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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775613/suppression-of-nlrp3-inflammasome-attenuates-stress-induced-depression-like-behavior-in-nlgn3-deficient-mice
#1
Ze-Qun Li, Zhi-Yuan Yan, Bo-Jun Lan, Yi-Qun Dong, Ye Xiong
Depression, regulated by central nervous system (CNS), is a significant inflammatory disorder. Neuroligin3 (NLGN3) has been implicated in brain functions. In the study, a chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) model in wild type (WT) or NLGN3-knockout (KO) mice was established to explore the role of NLGN3 in regulating depression and to reveal the underlying molecular mechanism. The results indicated that NLGN3-knockout markedly reversed the loss of body weight, the reduction of sucrose consumption, the decrease of immobile time in the forced swimming tests (FST) and tail suspension tests (TST) induced by CUMS paradigm...
May 15, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774428/inter-individual-differences-in-serotonin-and-glutamate-co-transmission-reflect-differentiation-in-context-induced-conditioned-50-khz-usvs-response-after-morphine-withdrawal
#2
Adam Hamed, Miron Bartosz Kursa
A growing body of research provides compelling evidence that in rats 50-kHz USVs are a form of expression of positive emotions. Context-induced 50-kHz USVs emission is variable among rats, indicating individual differences in contextual response bound up with pharmacological reward. The aims of this study were to: extract the most important neurotransmitters related to context-induced conditioned 50-kHz USVs response; find biological basis of existing inter-individual differences in context-induced conditioned 50-kHz USVs response; create a model of all-to-all neurotransmitters correlations...
May 17, 2018: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771359/neural-bases-of-social-communicative-intentions-in-speech
#3
Nele Hellbernd, Daniela Sammler
Our ability to understand others' communicative intentions in speech is key to successful social interaction. Indeed, misunderstanding an "excuse me" as apology, while meant as criticism, may have important consequences. Recent behavioural studies have provided evidence that prosody, i.e., vocal tone, is an important indicator for speakers' intentions. Using a novel audio-morphing paradigm, the present fMRI study examined the neurocognitive mechanisms that allow listeners to 'read' speakers' intents from vocal-prosodic patterns...
May 16, 2018: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761120/an-image-based-model-of-brain-volume-biomarker-changes-in-huntington-s-disease
#4
Peter A Wijeratne, Alexandra L Young, Neil P Oxtoby, Razvan V Marinescu, Nicholas C Firth, Eileanoir B Johnson, Amrita Mohan, Cristina Sampaio, Rachael I Scahill, Sarah J Tabrizi, Daniel C Alexander
Objective: Determining the sequence in which Huntington's disease biomarkers become abnormal can provide important insights into the disease progression and a quantitative tool for patient stratification. Here, we construct and present a uniquely fine-grained model of temporal progression of Huntington's disease from premanifest through to manifest stages. Methods: We employ a probabilistic event-based model to determine the sequence of appearance of atrophy in brain volumes, learned from structural MRI in the Track-HD study, as well as to estimate the uncertainty in the ordering...
May 2018: Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758386/the-neurokinin-1-receptor-mediates-escalated-alcohol-intake-induced-by-multiple-drinking-models
#5
Michelle K Sequeira, Britta S Nelson, Hannah D Fulenwider, Courtney E King, Sadie E Nennig, Jennifer B Bohannon, Kejun Cheng, Kenner C Rice, Markus Heilig, Jesse R Schank
We have previously demonstrated that the neurokinin-1 receptor (NK1R) is upregulated in the central nucleus of the amygdala of alcohol preferring (P) rats and that this receptor mediates escalated alcohol consumption in this strain. However, it is unclear if non-genetic models of escalated consumption are also mediated by NK1R signaling, and if so, what brain regions govern this effect. In the experiments presented here, we use two methods of inducing escalated alcohol intake in outbred Wistar rats: yohimbine pretreatment and intermittent alcohol access (Monday, Wednesday, and Friday availability; 20% alcohol)...
