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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652127/optical-probes-for-neurobiological-sensing-and-imaging
#1
Eric H Kim, Gregory Chin, Guoxin Rong, Kira E Poskanzer, Heather A Clark
Fluorescent nanosensors and molecular probes are next-generation tools for imaging chemical signaling inside and between cells. Electrophysiology has long been considered the gold standard in elucidating neural dynamics with high temporal resolution and precision, particularly on the single-cell level. However, electrode-based techniques face challenges in illuminating the specific chemicals involved in neural cell activation with adequate spatial information. Measuring chemical dynamics is of fundamental importance to better understand synergistic interactions between neurons as well as interactions between neurons and non-neuronal cells...
April 13, 2018: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626167/intracranial-electrophysiology-reveals-reproducible-intrinsic-functional-connectivity-within-human-brain-networks
#2
Aaron Kucyi, Jessica Schrouff, Stephan Bickel, Brett L Foster, James M Shine, Josef Parvizi
Evidence for intrinsic functional connectivity (FC) within the human brain is largely from neuroimaging studies of hemodynamic activity. Data are lacking from anatomically precise electrophysiological recordings in the most widely studied nodes of human brain networks. Here we used a combination of fMRI and electrocorticography (ECoG) in five human neurosurgical patients with electrodes in the canonical "default" (medial prefrontal and posteromedial cortex), "dorsal attention" (frontal eye fields and superior parietal lobule) and "frontoparietal control" (inferior parietal lobule and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex) networks...
April 6, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29616472/risk-seeking-for-losses-modulates-the-functional-connectivity-of-the-default-mode-and-left-frontoparietal-networks-in-young-males
#3
Yacila I Deza Araujo, Stephan Nebe, Philipp T Neukam, Shakoor Pooseh, Miriam Sebold, Maria Garbusow, Andreas Heinz, Michael N Smolka
Value-based decision making (VBDM) is a principle that states that humans and other species adapt their behavior according to the dynamic subjective values of the chosen or unchosen options. The neural bases of this process have been extensively investigated using task-based fMRI and lesion studies. However, the growing field of resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) may shed light on the organization and function of brain connections across different decision-making domains. With this aim, we used independent component analysis to study the brain network dynamics in a large cohort of young males (N = 145) and the relationship of these dynamics with VBDM...
April 3, 2018: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615562/moving-the-shh-source-over-time-what-impact-on-neural-cell-diversification-in-the-developing-spinal-cord
#4
REVIEW
Cathy Danesin, Cathy Soula
A substantial amount of data has highlighted the crucial influence of Shh signalling on the generation of diverse classes of neurons and glial cells throughout the developing central nervous system. A critical step leading to this diversity is the establishment of distinct neural progenitor cell domains during the process of pattern formation. The forming spinal cord, in particular, has served as an excellent model to unravel how progenitor cells respond to Shh to produce the appropriate pattern. In recent years, considerable advances have been made in our understanding of important parameters that control the temporal and spatial interpretation of the morphogen signal at the level of Shh-receiving progenitor cells...
April 12, 2017: Journal of Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29609007/intra-hemispheric-integration-underlies-perception-of-tilt-illusion
#5
Chen Song, Geraint Rees
The integration of inputs across the entire visual field into a single conscious experience is fundamental to human visual perception. This integrated nature of visual experience is illustrated by contextual illusions such as the tilt illusion, in which the perceived orientation of a central grating appears tilted away from its physical orientation, due to the modulation by a surrounding grating with a different orientation. Here we investigated the relative contribution of local, intra-hemispheric and global, inter-hemispheric integration mechanisms to perception of the tilt illusion...
