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Alexandra C Sundermann, Troy D Abell, Lisa C Baker, Mark B Mengel, Kathryn E Reilly, Michael A Bonow, Gregory E Hoy, Richard D Clover
BACKGROUND: The specialization of human fat deposits is an inquiry of special importance in the study of fetal growth. It has been theorized that maternal lower-body fat is designated specifically for lactation and not for the growth of the fetus. OBJECTIVE: Our goal was to compare the contributions of maternal upper-body versus lower-body adiposity to infant birth weight. We hypothesized that upper-body adiposity would be strongly associated with infant birth weight and that lower-body adiposity would be weakly or negligibly associated with infant birth weight-after adjusting for known determinants...
September 21, 2016: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology
Breanna L Alman, Evan Coffman, Anna Maria Siega-Riz, Thomas J Luben
BACKGROUND: Water and water-based beverages constitute a major part of daily fluid intake for pregnant women, yet few epidemiologic studies have investigated the role of water consumption on birth outcomes. METHODS: We used data from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study to conduct a case-control study investigating associations between maternal water consumption during pregnancy and birth defects (BD). We used interview data on water consumption during the first trimester of pregnancy in 14,454 cases (major BDs n ≥ 50) and 5,063 controls...
October 21, 2016: Birth Defects Research. Part A, Clinical and Molecular Teratology
Annah Lane, Ling Lee, Donna Traves, Andreas Lee
INTRODUCTION: The antenatal diagnosis of open spina bifida (OSB), a neural tube defect, is predominantly made at the second trimester morphology scan by ultrasound detection of structural abnormalities resulting from the associated Chiari II malformation. Evidence has emerged suggesting that these structural abnormalities can be detected earlier, by examination of the posterior fossa as part of the first trimester nuchal translucency scan. In particular, absence of the intra-cranial translucency (IT) of the fourth ventricle has shown promise as a diagnostic marker of OSB, although the sensitivity and specificity of this finding varies widely in the literature...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Medical Imaging and Radiation Oncology
Jone Trovik, Åse Vikanes
Hyperemesis gravidarum (HG) affects 1 % of all pregnant women and in western societies it is the most common cause for hospital admission during first trimester. The economic burden of the disease has barely been studied. To estimate the Israeli national burden of HG, Konikoff and co-workers obtained data retrospectively on hospital costs as well as loss of workdays from 184 women hospitalized due to HG from December 2010 until December 2013. Their findings emphasise the need for better treatment to reduce the burden of this disease both for the individual as well as the society...
2016: Israel Journal of Health Policy Research
Avishai Shemesh, Aleksandra Kugel, Naama Steiner, Michal Yezersky, Dan Tirosh, Avishay Edri, Omri Teltsh, Benyamin Rosental, Eyal Sheiner, Eitan Rubin, Kerry S Campbell, Angel Porgador
NKp44 and NKp30 splice variant profiles have been shown to promote diverse cellular functions. Moreover, microenvironment factors such as TGF-β, IL-15 and IL-18 are able to influence both NKp44 and NKp30 splice variant profiles, leading to cytokine-associated profiles. Placenta and cancerous tissues have many similarities; both are immunologically privileged sites and both share immune tolerance mechanisms to support tissue development. Therefore, we studied the profiles of NKp44 and NKp30 splice variants in these states by comparing (i) decidua from pregnancy disorder and healthy gestation and (ii) matched normal and cancer tissue...
September 27, 2016: Oncotarget
Z Y Dai, D Liu, R Li, Y Wang, J Zhang, J Liu, R Zhou, G Zeng
Objective: To understand the association between gestational weight gain (GWG) per trimester/total (GWG) and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Methods: A prospective cohort study was conducted among 829 healthy pregnant women from Chengdu who delivered a singleton during March-September 2013. Basic information about pre-pregnancy was collected at the first time, exercise information per trimester, dietary intake information per trimester and gestational age at delivery were obtained by questionnaire. Weight at the (12 ± 1)(th), (28 ± 1)(th), (36 ± 1)(th) and last week before delivery were measured...
October 10, 2016: Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Liuxingbingxue Zazhi
M Schneider, I Schmeh, A Fruth, C Whybra-Trümpler, E Mildenberger
Monozygotic twins were previously regarded as "identical". By now an increasing number of case reports of monozygotic but discordant twins have been reported, and therefore discordance between monozygotic twins is being investigated intensively. We report a case of female preterm monozygotic twins who were discordant for fetal megacystis due to cloacal dysgenesis. Pregnancy was achieved after intracytoplasmatic sperm injection and transfer of 2 embryos. By the first trimester fetal megacystis with consecutive oligohydramnios and hypoplasia of the lungs was diagnosed...