May 3, 2018: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752958/an-update-on-contextual-fear-memory-mechanisms-transition-between-amygdala-and-hippocampus
#6
REVIEW
Nicholas Chaaya, Andrew R Battle, Luke R Johnson
Context is an ever-present combination of discrete environmental elements capable of influencing many psychological processes. When context is associated with an aversive stimulus, a permanent contextual fear memory is formed. Context is hypothesized to greatly influence the treatability of various fear-based pathologies, in particular, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). In order to understand how contextual fear memories are encoded and impact underlying fear pathology, delineation of the underlying neural circuitry of contextual fear memory consolidation and maintenance is essential...
May 9, 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750337/lamotrigine-resistant-corneal-kindled-mice-a-model-of-pharmacoresistant-partial-epilepsy-for-moderate-throughput-drug-discovery
#7
Zachery Koneval, Kevin M Knox, H Steve White, Melissa Barker-Haliski
OBJECTIVE: Despite numerous treatments for epilepsy, over 30% of patients remain resistant to available antiseizure drugs (ASDs). Thus, there is a strong need for more effective ASDs for these individuals. Early ASD discovery has historically relied on acute in vivo seizure models (maximal electroshock, subcutaneous pentylenetetrazol, 6 Hz), which lack the pathophysiology that defines chronic epilepsy. Etiologically relevant rodent models of pharmacoresistant epilepsy exist (eg, phenytoin (PHT)- and lamotrigine (LTG)-resistant amygdala-kindled rat and focal kainic acid mouse), but these models are resource- and labor-intensive and thus unsuitable for frontline ASD discovery...
May 11, 2018: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29749072/individualized-prediction-of-trait-narcissism-from-whole-brain-resting-state-functional-connectivity
#8
Chunliang Feng, Jie Yuan, Haiyang Geng, Ruolei Gu, Hui Zhou, Xia Wu, Yuejia Luo
Narcissism is one of the most fundamental personality traits in which individuals in general population exhibit a large heterogeneity. Despite a surge of interest in examining behavioral characteristics of narcissism in the past decades, the neurobiological substrates underlying narcissism remain poorly understood. Here, we addressed this issue by applying a machine learning approach to decode trait narcissism from whole-brain resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC). Resting-state functional MRI (fMRI) data were acquired for a large sample comprising 155 healthy adults, each of whom was assessed for trait narcissism...
May 10, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29747900/-cognitive-impairment
#9
Nicolas Cabé, Alice Laniepce, Céline Boudehent, Anne-Lise Pitel, François Vabret
Alcohol use disorder is a brain disease that can be modeled by an imbalance between three cerebral and cognitive systems. The reflective system, underpinned by the frontal cortex and corresponding to the executive functions, would be involved in the control of alcohol consumption. The impulsive system, underpinned by the amygdala-striatal complex, would favor automatic and impulsive drinking behaviors. A regulatory system, driven by insula and involved in the integration of proprioceptive perceptions in situations of deprivation or stress, would aggravate the imbalance between the two first systems...
May 7, 2018: La Presse Médicale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29747036/-18-f-ge-179-positron-emission-tomography-pet-tracer-for-n-methyl-d-aspartate-receptors-one-pot-synthesis-and-preliminary-micro-pet-study-in-a-rat-model-of-mcao
#10
Weiyan Zhou, Weiqi Bao, Donglang Jiang, Yanyan Kong, Fengchun Hua, Xiuhong Lu, Yihui Guan
INTRODUCTION: The objective of this study was to synthesize an N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) radiotracer [18 F]-GE-179 in one-pot and evaluate its in vivo binding for NMDAR activation after brain ischemia reperfusion injury. METHODS: [18 F]-GE-179 was auto-synthesized using a quick one-pot method from a stable disulfide precursor and purified using semi-preparative high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with ethanol/aqueous NaH2 PO4 as the eluent...