March 30, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29606579/spontaneous-infra-slow-brain-activity-has-unique-spatiotemporal-dynamics-and-laminar-structure
#6
Anish Mitra, Andrew Kraft, Patrick Wright, Benjamin Acland, Abraham Z Snyder, Zachary Rosenthal, Leah Czerniewski, Adam Bauer, Lawrence Snyder, Joseph Culver, Jin-Moo Lee, Marcus E Raichle
Systems-level organization in spontaneous infra-slow (<0.1Hz) brain activity, measured using blood oxygen signals in fMRI and optical imaging, has become a major theme in the study of neural function in both humans and animal models. Yet the neurophysiological basis of infra-slow activity (ISA) remains unresolved. In particular, is ISA a distinct physiological process, or is it a low-frequency analog of faster neural activity? Here, using whole-cortex calcium/hemoglobin imaging in mice, we show that ISA in each of these modalities travels through the cortex along stereotypical spatiotemporal trajectories that are state dependent (wake versus anesthesia) and distinct from trajectories in delta (1-4 Hz) activity...
March 24, 2018: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29593585/functional-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy-the-new-mrs-for-cognitive-neuroscience-and-psychiatry-research
#7
REVIEW
Jeffrey A Stanley, Naftali Raz
Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1 H MRS) is a well-established technique for quantifying the brain regional biochemistry in vivo . In most studies, however, the1 H MRS is acquired during rest with little to no constraint on behavior. Measured metabolite levels, therefore, reflect steady-state concentrations whose associations with behavior and cognition are unclear. With the recent advances in MR technology-higher-field MR systems, robust acquisition techniques and sophisticated quantification methods-1 H MRS is now experiencing a resurgence...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29588227/resting-state-functional-connectivity-predicts-the-ability-to-adapt-to-robot-mediated-force-fields
#8
Irene Faiman, Sara Pizzamiglio, Duncan L Turner
Motor deficits are common outcomes of neurological conditions such as stroke. In order to design personalised motor rehabilitation programmes such as robot-assisted therapy, it would be advantageous to predict how a patient might respond to such treatment. Spontaneous neural activity has been observed to predict differences in the ability to learn a new motor behaviour in both healthy and stroke populations. This study investigated whether spontaneous resting-state functional connectivity could predict the degree of motor adaptation of right (dominant) upper limb reaching in response to a robot-mediated force field...
March 24, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29581380/effects-of-ageing-on-cortical-neural-dynamics-and-local-sleep-homeostasis-in-mice
#9
Laura E McKillop, Simon P Fisher, Nanyi Cui, Stuart N Peirson, Russell G Foster, Keith A Wafford, Vladyslav V Vyazovskiy
Healthy ageing is associated with marked effects on sleep, including its daily amount and architecture, as well as the specific electroencephalogram (EEG) oscillations. Neither the neurophysiological underpinnings, nor the biological significance of these changes are understood, and crucially the question remains whether ageing is associated with reduced sleep need or a diminished capacity to generate sufficient sleep. Here we tested the hypothesis that ageing may affect local cortical networks, disrupting the capacity to generate and sustain sleep oscillations, and with it the local homeostatic response to sleep loss...
March 26, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29570698/sensor-fusion-to-estimate-the-depth-and-width-of-the-weld-bead-in-real-time-in-gmaw-processes
#10
Guillermo Alvarez Bestard, Renato Coral Sampaio, José A R Vargas, Sadek C Absi Alfaro
The arc welding process is widely used in industry but its automatic control is limited by the difficulty in measuring the weld bead geometry and closing the control loop on the arc, which has adverse environmental conditions. To address this problem, this work proposes a system to capture the welding variables and send stimuli to the Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW) conventional process with a constant voltage power source, which allows weld bead geometry estimation with an open-loop control. Dynamic models of depth and width estimators of the weld bead are implemented based on the fusion of thermographic data, welding current and welding voltage in a multilayer perceptron neural network...
March 23, 2018: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29566351/pattern-storage-bifurcations-and-groupwise-correlation-structure-of-an-exactly-solvable-asymmetric-neural-network-model
#11
Diego Fasoli, Anna Cattani, Stefano Panzeri
Despite their biological plausibility, neural network models with asymmetric weights are rarely solved analytically, and closed-form solutions are available only in some limiting cases or in some mean-field approximations. We found exact analytical solutions of an asymmetric spin model of neural networks with arbitrary size without resorting to any approximation, and we comprehensively studied its dynamical and statistical properties. The network had discrete time evolution equations and binary firing rates, and it could be driven by noise with any distribution...
