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hippocampus model

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161446/microglia-activation-and-gene-expression-alteration-of-neurotrophins-in-the-hippocampus-following-early-life-exposure-to-e-cigarette-aerosols-in-a-murine-model
#1
Judith T Zelikoff, Nancy Parmalee, Kevin Corbett, Terry Gordon, Catherine B Klein, Michael Aschner
Recent epidemiological data indicate that the popularity of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes), and consequently nicotine use, is rising in both adolescent and adult populations. As nicotine is a known developmental neurotoxin, these products present a potential threat for those exposed during early life stages. Despite this, few studies have evaluated the toxicity of e-cigarettes on the developing central nervous system (CNS). The goal of this study was to assess neurotoxicity resulting from early life exposure to electronic cigarette aerosols in an in vivo model...
November 17, 2017: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160858/hyperplanar-morphological-clustering-of-a-hippocampus-by-using-volumetric-computerized-tomography-in-early-alzheimer-s-disease
#2
Sarawut Suksuphew, Paramate Horkeaw
Background: On diagnosing Alzheimer's disease (AD), most existing imaging-based schemes have relied on analyzing the hippocampus and its peripheral structures. Recent studies have confirmed that volumetric variations are one of the primary indicators in differentiating symptomatic AD from healthy aging. In this study, we focused on deriving discriminative shape-based parameters that could effectively identify early AD from volumetric computerized tomography (VCT) delineation, which was previously almost intangible...
November 21, 2017: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158872/neuroprotective-and-cognitive-enhancing-effects-of-microencapsulation-of-mulberry-fruit-extract-in-animal-model-of-menopausal-women-with-metabolic-syndrome
#3
Supannika Kawvised, Jintanaporn Wattanathorn, Wipawee Thukham-Mee
Currently, the neuroprotectant and memory-enhancing agent for menopausal women with metabolic syndrome is required. Based on the advantages of polyphenolics on numerous changes observed in menopause with metabolic syndrome and the encapsulation method, we hypothesized that microencapsulated mulberry fruit extract (MME) could protect brain damage and improve memory impairment in an animal model of menopause with metabolic syndrome. To test this hypothesis, MME at doses of 10, 50, and 250 mg/kg was given to female Wistar rats which were induced experimental menopause with metabolic syndrome by bilateral ovariectomy (OVX) and fed with high-carbohydrate high-fat (HCHF) diet for 8 weeks...
2017: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157831/vitis-labruscana-leaf-extract-ameliorates-scopolamine-induced-impairments-with-activation-of-akt-erk-and-creb-in-mice
#4
Ramesh Pariyar, Chi-Su Yoon, Thida Svay, Dae-Sung Kim, Hyoung-Kwon Cho, Sung Yeon Kim, Hyuncheol Oh, Youn-Chul Kim, Jaehyo Kim, Ho-Sub Lee, Jungwon Seo
BACKGROUND: Grapes are among the most widely consumed plants and are used as a folk medicine. Vitis species have been traditionally used as anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and memory-enhancing agents, but, their biological activities of discarded grape leaves are not completely understood. PURPOSE: We investigated the effects of alcoholic aqueous leaf extract of Vitis labruscana (LEVL) in a mouse model of memory impairment and tried to ascertain its mechanism. We also evaluated its effects in SH-SY5Y cells...
December 1, 2017: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157796/neuropeptide-s-in-the-basolateral-amygdala-mediates-an-adaptive-behavioral-stress-response-in-a-rat-model-of-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-by-increasing-the-expression-of-bdnf-and-the-neuropeptide-yy1-receptor
#5
Cohen Hagit, Vainer Ella, Zeev Kaplan, Zohar Joseph, Mathé A Aleksander
Neuropeptide S (NPS) is a regulatory peptide that has anxiolytic and arousal-promoting effects in rodents. We used an animal model of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) to assess long-term behavioral effects of a single dose of NPS, microinjected into the basolateral amygdala (BLA) 1h following exposure to predator-scent stress (PSS). To elucidate the molecular mechanism by which NPS attenuates behavioral stress responses, expression levels of neuropeptide Y (NPY), NPY-Y1 receptor (NPY-Y1R), and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) were evaluated in the hippocampus...
