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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636697/role-of-positive-parenting-in-the-association-between-neighborhood-social-disadvantage-and-brain-development-across-adolescence
#1
Sarah Whittle, Nandita Vijayakumar, Julian G Simmons, Meg Dennison, Orli Schwartz, Christos Pantelis, Lisa Sheeber, Michelle L Byrne, Nicholas B Allen
Importance: The negative effects of socioeconomic disadvantage on lifelong functioning are pronounced, with some evidence suggesting that these effects are mediated by changes in brain development. To our knowledge, no research has investigated whether parenting might buffer these negative effects. Objective: To establish whether positive parenting behaviors moderate the effects of socioeconomic disadvantage on brain development and adaptive functioning in adolescents...
June 21, 2017: JAMA Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633971/manganese-enhanced-magnetic-resonance-imaging-depicts-brain-activity-in-models-of-acute-and-chronic-pain-a-new-window-to-study-experimental-spontaneous-pain
#2
I M Devonshire, J J Burston, L Xu, A Lillywhite, M J Prior, D J G Watson, C M Greenspon, S J Iwabuchi, D P Auer, V Chapman
Application of functional imaging techniques to animal models is vital to understand pain mechanisms, but is often confounded by the need to limit movement artefacts with anaesthesia, and a focus on evoked responses rather than clinically relevant spontaneous pain and related hyperalgesia. The aim of the present study was to investigate the potential of manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MEMRI) to measure neural responses during on-going pain that underpins hyperalgesia in pre-clinical models of nociception...
June 17, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632120/basolateral-amygdala-ventromedial-prefrontal-cortex-connectivity-predicts-cognitive-behavioural-therapy-outcome-in-adults-with-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#3
Miquel A Fullana, Xi Zhu, Pino Alonso, Narcís Cardoner, Eva Real, Clara López-Solà, Cinto Segalàs, Marta Subirà, Hanga Galfalvy, José M Menchón, H Blair Simpson, Rachel Marsh, Carles Soriano-Mas
BACKGROUND: Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT), including exposure and ritual prevention, is a first-line treatment for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), but few reliable predictors of CBT outcome have been identified. Based on research in animal models, we hypothesized that individual differences in basolateral amygdala-ventromedial prefrontal cortex (BLA-vmPFC) communication would predict CBT outcome in patients with OCD. METHODS: We investigated whether BLA-vmPFC resting-state functional connectivity (rs-fc) predicts CBT outcome in patients with OCD...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623450/the-relationship-between-excitement-symptom-severity-and-extrastriatal-dopamine-d2-3-receptor-availability-in-patients-with-schizophrenia-a-high-resolution-pet-study-with-18-f-fallypride
#4
Yo-Han Joo, Jeong-Hee Kim, Young-Don Son, Hang-Keun Kim, Yeon-Jeong Shin, Sang-Yoon Lee, Jong-Hoon Kim
The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between specific symptom severity and D2/3 receptor availability in extrastriatal regions in outpatients with schizophrenia to shed light on the role of extrastriatal dopaminergic neurotransmission in the pathophysiology of symptoms of schizophrenia. Sixteen schizophrenia patients receiving relatively low-dose maintenance atypical antipsychotics and seventeen healthy controls underwent 3-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging and high-resolution positron emission tomography with [(18)F]fallypride...
June 16, 2017: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622627/changes-in-nonhuman-primate-brain-function-following-chronic-alcohol-consumption-in-previously-na%C3%A3-ve-animals
#5
Jared A Rowland, Jennifer R Stapleton-Kotloski, Greg E Alberto, April T Davenport, Robert J Kotloski, David P Friedman, Dwayne W Godwin, James B Daunais
INTRODUCTION: Chronic alcohol abuse is associated with neurophysiological changes in brain activity; however, these changes are not well localized in humans. Non-human primate models of alcohol abuse enable control over many potential confounding variables associated with human studies. The present study utilized high-resolution magnetoencephalography (MEG) to quantify the effects of chronic EtOH self-administration on resting state (RS) brain function in vervet monkeys. METHODS: Adolescent male vervet monkeys were trained to self-administer ethanol (n=7) or an isocaloric malto-dextrin solution (n=3)...
