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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213444/the-dendrites-of-ca2-and-ca1-pyramidal-neurons-differentially-regulate-information-flow-in-the-cortico-hippocampal-circuit
#1
Kalyan V Srinivas, Eric W Buss, Qian Sun, Bina Santoro, Hiroto Takahashi, Daniel A Nicholson, Steven A Siegelbaum
The impact of a given neuronal pathway depends on the number of synapses it makes with its postsynaptic target, the strength of each individual synapse and the integrative properties of the postsynaptic dendrites. Here we explore the cellular and synaptic mechanisms responsible for the differential excitatory drive from the entorhinal cortical pathway onto mouse CA2 compared to CA1 pyramidal neurons (PNs). Although both types of neurons receive direct input from entorhinal cortex onto their distal dendrites, these inputs produce a 5-6 fold larger excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP) at the soma of CA2 compared to CA1 PNs, which is sufficient to drive action potential output from CA2 but not CA1...
February 17, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212939/cannabis-exacerbates-depressive-symptoms-in-rat-model-induced-by-reserpine
#2
Yasser A Khadrawy, Hussein G Sawie, Omar M E Abdel-Salam, Eman N Hosny
Cannabis sativa is one of the most widely recreational drugs and its use is more prevalent among depressed patients. Some studies reported that Cannabis has antidepressant effects while others showed increased depressive symptoms in Cannabis users. Therefore, the present study aims to investigate the effect of Cannabis extract on the depressive-like rats. Twenty four rats were divided into: control, rat model of depression induced by reserpine and depressive-like rats treated with Cannabis sativa extract (10mg/kg expressed as Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol)...
February 14, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212525/ablation-of-ferroptosis-regulator-glutathione-peroxidase-4-in-forebrain-neurons-promotes-cognitive-impairment-and-neurodegeneration
#3
William Sealy Hambright, Rene Solano Fonseca, Liuji Chen, Ren Na, Qitao Ran
Synaptic loss and neuron death are the underlying cause of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD); however, the modalities of cell death in those diseases remain unclear. Ferroptosis, a newly identified oxidative cell death mechanism triggered by massive lipid peroxidation, is implicated in the degeneration of neurons populations such as spinal motor neurons and midbrain neurons. Here, we investigated whether neurons in forebrain regions (cerebral cortex and hippocampus) that are severely afflicted in AD patients might be vulnerable to ferroptosis...
February 1, 2017: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212441/depressive-disorder-and-gastrointestinal-dysfunction-after-myocardial-infarct-are-associated-with-abnormal-tryptophan-5-hydroxytryptamine-metabolism-in-rats
#4
Xiaofang Lu, Yuefen Wang, Chunyan Liu, Yangang Wang
In this study, we investigated the relationship between tryptophan-5-hydroxytryptamine metabolism, depressive disorder, and gastrointestinal dysfunction in rats after myocardial infarction. Our goal was to elucidate the physiopathologic bases of somatic/psychiatric depression symptoms after myocardial infarction. A myocardial infarction model was established by permanent occlusion of the left anterior descending coronary artery. Depression-like behavior was evaluated using the sucrose preference test, open field test, and forced swim test...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211103/impaired-learning-and-memory-in-rats-induced-by-a-high-fat-diet-involvement-with-the-imbalance-of-nesfatin-1-abundance-and-copine-6-expression
#5
Zheng Chen, Ya-Yun Xu, Rui Wu, Yin-Xiu Han, Yue Yu, Jin-Fang Ge, Fei-Hu Chen
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common cause of chronic liver disease, resulting not only in liver dysfunction, glucose and lipid metabolism disorder, but also in neuropsychiatric damage. In the present study, a NAFLD rat model was established via feeding of a high-fat diet, and the behavior was observed via the open field test (OFT), the sucrose preference test (SPT), the elevated plus maze (EPM), the forced swimming test (FST), and the Morris water maze (MWM). The plasma concentrations of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), glucose, free fatty acid (FFA), total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) were detected using chemiluminescence technique...