October 2016: Zeitschrift Für Geburtshilfe und Neonatologie
Manuella Gautier, Michèle Gueneret, Corinne Plavonil, Eugénie Jolivet, Bruno Schaub
OBJECTIVE: To establish the normal reference range of fetal nasal bone length (NBL) during the second trimester in an Afro-Caribbean population and the likelihood ratio (LR) for fetal trisomy 21. METHODS: Prenatal records of euploid, non-malformed singleton fetuses who underwent second-trimester ultrasonographic scans at 20-24 weeks of gestation were retrospectively analyzed for NBL and gestational age (GA). Only Afro-Caribbean couples were selected. The relationship between fetal NBL and GA was determined...
October 21, 2016: Fetal Diagnosis and Therapy
Sabrina S Plitt, Mariam Osman, Vanita Sahni, Bonita E Lee, Carmen Charlton, Kimberley Simmonds
OBJECTIVES: In 2009, due to increasing congenital syphilis rates, prenatal syphilis tests (PST) at both mid-gestation and delivery were added to first trimester prenatal screening in the province of Alberta. We sought to determine the proportion of mothers who had all three recommended PSTs during this period and to identify factors associated with incomplete PST. METHODS: A cohort of all pregnancies resulting in a live or stillborn infant in Alberta for 2010 and 2011 was developed from Vital Statistics and linked with prenatal screening data to determine the number and timing of PSTs for pregnant women...
October 20, 2016: Canadian Journal of Public Health. Revue Canadienne de Santé Publique
Carolin A Boecking, Eleanor A Drey, Jennifer L Kerns, Walter E Finkbeiner
CONTEXT: -Despite increased use of dilation and evacuation in the setting of fetuses with developmental anomalies, the pathology examination of fragmented specimens obtained by this technique has been understudied. OBJECTIVES: -To correlate pathologic findings in second-trimester fetal dilation and evacuation specimens with prenatal diagnoses established through ultrasound and/or chromosome studies to determine the value of pathology examination for supplementing or correcting clinical diagnoses...
October 20, 2016: Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine
D Saxena, M Agarwal, D Gupta, S Agrawal, V Das, S R Phadke
: Background and Introduction: Chromosomal abnormality is found in about half of first-trimester abortions. Karyotype is the gold standard to detect chromosomal abnormalities. Multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) offers advantage over karyotype in terms of lower failure rate, faster turnaround time, and much higher resolution than conventional karyotyping and found to be 98% concordant with conventional karyotype. AIM: We performed this study to look for the utility of MLPA in diagnosing chromosomal abnormalities in first-trimester abortions...
October 2016: Journal of Postgraduate Medicine
Sarah C Bath, Victor J M Pop, Victoria L Furmidge-Owen, Maarten Broeren, Margaret P Rayman
Background Though iodine deficiency in pregnancy is a matter of public-health concern, a functional measure of iodine status is lacking. The thyroid-specific protein, thyroglobulin (Tg), which reflects thyroid size, has shown promise as a functional measure in studies of children and adults, but data in pregnancy are sparse. In a cohort of mildly-to-moderately iodine-deficient pregnant women, we aimed to explore whether serum Tg is a sensitive functional biomarker of iodine status and to examine longitudinal change in Tg with gestational age...
October 20, 2016: Thyroid: Official Journal of the American Thyroid Association
Haruta Mogami, Shigeo Yura, Eiji Kondoh, Hiroshi Masutani, Junji Yodoi, Ikuo Konishi
AIM: Thioredoxin binding protein-2 (TBP-2), which is identical to thioredoxin interacting protein (Txnip), controls cellular proliferation and differentiation. The aim of the present study was to compare TBP-2 protein and mRNA expression in human placenta during the three trimesters of pregnancy and to investigate the role of hypoxia in the change of these expressions in placental tissue. A secondary objective was to determine the gene expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) in TBP-2 deficient placenta using TBP-2 gene disrupted mice (TBP-2(-/-) )...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research
Mikko J Peltola, Tiina Mäkelä, E Juulia Paavonen, Elina Vierikko, Outi Saarenpää-Heikkilä, Tiina Paunio, Jari K Hietanen, Anneli Kylliäinen
Maternal prenatal anxiety is associated with infants' temperamental negative affectivity (NA), but it is unclear to what extent children vary in their susceptibility to prenatal influences. We tested a hypothesis that infants' respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), an index of parasympathetic vagal tone and a potential marker of differential susceptibility to environmental influences, moderates the effects of maternal prenatal anxiety on the development of infant NA. Prenatal anxiety was assessed during the last trimester of pregnancy in a low-risk community sample...