May 30, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622391/neuronal-substrates-underlying-stress-resilience-and-susceptibility-in-rats
#6
Fabia Febbraro, Katrine Svenningsen, Thao Phuong Tran, Ove Wiborg
BACKGROUND: Stress and stressful life events have repeatedly been shown as causally related to depression. The Chronic Mild Stress rat model is a valid model of stress-induced depression. Like humans, rats display great heterogeneity in their response to stress and adversity. Hence some individuals are stress-sensitive and prone to develop depression-like behaviour in response to modest stressors, while others are stress-resilient and remain essentially symptom free. OBJECTIVES: Compared to the large body of research, which describes stress-induced maladaptive neurobiological changes, relatively little attention has been devoted to understand resiliency to stress...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616754/sexually-dimorphic-distribution-of-prokr2-neurons-revealed-by-the-prokr2-cre-mouse-model
#7
Zaid Mohsen, Hosung Sim, David Garcia-Galiano, Xingfa Han, Nicole Bellefontaine, Thomas L Saunders, Carol F Elias
Prokineticin receptor 2 (PROKR2) is predominantly expressed in the mammalian central nervous system. Loss-of-function mutations of PROKR2 in humans are associated with Kallmann syndrome due to the disruption of gonadotropin releasing hormone neuronal migration and deficient olfactory bulb morphogenesis. PROKR2 has been also implicated in the neuroendocrine control of GnRH neurons post-migration and other physiological systems. However, the brain circuitry and mechanisms associated with these actions have been difficult to investigate mainly due to the widespread distribution of Prokr2-expressing cells, and the lack of animal models and molecular tools...
June 14, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612047/wortmannin-attenuates-seizure-induced-hyperactive-pi3k-akt-mtor-signaling-impaired-memory-and-spine-dysmorphology-in-rats
#8
Angela N Carter, Heather A Born, Amber T Levine, An T Dao, Amanda J Zhao, Wai L Lee, Anne E Anderson
Numerous studies have shown epilepsy-associated cognitive deficits, but less is known about the effects of one single generalized seizure. Recent studies demonstrate that a single, self-limited seizure can result in memory deficits and induces hyperactive phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt (protein kinase B)/mechanistic target of rapamycin (PI3K/Akt/mTOR) signaling. However, the effect of a single seizure on subcellular structures such as dendritic spines and the role of aberrant PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling in these seizure-induced changes are unclear...
May 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600997/genistein-alleviates-anxiety-like-behaviors-in-post-traumatic-stress-disorder-model-through-enhancing-serotonergic-transmission-in-the-amygdala
#9
Zhong-Min Wu, Gui-Lian Ni, Ai-Min Shao, Rong Cui
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a chronic psychiatric disorder, characterized by intense fear, and increased arousal and avoidance of traumatic events. The current available treatments for PTSD have limited therapeutic value. Genistein, a natural isoflavone, modulates a variety of cell functions. In this study, we tested anti-anxiety activity and underlying mechanisms of genistein in a PTSD rat model. The rats were trained to associate a tone with foot shock delivery on day 0, then fear conditioning was performed on day 7, 14 and 21...
June 2, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600678/co-altered-functional-networks-and-brain-structure-in-unmedicated-patients-with-bipolar-and-major-depressive-disorders
#10
Hao He, Jing Sui, Yuhui Du, Qingbao Yu, Dongdong Lin, Wayne C Drevets, Jonathan B Savitz, Jian Yang, Teresa A Victor, Vince D Calhoun
Bipolar disorder (BD) and major depressive disorder (MDD) share similar clinical characteristics that often obscure the diagnostic distinctions between their depressive conditions. Both functional and structural brain abnormalities have been reported in these two disorders. However, the direct link between altered functioning and structure in these two diseases is unknown. To elucidate this relationship, we conducted a multimodal fusion analysis on the functional network connectivity (FNC) and gray matter density from MRI data from 13 BD, 40 MDD, and 33 matched healthy controls (HC)...