November 17, 2017: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156419/segmentation-of-the-hippocampus-by-transferring-algorithmic-knowledge-for-large-cohort-processing
#6
Benjamin Thyreau, Kazunori Sato, Hiroshi Fukuda, Yasuyuki Taki
The hippocampus is a particularly interesting target for neuroscience research studies due to its essential role within the human brain. In large human cohort studies, bilateral hippocampal structures are frequently identified and measured to gain insight into human behaviour or genomic variability in neuropsychiatric disorders of interest. Automatic segmentation is performed using various algorithms, with FreeSurfer being a popular option. In this manuscript, we present a method to segment the bilateral hippocampus using a deep-learned appearance model...
November 10, 2017: Medical Image Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155279/scalar-timing-in-memory-a-temporal-map-in-the-hippocampus
#7
Sorinel A Oprisan, Tristan Aft, Mona Buhus, Catalin V Buhusi
Decision making, rate calculation, and planning are examples of daily tasks we perform. They require accurate timing and involve many cortical areas such as the prefrontal cortex, the striatum, and the hippocampus. Although the neurobiological origin and the mechanisms of interval timing are largely unknown, we developed increasingly accurate mathematical and computational models that can mimic some properties of time perception. The accepted paradigm of temporal durations storage is that the objective elapsed time from the short-term memory is transferred to the reference memory using a multiplicative "memory translation constant" K*...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155259/polyi-c-model-of-schizophrenia-in-rats-induces-functional-brain-changes-detected-by-mri-irreversible-by-aripiprazole-treatment
#8
Eva Drazanova, Jana Ruda-Kucerova, Lucie Kratka, Katerina Horska, Regina Demlova, Zenon Starcuk, Tomas Kasparek
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: One of the hallmarks of schizophrenia is altered brain structure, potentially due to antipsychotic treatment, the disorder itself or both. It was proposed that functional changes may precede the structural ones. In order to understand and potentially prevent this unwanted process, brain function assessment should be validated as a diagnostic tool. METHODS: We used Arterial Spin Labelling MRI technique for the evaluation of brain perfusion in several brain regions in a neurodevelopmental poly(I:C) model of schizophrenia (8 mg/kg on a gestational day 15) in rats taking into account sex-dependent effects and chronic treatment with aripiprazole (30 days), an atypical antipsychotic acting as a partial agonist on dopaminergic receptors...
November 16, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155080/a-comprehensive-analysis-of-resting-state-fmri-measures-to-classify-individual-patients-with-alzheimer-s-disease
#9
Frank de Vos, Marisa Koini, Tijn M Schouten, Stephan Seiler, Jeroen van der Grond, Anita Lechner, Reinhold Schmidt, Mark de Rooij, Serge A R B Rombouts
Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients show altered patterns of functional connectivity (FC) on resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (RSfMRI) scans. It is yet unclear which RSfMRI measures are most informative for the individual classification of AD patients. We investigated this using RSfMRI scans from 77 AD patients (MMSE = 20.4 ± 4.5) and 173 controls (MMSE = 27.5 ± 1.8). We calculated i) FC matrices between resting state components as obtained with independent component analysis (ICA), ii) the dynamics of these FC matrices using a sliding window approach, iii) the graph properties (e...
