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Current controversies in Psychiatry

Vitor Soares Tardelli, Mariana Pimentel Pádua do Lago, Dartiu Xavier da Silveira, Thiago Marques Fidalgo
Vitamin D is associated with bone mineral density, and its deficiency is a global health problem. In psychiatry, low vitamin D levels have been associated with schizophrenia, depression, psychotic symptoms, and, more recently, alcohol use disorders. Alcohol use disorders are among the most prevalent mental disorders worldwide. Therefore, our aim was to evaluate the association between alcohol use and vitamin D serum levels. The PubMed, SCIELO, and Lilacs databases were searched for this systematic review. We assessed all articles published from 1976 to December 2015, and we examined the associated reference lists to retrieve articles that appeared to fulfill our criteria...
February 2017: Psychiatry Research
James G Pfaus, Gonzalo R Quintana, Conall Mac Cionnaith, Mayte Parada
BACKGROUND: The nature of a woman's orgasm has been a source of scientific, political, and cultural debate for over a century. Since the Victorian era, the pendulum has swung from the vagina to the clitoris, and to some extent back again, with the current debate stuck over whether internal sensory structures exist in the vagina that could account for orgasms based largely on their stimulation, or whether stimulation of the external glans clitoris is always necessary for orgasm. METHOD: We review the history of the clitoral versus vaginal orgasm debate as it has evolved with conflicting ideas and data from psychiatry and psychoanalysis, epidemiology, evolutionary theory, feminist political theory, physiology, and finally neuroscience...
2016: Socioaffective Neuroscience & Psychology
Himanshu Sharma, Bharti Sharma
Background-The Placebo is defined as an inert substance with a potent therapeutic effect. Its effect is attributed to its psychological and neurobiological effect. Its use in Psychiatric drug practice in drug trials and clinical practice is common, especially in India .Currently there is a debate whether to use it or not as there are ethical, moral and legal issues. Also, its mechanism of action is not known. Discussion-The Indian Psychiatry scenario is muddled in relation to use of placebo in Randomized Controlled Trials or Psychiatric clinical practice...
August 10, 2016: Central Nervous System Agents in Medicinal Chemistry
Tsutomu Kumazaki
Theory of mind is a prominent, but highly controversial, field in psychology, psychiatry, and philosophy of mind. Simulation theory, theory-theory and other views have been presented in recent decades, none of which are monolithic. In this article, various views on theory of mind are reviewed, and methodological problems within each view are investigated. The relationship between simulation theory and Verstehen (understanding) methodology in traditional human sciences is an intriguing issue, although the latter is not a direct ancestor of the former...
September 2016: History of Psychiatry
Elena Levy Yeyati
This paper reviews the principal critiques and reactions stated regarding the launching of DSM-5 up to the present days in Anglo-Saxon's mental health domain. The arguments are gathered as follows: current diagnoses systems; validity of psychiatric diagnoses; limits of the efficacy of psychiatric treatments (especially medications and conflict of interests); the image of psychiatry in user's networks. In the end controversies get polarized between medicalization of ordinary life and antipsychiatry. However, if acknowledged impasses and benevolent distrust are tolerated, it is possible to make a clinical use of the critiques and reactions...
May 2015: Vertex: Revista Argentina de Psiquiatriá
Yoji Nakatani, Suguru Hasuzawa
This article describes the background and recent changes in French forensic mental health. The literature suggests that three law reforms have been crucial to changes in the mental health system. First, the Penal Code of 1992 redefined the provisions of criminal responsibility and introduced the category of diminished responsibility. Second, a controversial law for preventive detention (rétention de sûretê) was enacted in 2008, according to which criminals with severe personality disorders are subject to incarceration even after the completion of their prison sentences if they are still considered to pose a danger to the public...
2015: Seishin Shinkeigaku Zasshi, Psychiatria et Neurologia Japonica
Eran Elhaik, Peter Zandi
A century of investigations enhanced our understanding of bipolar disorder although it remains a complex multifactorial disorder with a mostly unknown pathophysiology and etiology. The role of the immune system in this disorder is one of the most controversial topics in genetic psychiatry. Though inflammation has been consistently reported in bipolar patients, it remains unclear how the immunologic process influences the disorder. One of the core components of the immune system is the NF-κB pathway, which plays an essential role in the development of innate and adaptive immunity...
November 2015: Journal of Psychiatric Research
A S G Ralston, J A Swinkels
BACKGROUND: Professional journals in the Dutch language have played hardly any part in the recent controversies relating to DSM-5. So far, there has been no philosophical analysis of these discussions. AIM: To discuss the current philosophical and psychiatric literature pertaining to the current debate on psychiatric classification. Our main focus will be on a scientific and realistic approach to classification. METHOD: We discuss the literature from historical, scientific and philosophical perspectives...
2015: Tijdschrift Voor Psychiatrie
Sandra K Loo, Agatha Lenartowicz, Scott Makeig
BACKGROUND: Electroencephalography (EEG) and related measures have a long and productive history in child psychopathology research and are currently experiencing a renaissance in interest, particularly for use as putative biomarkers. METHOD AND SCOPE: First, the recent history leading to the use of EEG measures as endophenotypes and biomarkers for disease and treatment response are reviewed. Two key controversies within the area of noninvasive human electrophysiology research are discussed, and problems that currently either function as barriers or provide gateways to progress...
June 23, 2015: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
I S Lebedeva
OBJECTIVE: The search of the structural and functional brain characteristics is one of the most studied directions in the modern biological psychiatry. However, in spite of the numerous studies the results are still controversial. As the necessity of the shift of the current paradigm in schizophrenia research evolves it has been suggested to discriminate not only abnormal but stable functioning neuronal circuits as well. Consequently, the aim is formulated as the search of the minimal brain damage sufficient for disease development...