June 9, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598734/does-psychosocial-stress-impact-cognitive-reappraisal-behavioral-and-neural-evidence
#11
Maheen Shermohammed, Pranjal H Mehta, Joan Zhang, Cassandra M Brandes, Luke J Chang, Leah H Somerville
Cognitive reappraisal (CR) is regarded as an effective emotion regulation strategy. Acute stress, however, is believed to impair the functioning of prefrontal-based neural systems, which could result in lessened effectiveness of CR under stress. This study tested the behavioral and neurobiological impact of acute stress on CR. While undergoing fMRI, adult participants ( n = 54) passively viewed or used CR to regulate their response to negative and neutral pictures and provided ratings of their negative affect in response to each picture...
June 9, 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597200/the-lesion-analysis-of-cholinergic-neurons-in-5xfad-mouse-model-in-the-three-dimensional-level-of-whole-brain
#12
Huanhuan Yan, Pei Pang, Wenqi Chen, Houze Zhu, K A Henok, Hao Li, Zuoze Wu, Xiao Ke, Jianhua Wu, Tongmei Zhang, Kai Pan, Lei Pei, Yunyun Han, Youming Lu
Cholinergic system is very important for many higher brain functions, including learning and memory. Cholinergic neurons, especially those in the basal forebrain, are specifically susceptible in some neurodegenerative diseases, such as in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Here, we studied the cholinergic system lesion effects of five familial AD mutations in 5XFAD mice, a transgenic mouse model of AD. Although the cholinergic system has been studied in this mouse model, the cholinergic deficits in AD mice have never been systematically mapped in a whole-brain three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction...
June 8, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28590943/suppressed-play-behaviour-and-decreased-oxytocin-receptor-binding-in-the-amygdala-after-prenatal-exposure-to-low-dose-valproic-acid
#13
Freja Bertelsen, Davide Folloni, Arne Møller, Anne M Landau, Jørgen Scheel-Krüger, Michael Winterdahl
To better understand the role of the neuropeptide oxytocin in autism spectrum disorder (ASD), we investigated potential deficits in social play behaviour and oxytocin receptor (OXTR) density alterations in the amygdala in a rodent model of ASD. Pregnant rats were injected daily with 20 or 100 mg/kg valproic acid (VPA) or saline from day 12 until the end of pregnancy. The number of pinning and pouncing events was assessed at postnatal days 29-34. Brains from male offspring (n=7/group) were removed at postnatal day 50...
June 6, 2017: Behavioural Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589257/traumatic-brain-injury-causes-long-term-behavioral-changes-related-to-region-specific-increases-of-cerebral-blood-flow
#14
Bruno Pöttker, Franziska Stöber, Regina Hummel, Frank Angenstein, Konstantin Radyushkin, Jürgen Goldschmidt, Michael K E Schäfer
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a leading cause of disability and death and survivors often suffer from long-lasting motor impairment, cognitive deficits, anxiety disorders and epilepsy. Few experimental studies have investigated long-term sequelae after TBI and relations between behavioral changes and neural activity patterns remain elusive. We examined these issues in a murine model of TBI combining histology, behavioral analyses and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging of regional cerebral blood flow (CBF) as a proxy for neural activity...