November 14, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154285/prediction-of-alzheimer-s-dementia-in-patients-with-amnestic-mild-cognitive-impairment-in-clinical-routine-incremental-value-of-biomarkers-of-neurodegeneration-and-brain-amyloidosis-added-stepwise-to-cognitive-status
#10
Catharina Lange, Per Suppa, Uwe Pietrzyk, Marcus R Makowski, Lothar Spies, Oliver Peters, Ralph Buchert
The aim of this study was to evaluate the incremental benefit of biomarkers for prediction of Alzheimer's disease dementia (ADD) in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) when added stepwise in the order of their collection in clinical routine. The model started with cognitive status characterized by the ADAS-13 score. Hippocampus volume (HV), cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) phospho-tau (pTau), and the FDG t-sum score in an AD-meta region-of-interest were compared as neurodegeneration markers. CSF-Aβ1-42 was used as amyloidosis marker...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154281/gradual-cerebral-hypoperfusion-impairs-fear-conditioning-and-object-recognition-learning-and-memory-in-mice-potential-roles-of-neurodegeneration-and-cholinergic-dysfunction
#11
Jogender Mehla, Sean Lacoursiere, Emily Stuart, Robert J McDonald, Majid H Mohajerani
In the present study, male C57BL/6J mice were subjected to gradual cerebral hypoperfusion by implanting an ameroid constrictor (AC) on the left common carotid artery (CCA) and a stenosis on the right CCA. In the sham group, all surgical procedures were kept the same except no AC was implanted and stenosis was not performed. One month following the surgical procedures, fear conditioning and object recognition tests were conducted to evaluate learning and memory functions and motor functions were assessed using a balance beam test...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154269/early-and-persistent-o-glcnac-protein-modification-in-the-streptozotocin-model-of%C3%A2-alzheimer-s-disease
#12
João Paulo Almeida Dos Santos, Adriana Vizuete, Fernanda Hansen, Regina Biasibetti, Carlos-Alberto Gonçalves
 O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT), an enzyme highly expressed in brain tissue, catalyzes the addition of N-acetyl-glucosamine (GlcNAc) to hydroxyl residues of serine and threonine of proteins. Brain protein O-GlcNAcylation is diminished in Alzheimer's disease (AD), and OGT targets include proteins of the insulin-signaling pathway (e.g., insulin receptor susbtrate-1, IRS-1). We hypothesized that ICV streptozotocin (STZ) also affects O-GlcNAc protein modification. We investigated hippocampal metabolic changes in Wistar rats, particularly OGT levels and insulin resistance, as well as related astroglial activities, immediately after ICV STZ administration (first week) and later on (fourth week)...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154129/collective-behavior-of-place-and-non-place-neurons-in-the-hippocampal-network
#13
Leenoy Meshulam, Jeffrey L Gauthier, Carlos D Brody, David W Tank, William Bialek
Discussions of the hippocampus often focus on place cells, but many neurons are not place cells in any given environment. Here we describe the collective activity in such mixed populations, treating place and non-place cells on the same footing. We start with optical imaging experiments on CA1 in mice as they run along a virtual linear track and use maximum entropy methods to approximate the distribution of patterns of activity in the population, matching the correlations between pairs of cells but otherwise assuming as little structure as possible...
November 15, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154125/endogenous-g%C3%AE-q-coupled-neuromodulator-receptors-activate-protein-kinase-a
#14
Yao Chen, Adam J Granger, Trinh Tran, Jessica L Saulnier, Alfredo Kirkwood, Bernardo L Sabatini
Protein kinase A (PKA) integrates inputs from G-protein-coupled neuromodulator receptors to modulate synaptic and cellular function. Gαs signaling stimulates PKA activity, whereas Gαi inhibits PKA activity. Gαq, on the other hand, signals through phospholipase C, and it remains unclear whether Gαq-coupled receptors signal to PKA in their native context. Here, using two independent optical reporters of PKA activity in acute mouse hippocampus slices, we show that endogenous Gαq-coupled muscarinic acetylcholine receptors activate PKA...
November 3, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151658/generalized-scalar-on-image-regression-models-via-total-variation
#15
Xiao Wang, Hongtu Zhu
The use of imaging markers to predict clinical outcomes can have a great impact in public health. The aim of this paper is to develop a class of generalized scalar-on-image regression models via total variation (GSIRM-TV), in the sense of generalized linear models, for scalar response and imaging predictor with the presence of scalar covariates. A key novelty of GSIRM-TV is that it is assumed that the slope function (or image) of GSIRM-TV belongs to the space of bounded total variation in order to explicitly account for the piecewise smooth nature of most imaging data...
