky Garg, Tapas Chandra Nag, Ruma Ray, Shreesh Ojha, Dharamvir Singh Arya, Jagriti Bhatia
Xanthine oxidase and xanthine dehydrogenase have been implicated in producing myocardial damage following reperfusion of an occluded coronary artery. We investigated and compared the effect of febuxostat and allopurinol in an experimental model of ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury with a focus on the signaling pathways involved. Male Wistar rats were orally administered vehicle (CMC) once daily (sham and IR + control), febuxostat (10 mg/kg/day; FEB10 + IR), or allopurinol (100 mg/kg/day; ALL100 + IR) for 14 days...
2017: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129858/green-electroanalytical-method-for-fast-measurement-of-xanthine-oxidase-inhibitor-febuxostat
#7
Biljana Nigovic, Ivona Milanovic
The electrooxidation of xanthine oxidase inhibitor febuxostat was investigated on a boron-doped diamond electrode in aqueous solution. The oxidation of the drug molecule was irreversible and exhibited a diffusion-controlled form. A green electroanalytical method for simple and fast measurements of febuxostat was developed at the unmodified electrode surface. The analyses were performed using square-wave voltammetric peak current at 1.38 V. The linear response was obtained in the range of 7.5 × 10(-7) - 2.0 × 10(-5) M with the detection limit of 9...
2017: Analytical Sciences: the International Journal of the Japan Society for Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123379/guideline-development-for-the-management-of-gout-role-of-combination-therapy-with-a-focus-on-lesinurad
#8
REVIEW
Graeme Jones, Elena Panova, Richard Day
The aim of this review was to summarize the evidence for combination therapy to achieve serum urate (SUA) target levels in gout. Within this overarching aim, a second aim was to evaluate the evidence for a new uricosuric agent lesinurad, which inhibits urate transport in the kidney. In summary, this review indicates that there are a number of ways to approach patients who do not achieve a target serum urate with allopurinol (APL) monotherapy. These include higher doses of APL up to 600-800 mg/d, switching to febuxostat, or adding in a uricosuric...
2017: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119062/xanthine-oxidase-contributes-to-sustained-airway-epithelial-oxidative-stress-after-scald-burn
#9
Sam Jacob, David N Herndon, Hal K Hawkins, Perenlei Enkhbaatar, Robert A Cox
Respiratory tract infections and pneumonia are major causes of morbidity and mortality in burn victims, however, limited studies have examined the effects of burn injury on airway epithelium. The current study examines the effect of scald burn injury on rat tracheal epithelium at 5 days after injury and tests the hypothesis that treatment with febuxostat (FBX), an inhibitor of xanthine oxidase (XO), can be protective of cell homeostasis. Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into uninjured (sham), injured (control) and injured and FBX treated groups, n = 8...
2017: International Journal of Burns and Trauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107957/febuxostat-ameliorates-secondary-progressive-experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis-by-restoring-mitochondrial-energy-production-in-a-got2-dependent-manner
#10
Josephe A Honorat, Yuji Nakatsuji, Mikito Shimizu, Makoto Kinoshita, Hisae Sumi-Akamaru, Tsutomu Sasaki, Kazushiro Takata, Toru Koda, Akiko Namba, Kazuya Yamashita, Eri Sanda, Manabu Sakaguchi, Atsushi Kumanogoh, Takashi Shirakura, Mizuho Tamura, Saburo Sakoda, Hideki Mochizuki, Tatsusada Okuno
Oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction are important determinants of neurodegeneration in secondary progressive multiple sclerosis (SPMS). We previously showed that febuxostat, a xanthine oxidase inhibitor, ameliorated both relapsing-remitting and secondary progressive experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) by preventing neurodegeneration in mice. In this study, we investigated how febuxostat protects neuron in secondary progressive EAE. A DNA microarray analysis revealed that febuxostat treatment increased the CNS expression of several mitochondria-related genes in EAE mice, most notably including GOT2, which encodes glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase 2 (GOT2)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102979/effect-of-febuxostat-on-ambulatory-blood-pressure-in-subjects-with%C3%A2-hyperuricemia-and-hypertension-a-phase-2-randomized-placebo-controlled-study
#11
Lhanoo Gunawardhana, Lachy McLean, Henry A Punzi, Barbara Hunt, Robert N Palmer, Andrew Whelton, Daniel I Feig
BACKGROUND: Hyperuricemia is associated with hypertension, with elevated serum uric acid levels postulated to have a causal role in the development of hypertension. Consequently, serum uric acid reduction may help lower blood pressure (BP). A Phase 2, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted to assess the potential BP-lowering effects of the xanthine oxidase inhibitor febuxostat in subjects with hypertension and hyperuricemia (serum uric acid ≥0.42 mmol/L [≥7.0 mg/dL])...