June 6, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588458/modes-of-effective-connectivity-within-cortical-pathways-are-distinguished-for-different-categories-of-visual-context-an-fmri-study
#15
Qiong Wu, Jinglong Wu, Shigeko Takahashi, Qiang Huang, Hongzan Sun, Qiyong Guo, Yoshio Ohtani, Yoshimichi Ejima, Xu Zhang, Chunlin Li, Tianyi Yan
Context contributes to accurate and efficient information processing. To reveal the dynamics of the neural mechanisms that underlie the processing of visual contexts during the recognition of color, shape, and 3D structure of objects, we carried out functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) of subjects while judging the contextual validity of the three visual contexts. Our results demonstrated that the modes of effective connectivity in the cortical pathways, as well as the patterns of activation in these pathways, were dynamical depending on the nature of the visual contexts...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588455/circuits-regulating-pleasure-and-happiness-in-bipolar-disorder
#16
Anton J M Loonen, Ralph W Kupka, Svetlana A Ivanova
According to our model, the motivation for appetitive-searching vs. distress-avoiding behaviors is regulated by two parallel cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical (CSTC) re-entry circuits that include the core and the shell parts of the nucleus accumbens, respectively. An entire series of basal ganglia, running from the caudate nucleus on one side to the centromedial amygdala on the other side, control the intensity of these reward-seeking and misery-fleeing behaviors by stimulating the activity of the (pre)frontal and limbic cortices...
2017: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587900/altered-reactivity-of-central-amygdala-to-gabaar-antagonist-in-the-bachd-rat-model-of-huntington-disease
#17
Charlotte Lamirault, Libo Yu-Taeger, Valérie Doyère, Olaf Riess, Huu Phuc Nguyen, Nicole El Massioui
In Huntington's disease (HD), dysfunctional affective processes emerge as key symptoms of disturbances. In human HD and transgenic rat models of the disease, the amygdala was previously shown to have a reduced volume and to carry a high load of mutant huntingtin (mHTT) aggregates. In search of the pathophysiology of affective dysregulation in HD, we hypothesized a specific role of the central amygdala (CeA), known to be particularly involved in emotional regulation. Using transgenic BACHD rats carrying full-length human mHTT, we compared behavioral consequences of pharmacological modulation of CeA function by infusing GABAA receptor (GABAAR) antagonist picrotoxin into ∼4...
June 3, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584888/autism-spectrum-disorder-neuropathology-and-animal-models
#18
REVIEW
Merina Varghese, Neha Keshav, Sarah Jacot-Descombes, Tahia Warda, Bridget Wicinski, Dara L Dickstein, Hala Harony-Nicolas, Silvia De Rubeis, Elodie Drapeau, Joseph D Buxbaum, Patrick R Hof
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has a major impact on the development and social integration of affected individuals and is the most heritable of psychiatric disorders. An increase in the incidence of ASD cases has prompted a surge in research efforts on the underlying neuropathologic processes. We present an overview of current findings in neuropathology studies of ASD using two investigational approaches, postmortem human brains and ASD animal models, and discuss the overlap, limitations, and significance of each...
June 5, 2017: Acta Neuropathologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579965/neural-correlates-of-psychotherapeutic-treatment-of-post-traumatic-stress-disorder-a-systematic-literature-review
#19
Kathrin Malejko, Birgit Abler, Paul L Plener, Joana Straub
OBJECTIVES: Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a common psychiatric disease with changes in neural circuitries. Neurobiological models conceptualize the symptoms of PTSD as correlates of a dysfunctional stress reaction to traumatic events. Functional imaging studies showed an increased amygdala and a decreased prefrontal cortex response in PTSD patients. As psychotherapeutic approaches represent the gold standard for PTSD treatment, it is important to examine its underlying neurobiological correlates...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579367/early-postnatal-handling-reduces-hippocampal-amyloid-plaque-formation-and-enhances-cognitive-performance-in-appswe-ps1de9-mice-at-middle-age
#20
Sylvie L Lesuis, Beryl A C E van Hoek, Paul J Lucassen, Harm J Krugers
In rodents, fragmented and low levels of maternal care have been implicated in age-related cognitive decline and the incidence and progression of Alzheimer's pathology. In contrast, enhancing early postnatal maternal care has been associated with improved cognitive function later in life. Here we examined whether early postnatal handling of mouse pups from postnatal days 2-9 enhanced maternal care and whether this affected cognition and Alzheimer pathology at 5 and 11months of age in the APPswe/PS1dE9 mouse model for Alzheimer's disease...
June 1, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
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