February 17, 2017: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208253/engineering-carbon-nanotube-fiber-for-real-time-quantification-of-ascorbic-acid-levels-in-a-live-rat-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#6
Limin Zhang, Fangling Liu, Xuemei Sun, Guang-Feng Wei, Yang Tian, Zhi-Pan Liu, Rong Huang, Yanyan Yu, Huisheng Peng
Ascorbic acid (AA) levels are closely correlated with physiological and pathological events in brain diseases, but the mechanism remains unclear, mainly due to the difficulty of accurately analyzing AA levels in live brain. In this study, by engineering tunable defects and oxygen-containing species in carbon nanotubes, a novel aligned carbon nanotube fiber was developed as an accurate microsensor for the ratiometric detection of AA levels in live rat brains with Alzheimer's disease (AD). AA oxidation is greatly facilitated on the fiber surface at a low potential, leading to high sensitivity as well as high selectivity against potential sources of interference in the brain...
February 7, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207852/tetraspanin-6-a-novel-regulator-of-hippocampal-synaptic-transmission-and-long-term-plasticity
#7
Isabel H Salas, Zsuzsanna Callaerts-Vegh, Amaia M Arranz, Francesc X Guix, Rudi D'Hooge, José A Esteban, Bart De Strooper, Carlos G Dotti
Tetraspanins (Tspan) are transmembrane proteins with important scaffold and signalling functions. Deletions of Tetraspanin 6 (Tspan6) gene, a member of the tetraspanin family, have been reported in patients with Epilepsy Female-restricted with Mental Retardation (EFMR). Interestingly, mutations in Tspan7, highly homologous to Tspan6, are associated with X-linked intellectual disability, suggesting that these two proteins are important for cognition. Considering recent evidences showing that Tspan7 plays a key role in synapse development and AMPAR trafficking, we initiated the study of Tspan6 in synaptic function using a Tspan6 knock out mouse model...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205591/protective-effect-of-17%C3%AE-estradiol-upon-hippocampal-spine-density-and-cognitive-function-in-an-animal-model-of-vascular-dementia
#8
Ying Zhu, Quanguang Zhang, Wenli Zhang, Ning Li, Yongxin Dai, Jingyi Tu, Fang Yang, Darrell W Brann, Ruimin Wang
The current study examined whether the steroid hormone, 17β-estradiol (E2) can exert long-lasting beneficial effects upon axonal health, synaptic plasticity, dementia-related amyloid-beta (Aβ) protein expression, and hippocampal-dependent cognitive function in an animal model of chronic cerebral hypoperfusion and vascular dementia (VaD). Chronic cerebral hypoperfusion and VaD was induced by bilateral common carotid artery occlusion (BCCAO) in adult male Sprague Dawley rats. Low dose E2 administered for the first 3-months after BCCAO exerted long-lasting beneficial effects, including significant neuroprotection of hippocampal CA1 neurons and preservation of hippocampal-dependent cognitive function when examined at 6-months after BCCAO...
February 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28204906/differential-brain-cognitive-and-motor-profiles-associated-with-partial-trisomy-modeling-down-syndrome-in-mice
#9
Pierre L Roubertoux, Nathalie Baril, Pierre Cau, Christophe Scajola, Adeline Ghata, Catherine Bartoli, Patrice Bourgeois, Julie di Christofaro, Sylvie Tordjman, Michèle Carlier
We hypothesize that the trisomy 21 (Down syndrome) is the additive and interactive outcome of the triple copy of different regions of HSA21. Because of the small number of patients with partial trisomy 21, we addressed the question in the Mouse in which three chromosomal regions located on MMU10, MMU17 and MMU16 carries almost all the HSA21 homologs. Male mice from four segmental trisomic strains covering the D21S17-ETS2 (syntenic to MMU16) were examined with an exhaustive battery of cognitive tests, motor tasks and MRI and compared with TS65Dn that encompasses D21S17-ETS2...
February 15, 2017: Behavior Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203607/epigallocatechin-gallate-a-useful-therapy-for-cognitive-disability-in-down-syndrome
#10
Fiorenza Stagni, Andrea Giacomini, Marco Emili, Sandra Guidi, Elisabetta Ciani, Renata Bartesaghi
Neurodevelopmental alterations and cognitive disability are constant features of Down syndrome (DS), a genetic condition due to triplication of chromosome 21. DYRK1A is one of the triplicated genes that is thought to be strongly involved in brain alterations. Treatment of Dyrk1A transgenic mice with epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), an inhibitor of DYRK1A, improves cognitive performance, suggesting that EGCG may represent a suitable treatment of DS. Evidence in the Ts65Dn mouse model of DS shows that EGCG restores hippocampal development, although this effect is ephemeral...