2015: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
Vassilis Kontaxakis, George Konstantakopoulos
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2015: Psychiatrikē, Psychiatriki
Reidun Norvoll, Torleif Ruud, Torfinn Hynnekleiv
BACKGROUND: In Norway, seclusion (also called «shielding» or «open-area seclusion») is often used as an intervention in inpatient psychiatric wards as a continuation of milieu therapy, but the method remains controversial in health policy. A psychiatrist or occasionally a psychologist is responsible for making a decision on seclusion pursuant to Section 4-3 of the Mental Health Care Act. Because of the uncertainty regarding the content and academic legitimacy of this model, we have undertaken a review of available literature on the justification, practical application and effect of the Norwegian tradition of seclusion...
January 13, 2015: Tidsskrift for Den Norske Lægeforening: Tidsskrift for Praktisk Medicin, Ny Række
Gabriel Kunst
Child psychiatry is a young discipline with great potential. Comparing the current resources that we had a few decades ago the contrast is marked. Our discipline has had a great development. The current psychiatric thinking cannot be defined based on one main theory to which all psychiatrists adhere. There is a theoretical pluralism where different models coexist in tension. The child psychiatrist requires conducting diagnostic regardless of their frame of reference without polarizing the field because not only is required to make a psychiatric diagnosis but also requires an understanding of the unique problems of the patient...
July 2014: Vertex: Revista Argentina de Psiquiatriá
Norma Verdolini, Mark Agius, Roberto Quartesan, Sandro Elisei
OBJECTIVE: Mixed states represent a controversial topic in the current psychiatry. The definitions and the diagnostic criteria have changed over the past years. The new DSM-5 classification will have a substantial impact in several fields: epidemiology, diagnosis, treatment, research, education, and regulations. METHODS: We reviewed the latest literature by using the key words "mixed states" and "agitated depression" on the PubMed. RESULTS: Although there is a great expectation about the validity of the new DSM-5 mixed states diagnosis, little is known about its application on large population study but the formulation of less restrictive and more specific criteria for the diagnosis of mixed states represent a starting point for future researches, mainly in consideration of the fact that previous classifications consider the MS a superposition of manic and depressive symptoms, underestimating the clinical complexity and the wider phenomenologic variability of these conditions...
November 2014: Psychiatria Danubina
Jakov Gather, Jochen Vollmann
Physician-assisted suicide (PAS), which is currently the subject of intense and controversial discussion in medical ethics, is barely discussed in psychiatry, albeit there are already dementia patients in Germany and other European countries who end their own lives with the assistance of physicians. Based on the finding that patients who ask for medical assistance in suicide often have in mind the loss of their mental capacity, we submit PAS to an ethical analysis and put it into a broader context of patient autonomy at the end of life...
October 2014: Psychiatrische Praxis
Ersin Hatice Karslioğlu, Hande Karakiliç, Ender Taner, Behçet Coşar
Background. Topiramate (TPM) is a new antiepileptic drug that is used mainly in the treatment of refractory partial epileptic seizures. There are some studies reporting TPM's effectiveness in the treatment and maintenance of some psychiatric illnesses such as acute mania, some other affective disorders, post-traumatic stress disorder and binge-eating disorder. On the other hand, it has been shown that TPM may cause mild to moderate cognitive impairment and is thought to be responsible for a series of neuro-psychiatric signs and symptoms...
2007: International Journal of Psychiatry in Clinical Practice
Tad Tietze
OBJECTIVES: To examine and analyse the controversy over psychiatric aspects of the case of Norwegian far right mass murderer Anders Behring Breivik. CONCLUSIONS: Because of a basic acceptance of methodological individualism and scientific positivism, mainstream psychiatry is currently ill suited to being broadly applied to the spheres of politics and political violence. Rather than jettison psychiatric insights in such cases, the choices facing the profession are either to accept the narrowness of its utility or to work towards a theoretical framework that sees the individual psyche as socially embedded rather than as socially constitutive, and psychiatric science itself as socially constructed and hence inescapably value-laden...
August 2014: Australasian Psychiatry: Bulletin of Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists
Branimir Margetić, Branka Aukst Margetić, Dragutin Ivanec
The use of restraints is a controversial issue even though legal regulations may seem straightforward. Our aims were to evaluate the forensic patients' opinions on certain aspects of restraining and to compare these opinions with the current legal norms. Inpatients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder at the Department of Forensic Psychiatry in Popovača, Croatia, were asked the following questions about the use of mechanical restraints: (a) Should the patients' family be informed about the use of restraints? (b) Should the physician ask the patient whether to inform the family about the use of restraints? (c) Can the use of restraints be a kind of punishment for intentionally aggressive behavior toward people in their environment? and (d) Should restraints be used if the patient requests to be restrained? The patients were assessed according to the Temperament and character inventory and Positive and Negative Symptom Scale...
December 2014: Psychiatric Quarterly
Michel Botbol
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2014: Psychiatrikē, Psychiatriki
Stefan Roepke, Aline Vater
Although concepts of pathological narcissism are as old as psychology and psychiatry itself, only a small number of clinical studies are based on the criteria for narcissistic personality disorder (NPD), as defined in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manuals of Mental Disorders (DSM). As a result, NPD appears to be one of the most controversially discussed nosological entities in psychiatry. Whereas the majority of empirical studies used self or other ratings of NPD criteria to address issues of reliability and validity of the diagnostic category (i...
May 2014: Current Psychiatry Reports
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