April 25, 2018: Nuclear Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745864/modulation-of-the-expression-of-genes-related-to-the-system-of-amyloid-beta-metabolism-in-the-brain-as-a-novel-mechanism-of-ceftriaxone-neuroprotective-properties
#11
Maria A Tikhonova, Tamara G Amstislavskaya, Victor M Belichenko, Larisa A Fedoseeva, Sergey P Kovalenko, Ekaterina E Pisareva, Alla S Avdeeva, Nataliya G Kolosova, Nikolai D Belyaev, Lyubomir I Aftanas
BACKGROUND: The dominant hypothesis about the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the "amyloid cascade" concept and modulating the expression of proteins involved in the metabolism of amyloid-beta (Aβ) is proposed as an effective strategy for the prevention and therapy of AD. Recently, we found that an antibiotic ceftriaxone (CEF), which possesses neuroprotective activity, reduced cognitive deficits and neurodegenerative changes in OXYS rats, a model of sporadic AD...
April 19, 2018: BMC Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740358/the-comorbidity-between-internet-gaming-disorder-and-depression-interrelationship-and-neural-mechanisms
#12
Lu Liu, Yuan-Wei Yao, Chiang-Shan R Li, Jin-Tao Zhang, Cui-Cui Xia, Jing Lan, Shan-Shan Ma, Nan Zhou, Xiao-Yi Fang
Internet gaming disorder (IGD) is characterized by cognitive and emotional deficits. Previous studies have reported the co-occurrence of IGD and depression. However, extant brain imaging research has largely focused on cognitive deficits in IGD. Few studies have addressed the comorbidity between IGD and depression symptoms and underlying neural mechanisms. Here, we systematically investigated this issue by combining a longitudinal survey study, a cross-sectional resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) study and an intervention study...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738768/differential-effects-of-voluntary-wheel-running-and-toy-rotation-on-the-mrna-expression-of-neurotrophic-factors-and-fkbp5-in-a-post-traumatic-stress-disorder-rat-model-with-the-shuttle-box-task
#13
Masaaki Tanichi, Hiroyuki Toda, Kunio Shimizu, Minori Koga, Taku Saito, Shingo Enomoto, Shuken Boku, Fumiho Asai, Yumi Mitsui, Masanori Nagamine, Masanori Fujita, Aihide Yoshino
Life-threatening experiences can result in the development of post-traumatic stress disorder. We have developed an animal model for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) using a shuttle box in rats. In this paradigm, the rats were exposed to inescapable foot-shock stress (IS) in a shuttle box, and then an avoidance/escape task was performed in the same box 2 weeks after IS. A previous study using this paradigm revealed that environmental enrichment (EE) ameliorated avoidance/numbing-like behaviors, but not hyperarousal-like behaviors, and EE also elevated hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression...
May 5, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29735014/value-generalization-in-human-avoidance-learning
#14
Agnes Norbury, Trevor W Robbins, Ben Seymour
Generalization during aversive decision-making allows us to avoid a broad range of potential threats following experience with a limited set of exemplars. However, over-generalization, resulting in excessive and inappropriate avoidance, has been implicated in a variety of psychological disorders. Here, we use reinforcement learning modelling to dissect out different contributions to the generalization of instrumental avoidance in two groups of human volunteers ( N =26, N =482). We found that generalization of avoidance could be parsed into perceptual and value-based processes, and further, that value-based generalization could be subdivided into that relating to aversive and neutral feedback - with corresponding circuits including primary sensory cortex, anterior insula, amygdala and ventromedial prefrontal cortex...
May 8, 2018: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29727729/an-alarm-pheromone-reduces-ventral-tegmental-area-nucleus-accumbens-shell-responsivity
#15
Ana G Gutiérrez-García, Carlos M Contreras, Mauricio Saldivar-Lara
2-Heptanone (methyl n-amyl ketone) is a ketone that produces alarm reactions in insects (e.g., bees and ants). As an olfactory stimulus, 2-heptanone produces anxiety reactions in the short term and despair in the long term in rodent models. Among the anatomical connections of the olfactory system that integrate behavioral responses, connections between the amygdala and nucleus accumbens are important, which in turn form a circuit with the ventral tegmental area (VTA). 2-Heptanone increases the firing rate of amygdala neurons without participation of the vomeronasal organ...