2017: Neurogenesis (Austin, Tex.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203202/plasma-exosomes-spread-and-cluster-around-%C3%AE-amyloid-plaques-in-an-animal-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#11
Tingting Zheng, Jiali Pu, Yanxing Chen, Yanfang Mao, Zhangyu Guo, Hongyu Pan, Ling Zhang, Heng Zhang, Binggui Sun, Baorong Zhang
Exosomes, a type of extracellular vesicle, have been shown to be involved in many disorders, including Alzheimer's disease (AD). Exosomes may contribute to the spread of misfolded proteins such as amyloid-β (Aβ) and α-synuclein. However, the specific diffusion process of exosomes and their final destination in brain are still unclear. In the present study, we isolated exosomes from peripheral plasma and injected them into the hippocampus of an AD mouse model, and investigated exosome diffusion. We found that injected exosomes can spread from the dentate gyrus (DG) to other regions of hippocampus and to the cortex...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202716/pattern-separation-and-goal-directed-behavior-in-the-aged-canine
#12
Shikha Snigdha, Michael A Yassa, Christina deRivera, Norton W Milgram, Carl W Cotman
The pattern separation task has recently emerged as a behavioral model of hippocampus function and has been used in several pharmaceutical trials. The canine is a useful model to evaluate a multitude of hippocampal-dependent cognitive tasks that parallel those in humans. Thus, this study was designed to evaluate the suitability of pattern separation task(s) for detecting age-related changes in canines. We also assessed the dogs' ability to show pattern separation and discrimination reversal, which provides a novel extension of the pattern separation learning literature...
March 2017: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202057/improvement-of-memory-and-learning-by-intracerebroventricular-microinjection-of-t3-in-rat-model-of-ischemic-brain-stroke-mediated-by-upregulation-of-bdnf-and-gdnf-in-ca1-hippocampal-region
#13
Tahmineh Mokhtari, Mohammad Akbari, Fatemeh Malek, Iraj Ragerdi Kashani, Tayebeh Rastegar, Farshid Noorbakhsh, Mahmoud Ghazi-Khansari, Fatemeh Attari, Gholamreza Hassanzadeh
BACKGROUND: Ischemic stroke is a common leading cause of death and disability with lack of effective therapies. In this study, T3 was intra-ventricularly injected to evaluate gene expression and protein concentration of and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and Glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) in hippocampal CA1 region in rat model of brain ischemia/reperfusion (I/R). METHODS: In this study, transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAo) was used as model of ischemic brain stroke...
February 15, 2017: Daru: Journal of Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199858/associations-between-hippocampal-morphology-diffusion-characteristics-and-salivary-cortisol-in-older-men
#14
Simon R Cox, Maria Del Carmen Valdés Hernández, Jaeil Kim, Natalie A Royle, Sarah E MacPherson, Karen J Ferguson, Susana Muñoz Maniega, Devasuda Anblagan, Benjamin S Aribisala, Mark E Bastin, Jinah Park, John M Starr, Ian J Deary, Alasdair M J MacLullich, Joanna M Wardlaw
High, unabated glucocorticoid (GC) levels are thought to selectively damage certain tissue types. The hippocampus is thought to be particularly susceptible to such effects, and though findings from animal models and human patients provide some support for this hypothesis, evidence for associations between elevated GCs and lower hippocampal volumes in older age (when GC levels are at greater risk of dysregulation) is inconclusive. To address the possibility that the effects of GCs in non-pathological ageing may be too subtle for gross volumetry to reliably detect, we analyse associations between salivary cortisol (diurnal and reactive measures), hippocampal morphology and diffusion characteristics in 88 males, aged ∼73 years...
January 27, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199828/hucns-sc-human-nscs-fail-to-differentiate-form-ectopic-clusters-and-provide-no-cognitive-benefits-in-a-transgenic-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#15
Samuel E Marsh, Stephen T Yeung, Maria Torres, Lydia Lau, Joy L Davis, Edwin S Monuki, Wayne W Poon, Mathew Blurton-Jones
Transplantation of neural stem cells (NSCs) can improve cognition in animal models of Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, AD is a protracted disorder, and prior studies have examined only short-term effects. We therefore used an immune-deficient model of AD (Rag-5xfAD mice) to examine long-term transplantation of human NSCs (StemCells Inc.; HuCNS-SCs). Five months after transplantation, HuCNS-SCs had engrafted and migrated throughout the hippocampus and exhibited no differences in survival or migration in response to β-amyloid pathology...