2017: Journal of the American Statistical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151391/repeated-treatment-with-nitric-oxide-synthase-inhibitor-attenuates-learned-helplessness-development-in-rats-and-increases-hippocampal-bdnf-expression
#16
Laura Alves Stanquini, Caroline Biojone, Francisco Silveira Guimarães, Sâmia Regiane Joca
BACKGROUND: Nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitors induce antidepressant-like effects in animal models sensitive to acute drug treatment such as the forced swimming test. However, it is not yet clear if repeated treatment with these drugs is required to induce antidepressant-like effects in preclinical models. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to test the effect induced by acute or repeated (7 days) treatment with 7-nitroindazole (7-NI), a preferential inhibitor of neuronal NOS, in rats submitted to the learned helplessness (LH) model...
November 20, 2017: Acta Neuropsychiatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150595/notch1-signaling-activation-contributes-to-adult-hippocampal-neurogenesis-following-traumatic-brain-injury
#17
Ming Tu, Penglei Zhu, Shaobo Hu, Wei Wang, Zhipeng Su, Jiaqing Guan, Chongran Sun, Weiming Zheng
BACKGROUND Neural stem cells are reported to exist in the hippocampus of adult mammals and are important sources of neurons for repair. The Notch1 signaling pathway is considered as one of the important regulators of neural stem cells, but its role in adult brains is unclear. We aimed to describe the role of Notch1 signaling in the adult rat hippocampus after traumatic brain injury. MATERIAL AND METHODS The model rats were randomly divided into 4 groups as follows: sham, sham-TBI, sham-Ad-TBI, and NICD-Ad-TBI...
November 18, 2017: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150085/pinocembrin-alleviates-cognition-deficits-by-inhibiting-inflammation-in-diabetic-mice
#18
Bing Pei, Jian Sun
Diabetic encephalopathy (DE) is one of the most common diabetic complications in diabetes mellitus and is characterized by cognitive impairment and neuroinflammation. It has been reported that hyperglycemia can induce hippocampal and cortical neuronal damage, which can result in severe spatial learning and memory impairment. Pinocembrin (Pino) has been widely used in the therapy of cancer and other diseases due to its anti-inflammatory, anti-allergic, anti-oxidant, anti-carcinogenic, and anti-viral activities...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Neuroimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148974/revealing-the-distribution-of-transmembrane-currents-along-the-dendritic-tree-of-a-neuron-from-extracellular-recordings
#19
Dorottya Cserpán, Domokos Meszéna, Lucia Wittner, Kinga Tóth, István Ulbert, Zoltán Somogyvári, Daniel K Wojcik
Revealing the current source distribution along the neuronal membrane is a key step on the way to understanding neural computations, however, the experimental and theoretical tools to achieve sufficient spatiotemporal resolution for the estimation remain to be established. Here we address this problem using extracellularly recorded potentials with arbitrarily distributed electrodes for a neuron of known morphology. We use simulations of models with varying complexity to validate the proposed method and to give recommendations for experimental applications...
November 17, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147492/alterations-in-adult-hippocampal-neurogenesis-aberrant-protein-s-nitrosylation-and-associated-spatial-memory-loss-in-streptozotocin-induced-diabetes-mellitus-type-2-mice
#20
Aneeqa Noor, Saadia Zahid
Objectives: Epidemiological and biochemical studies conducted over the past two decades have established a strong link between type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the exact mechanisms through which aberrations in insulin signaling associated with T2DM contribute to cognitive decline are not yet known. Materials and Methods: In an effort to explore possible molecular links between T2DM and AD, the present study investigated the status of neurodegeneration, adult hippocampal neurogenesis, and nitrosative stress induced protein S-nitrosylation in streptozotocin (STZ) induced mice models of T2DM...
October 2017: Iranian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences
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