November 4, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102957/stepwise-dose-increase-of-febuxostat-is-comparable-with-colchicine-prophylaxis-for-the-prevention-of-gout-flares-during-the-initial-phase-of-urate-lowering-therapy-results-from-fortune-1-a-prospective-multicentre-randomised-study
#12
Hisashi Yamanaka, Shigenori Tamaki, Yumiko Ide, Hyeteko Kim, Kouichi Inoue, Masayuki Sugimoto, Yuji Hidaka, Atsuo Taniguchi, Shin Fujimori, Tetsuya Yamamoto
OBJECTIVES: To determine whether febuxostat with stepwise dose increase is as useful as colchicine prophylaxis in reducing gout flares during the initial introduction of urate-lowering therapy in patients with gout in comparison with febuxostat with no dose titration. METHODS: In this prospective, multicentre, randomised open-label comparative study, patients were randomised to group A (stepwise dose increase of febuxostat from 10 to 40 mg/day), group B (fixed-dose febuxostat 40 mg/day plus colchicine 0...
November 4, 2017: Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101234/periodic-variation-in-bile-acids-controls-circadian-changes-in-uric-acid-via-regulation-of-xanthine-oxidase-by-the-orphan-nuclear-receptor-ppar%C3%AE
#13
Takumi Kanemitsu, Yuya Tsurudome, Naoki Kusunose, Masayuki Oda, Naoya Matsunaga, Satoru Koyanagi, Shigehiro Ohdo
Xanthine oxidase (XOD), also known as xanthine dehydrogenase, is a rate-limiting enzyme in purine nucleotide degradation, which produces uric acid. Uric acid concentrations in the blood and liver exhibit circadian oscillations in both humans and rodents; however, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Here, we demonstrate that XOD expression and enzymatic activity exhibit circadian oscillations in the mouse liver. The orphan nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α (PPARα) transcriptionally activates the mouse XOD gene and that bile acids suppresses the XOD transactivation...
November 3, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079988/improving-solubility-and-oral-bioavailability-of-febuxostat-by-polymer-coated-nanomatrix
#14
Yi-Fan Yin, Yang Guo, Wen-Ding Song, Xiao-Chuan Duan, Xiu-Chai Zheng, Ting Zhong, Shuang Zhang, Xin Yao, Mei-Qi Xu, Qiang Zhang, Xuan Zhang
Here, the mesoporous silica (Sylysia 350) was selected as mesoporous material, hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) was selected as crystallization inhibitor, and febuxostat (FBT) was selected as model drug, respectively. The FBT-Sylysia-HPMC nanomatrix (FBT@SHN) was prepared. The characteristics of FBT@SHN were investigated in vitro and in vivo. Our results indicated that the FBT in FBT@SHN was in amorphous form. The solubility and dissolution of FBT in FBT@SHN were significantly increased. The oral bioavailability of FBT in FBT@SHN was greatly improved 5...