February 14, 2017: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196514/defining-the-contribution-of-neuroinflammation-to-parkinson-s-disease-in-humanized-immune-system-mice
#16
Gunjan Dhawan Manocha, Angela Marie Floden, Kendra Lynn Puig, Kumi Nagamoto-Combs, Clemens R Scherzer, Colin Kelly Combs
BACKGROUND: Reactive microglia have been associated with the histological changes that occur in Parkinson's disease brains and mouse models of the disease. Multiple studies from autopsy brains have verified the presence of microgliosis in several brain regions including substantia nigra, striatum, hippocampus and various cortical areas. MPTP injections in rodents have also shown striato-nigral microgliosis correlating with the loss of dopaminergic neurons. However, consistent data with respect to cytokine and immune cell changes during Parkinson's disease have not been fully defined...
February 14, 2017: Molecular Neurodegeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195567/bdnf-val66met-association-with-serotonin-transporter-binding-in-healthy-humans
#17
P M Fisher, B Ozenne, C Svarer, D Adamsen, S Lehel, W F C Baaré, P S Jensen, G M Knudsen
The serotonin transporter (5-HTT) is a key feature of the serotonin system, which is involved in behavior, cognition and personality and implicated in neuropsychiatric illnesses including depression. The brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) val66met and 5-HTTLPR polymorphisms have predicted differences in 5-HTT levels in humans but with equivocal results, possibly due to limited sample sizes. Within the current study we evaluated these genetic predictors of 5-HTT binding with [(11)C]DASB positron emission tomography (PET) in a comparatively large cohort of 144 healthy individuals...
February 14, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193696/astrocytic-orosomucoid-2-modulates-microglial-activation-and-neuroinflammation
#18
Myungjin Jo, Jong-Heon Kim, Gyunjee Song, Minchul Seo, Eun Mi Hwang, Kyoungho Suk
Orosomucoid (ORM) is an acute-phase protein that belongs to the immunocalin subfamily, a group of small-molecule binding proteins with immunomodulatory functions. Little is known about the role of ORM proteins in the central nervous system. The aim of the present study was to investigate the brain expression of ORM and its role in neuroinflammation. Expression of Orm2, but not Orm1 or Orm3, was highly induced in the mouse brain after systemic injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Plasma levels of ORM2 were also significantly higher in patients with cognitive impairment than in normal subjects...
February 13, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192878/neuroprotective-effects-of-pretreatment-with-quercetin-as-assessed-by-acetylcholinesterase-assay-and-behavioral-testing-in-poloxamer-407-induced-hyperlipidemic-rats
#19
Josiane B S Braun, Jader B Ruchel, Stephen A Adefegha, Ana Paula V Coelho, Kelly B Trelles, Cristiane Signor, Maribel A Rubin, Juliana S Oliveira, Guilherme L Dornelles, Cinthia M de Andrade, Lívia G Castilhos, Daniela B R Leal
Hyperlipidemia is a group of disorders characterized by excessive lipids in the bloodstream. It is associated with the incidence of cardiovascular diseases and recognized as the most important factor underlying the occurrence of atherosclerosis. This study was conducted to investigate whether pretreatment with quercetin can protect against possible memory impairment and deterioration of the cholinergic system in hyperlipidemic rats. Animals were divided into ten groups (n=7): saline/control, saline/quercetin 5mg/kg, saline/quercetin 25mg/kg, saline/quercetin 50mg/kg, saline/simvastatin (0...
February 7, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192749/ascorbic-acid-ameliorates-behavioural-deficits-and-neuropathological-alterations-in-rat-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#20
Olayemi Joseph Olajide, Emmanuel Olusola Yawson, Ismail Temitayo Gbadamosi, Tolulope Timothy Arogundade, Ezra Lambe, Kosisochukwu Obasi, Ismail Tayo Lawal, Abdulmumin Ibrahim, Kehinde Yomi Ogunrinola
Exploring the links between neural pathobiology and behavioural deficits in Alzheimer's disease (AD), and investigating substances with known therapeutic advantages over subcellular mechanisms underlying these dysfunctions could advance the development of potent therapeutic molecules for AD treatment. Here we investigated the efficacy of ascorbic acid (AA) in reversing aluminium chloride (AlCl3)-induced behavioural deficits and neurotoxic cascades within prefrontal cortex (PFC) and hippocampus of rats. A group of rats administered oral AlCl3 (100mg/kg) daily for 15days showed degenerative changes characterised by significant weight loss, reduced exploratory/working memory, frontal-dependent motor deficits, cognitive decline, memory dysfunction and anxiety during behavioural assessments compared to control...
February 6, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
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