October 20, 2016: Developmental Psychobiology
Everett F Magann, Kinsey I Dinnel, Nader Z Rabie, Amanda L Shoemaker, Nirvana A Manning
BACKGROUND A spontaneous intra-amniotic hemorrhage is rarely encountered during pregnancy. The correct diagnosis and management are problematic because of the infrequency of this condition and the high likelihood of a misdiagnosis. CASE REPORT A primigravida with an uncomplicated pregnancy and a normal targeted ultrasound presented late in the second trimester of pregnancy with antepartum bleeding of unknown origin. A repeat ultrasound was suggestive of an abdominal wall defect (gastroschisis). The patient continued to have antepartum bleeding and developed uterine contractions and abdominal pain necessitating frequent visits to labor and delivery...
October 20, 2016: American Journal of Case Reports
Hanna Gustafsson, Colleen Doyle, Michelle Gilchrist, Elizabeth Werner, Catherine Monk
The consequences of childhood maltreatment are profound and long lasting. Not only does the victim of abuse suffer as a child, but there is mounting evidence that a history of maltreatment places the next generation at risk for significant psychopathology. Research identifies postnatal factors as affecting this intergenerational transmission of trauma. However, emerging evidence suggests that part of this risk may be transmitted before birth, passed on via abuse-related alterations in the in utero environment that are as yet largely unidentified...
October 20, 2016: Development and Psychopathology
Nicole Yoder, Reshef Tal, J Ryan Martin
BACKGROUND: Ectopic pregnancy is the leading cause of maternal morbidity and mortality during the first trimester and the incidence increases dramatically with assisted-reproductive technology (ART), occurring in approximately 1.5-2.1 % of patients undergoing in-vitro fertilization (IVF). Abdominal ectopic pregnancy is a rare yet clinically significant form of ectopic pregnancy due to potentially high maternal morbidity. While risk factors for ectopic pregnancy after IVF have been studied, very little is known about risk factors specific for abdominal ectopic pregnancy...
October 19, 2016: Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology: RB&E
Marie E Wang, Archana B Patel, Nellie I Hansen, Lauren Arlington, Amber Prakash, Patricia L Hibberd
BACKGROUND: Possible serious bacterial infection (PBSI) is a major cause of neonatal mortality worldwide. We studied risk factors for PSBI in a large rural population in central India where facility deliveries have increased as a result of a government financial assistance program. METHODS: We studied 37,379 pregnant women and their singleton live born infants with birth weight ≥ 1.5 kg from 20 rural primary health centers around Nagpur, India, using data from the 2010-13 population-based Maternal and Newborn Health Registry supported by NICHD's Global Network for Women's and Children's Health Research...
October 19, 2016: BMC Public Health
G Chistyakova, I Gazieva, I Remizova, L Ustyantseva, V Lyapunov, S Bychkova
We conducted a study of markers of endothelial dysfunction and angiogenesis regulation, as well as the identification of the main lymphocyte populations, activated CD3 (+) CD95(+)-cells and cytokine-producing CD4 (+) IFN-γ(+)-, CD4 (+) IL-4(+ )-lymphocytes in the 1st trimester of gestation in women with ART-induced pregnancy and spontaneous pregnancy. We used the same indicators to assess the immune status of ELBW infants at birth and at the post-conceptual age of 38-40 weeks. It was determined that the risk factors of very early preterm delivery are: threatened miscarriage, chronic placental insufficiency, endothelial dysfunction, increased spontaneous production of intracellular cytokines...
October 2016: Gynecological Endocrinology
Hicham El Costa, Jordi Gouilly, Jean-Michel Mansuy, Qian Chen, Claude Levy, Géraldine Cartron, Francisco Veas, Reem Al-Daccak, Jacques Izopet, Nabila Jabrane-Ferrat
The outbreak of the Zika Virus (ZIKV) and its association with fetal abnormalities have raised worldwide concern. However, the cellular tropism and the mechanisms of ZIKV transmission to the fetus during early pregnancy are still largely unknown. Therefore, we ex vivo modeled the ZIKV transmission at the maternal-fetal interface using organ culture from first trimester pregnancy samples. Here, we provide evidence that ZIKV strain circulating in Brazil infects and damages tissue architecture of the maternal decidua basalis, the fetal placenta and umbilical cord...
October 19, 2016: Scientific Reports
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