May 1, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29716668/a-person-centered-approach-to-the-assessment-of-early-life-stress-associations-with-the-volume-of-stress-sensitive-brain-regions-in-early-adolescence
#16
Lucy S King, Kathryn L Humphreys, M Catalina Camacho, Ian H Gotlib
Researchers are becoming increasingly interested in linking specific forms of early life stress (ELS) to specific neurobiological markers, including alterations in the morphology of stress-sensitive brain regions. We used a person-centered, multi-informant approach to investigate the associations of specific constellations of ELS with hippocampal and amygdala volume in a community sample of 211 9- to 13-year-old early adolescents. Further, we compared this approach to a cumulative risk model of ELS, in which ELS was quantified by the total number of stressors reported...
May 2, 2018: Development and Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29713786/interest-of-new-alkylsulfonylhydrazide-type-compound-in-the-treatment-of-alcohol-use-disorders
#17
Jérôme Jeanblanc, Erika Bourguet, Diana Sketriené, Céline Gonzalez, Gautier Moroy, Rémi Legastelois, Mathieu Létévé, Aurélie Trussardi-Régnier, Mickaël Naassila
RATIONALE: Recent preclinical research suggested that histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACIs) and specifically class I HDAC selective inhibitors might be useful to treat alcohol use disorders (AUDs). OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to find a new inhibitor of the HDAC-1 isoenzyme and to test its efficacy in an animal model of AUDs. METHODS: In the present study, we prepared new derivatives bearing sulfonylhydrazide-type zinc-binding group (ZBG) and evaluated these compounds in vitro on HDAC-1 isoenzyme...
April 30, 2018: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29712945/preliminary-evidence-of-altered-neural-response-during-intertemporal-choice-of-losses-in-adult-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#18
Saori C Tanaka, Noriaki Yahata, Ayako Todokoro, Yuki Kawakubo, Yukiko Kano, Yukika Nishimura, Ayaka Ishii-Takahashi, Fumio Ohtake, Kiyoto Kasai
Impulsive behaviours are common symptoms of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Although previous studies have suggested functional models of impulsive behaviour, a full explanation of impulsivity in ADHD remains elusive. To investigate the detailed mechanisms behind impulsive behaviour in ADHD, we applied an economic intertemporal choice task involving gains and losses to adults with ADHD and healthy controls and measured brain activity by functional magnetic resonance imaging. In the intertemporal choice of future gains, we observed no behavioural or neural difference between the two groups...
April 30, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29696725/the-anticipation-and-outcome-phases-of-reward-and-loss-processing-a-neuroimaging-meta-analysis-of-the-monetary-incentive-delay-task
#19
Stuart Oldham, Carsten Murawski, Alex Fornito, George Youssef, Murat Yücel, Valentina Lorenzetti
The processing of rewards and losses are crucial to everyday functioning. Considerable interest has been attached to investigating the anticipation and outcome phases of reward and loss processing, but results to date have been inconsistent. It is unclear if anticipation and outcome of a reward or loss recruit similar or distinct brain regions. In particular, while the striatum has widely been found to be active when anticipating a reward, whether it activates in response to the anticipation of losses as well remains ambiguous...
April 25, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29695783/%C3%AE-7-nicotinic-receptor-modulating-agents-reverse-the-hyperdopaminergic-tone-in-the-mam-model-of-schizophrenia
#20
Gilda A Neves, Anthony A Grace
Recent evidence has emerged supporting a role for the cholinergic system in schizophrenia, including the potential of α7 modulators as a treatment strategy. However, preclinical studies to date have relied on studies in normal systems rather than on a validated developmental model of schizophrenia. Furthermore, there have been only few studies on whether orthosteric and allosteric modulators have differential impacts in such models. Thus, we investigated the effects of α7 agonists and positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) on dopamine (DA) neuron activity in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) in the methylazoxymethanol acetate (MAM) developmental disruption model of schizophrenia...
April 19, 2018: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
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