October 27, 2017: AAPS PharmSciTech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29071435/the-effect-of-xanthine-oxidase-inhibitors-on-blood-pressure-and-renal-function
#15
REVIEW
Marilisa Bove, Arrigo F G Cicero, Claudio Borghi
Several epidemiological studies have demonstrated the existence of a correlation between high serum uric acid (SUA) levels, hypertension, and chronic kidney disease (CKD). Xantine oxidase inhibitors (XOI) are the most powerful uric acid lowering drugs, with presumed beneficial effects on cardiovascular and renal system. The multifactorial mechanism linking hyperuricemia with cardiovascular and renal diseases involves both the SUA level and the xanthine oxidase (XO) activity. In this context, the clinical research has been recently focused at assessing the efficacy of urate-lowering drugs active on XO in patients with abnormal blood pressure values and renal dysfunction...
October 25, 2017: Current Hypertension Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29069047/amputation-of-the-first-metatarsophalangeal-joint-due-to-a-giant-gouty-tophi-a-case-report
#16
Chenchen Zhou, Cheng Xue, Bo Yang, Wutao Wang, Yanqiu Xu, Fang Huang, Yi Wang
RATIONALE: The first metatarsophalangeal joint (MTP1) is the most frequent site of gouty tophi. We report an unusual case with a giant skin-perforating tophi. This is the first case of gouty tophi at MTP1 which accepts surgical debulking and amputation. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 42-year-old man presented with a seven-year history of gout and a giant tophi at MTP1. The patient was referred to hospital due to persistent pain and ulcerations on the surface of the left MTP1...
October 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29066924/predictors-of-reaching-a-serum-uric-acid-goal-in-patients-with-gout-and-treated-with-febuxostat
#17
Richard Sheer, Kyle D Null, Keith A Szymanski, Lavanya Sudharshan, Jennifer Banovic, Margaret K Pasquale
PURPOSE: Clinical guidelines recommend febuxostat as first-line pharmacologic urate-lowering therapy for patients with gout to achieve a goal serum uric acid (sUA) <6 mg/dL; however, little is known about other contributing factors. This study identified clinical characteristics of patients treated with febuxostat to develop and validate a predictive model for achieving a goal sUA. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients with Humana Medicare or commercial insurance, diagnosed with gout and newly initiated on febuxostat (index date February 1, 2009 - December 31, 2013), were identified for a retrospective cohort study...
2017: ClinicoEconomics and Outcomes Research: CEOR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051626/crystal-arthritis-febuxostat-reduces-synovitis-in-early-gout
#18
Joanna Collison
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 20, 2017: Nature Reviews. Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045766/population-pharmacodynamic-analysis-of-uric-acid-lowering-effects-of-febuxostat-based-on-electronic-medical-records-in-two-hospitals
#19
Shota Muraki, Kuniaki Moriki, Saki Shigematsu, Masato Fukae, Makoto Kakara, Daiki Yamashita, Takeshi Hirota, Hiroshi Takane, Miki Shimada, Masaaki Hirakawa, Ichiro Ieiri
The aim of this study was to develop a population pharmacodynamic (PPD) model to describe uric acid (UA)-lowering effects in patients treated with febuxostat based on electronic medical records in 2 independent hospitals (university and city hospitals). Interhospital differences in the PPD model were also evaluated. We conducted the following 2 approaches to build the PPD models. A PPD model was developed separately using individual hospital data, and structural models and covariates between the two hospitals were compared (approach A)...
October 18, 2017: Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028079/potency-on-lowering-serum-uric-acid-in-gout-patients-a-pooled-analysis-of-registrative-studies-comparing-febuxostat-vs-allopurinol
#20
M Cutolo, M A Cimmino, F Perez-Ruiz
OBJECTIVE: Hyperuricemia leading to urate crystal formation in tissues represents the pathophysiological mechanism of gout. Guidelines recommend a therapeutic target of serum urate concentration (sUA) <6 mg/dL, or even lower (≤5 mg/dL) in patients with large deposits. We conducted an analysis with the aim to achieve additional insights into the urate-lowering efficacy of two xanthine oxidase inhibitors, allopurinol and febuxostat. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This was a pooled analysis of phase III trials on allopurinol and febuxostat, including 4101 patients with gout and hyperuricemia...
September 2017: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
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