March 22, 2018: Neural Computation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29546416/embodied-concepts-and-mental-health
#12
Somogy Varga
Often drawing on the phenomenological tradition, a number of philosophers and cognitive scientists working in the field of "embodied cognition" subscribe to the general view that cognition is grounded in aspects of its sensorimotor embodiment and should be comprehended as the result of a dynamic interaction of nonneural and neural processes. After a brief introduction, the paper critically engages Lakoff and Johnson's "conceptual metaphor theory" (CMT), and provides a review of recent empirical evidence that appears to support it...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Medicine and Philosophy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29540789/feasibility-and-resolution-limits-of-opto-magnetic-imaging-of-neural-network-activity-in-brain-slices-using-color-centers-in-diamond
#13
Mürsel Karadas, Adam M Wojciechowski, Alexander Huck, Nils Ole Dalby, Ulrik Lund Andersen, Axel Thielscher
We suggest a novel approach for wide-field imaging of the neural network dynamics of brain slices that uses highly sensitivity magnetometry based on nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers in diamond. In-vitro recordings in brain slices is a proven method for the characterization of electrical neural activity and has strongly contributed to our understanding of the mechanisms that govern neural information processing. However, this traditional approach only acquires signals from a few positions, which severely limits its ability to characterize the dynamics of the underlying neural networks...
March 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29540685/predicting-the-spatiotemporal-diversity-of-seizure-propagation-and-termination-in-human-focal-epilepsy
#14
Timothée Proix, Viktor K Jirsa, Fabrice Bartolomei, Maxime Guye, Wilson Truccolo
Recent studies have shown that seizures can spread and terminate across brain areas via a rich diversity of spatiotemporal patterns. In particular, while the location of the seizure onset area is usually invariant across seizures in an individual patient, the source of traveling (2-3 Hz) spike-and-wave discharges during seizures can either move with the slower propagating ictal wavefront or remain stationary at the seizure onset area. Furthermore, although many focal seizures terminate synchronously across brain areas, some evolve into distinct ictal clusters and terminate asynchronously...
March 14, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29537917/neural-adaptation-accounts-for-the-dynamic-resizing-of-peri-personal-space-evidence-from-a-psychophysical-computational-approach
#15
Jean-Paul Noel, Olaf Blanke, Elisa Magosso, Andrea Serino
Interactions between the body and the environment occur within the Peri-Personal Space (PPS), the space immediately surrounding the body. The PPS is encoded by multisensory (audio-tactile, visual-tactile) neurons that possess receptive fields (RFs) anchored on the body and restricted in depth. The extension in depth of PPS neurons' RFs has been documented to change dynamically as a function of the velocity of incoming stimuli, but the underlying neural mechanisms are still unknown. Here, by integrating a psychophysical approach with neural network modeling, we propose a mechanistic explanation behind this inherent dynamic property of PPS...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29535027/new-waves-rhythmic-electrical-field-stimulation-systematically-alters-spontaneous-slow-dynamics-across-mouse-neocortex
#16
Anastasia Greenberg, Javad Karimi Abadchi, Clayton T Dickson, Majid H Mohajerani
The signature rhythm of slow-wave forebrain activity is the large amplitude, slow oscillation (SO: ∼1 Hz) made up of alternating synchronous periods of activity and silence at the single cell and network levels. On each wave, the SO originates at a unique location and propagates across the neocortex. Attempts to manipulate SO activity using electrical fields have been shown to entrain cortical networks and enhance memory performance. However, neural activity during this manipulation has remained elusive due to methodological issues in typical electrical recordings...
March 10, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29529482/depression-the-search-for-separable-behaviors-and-circuits
#17
REVIEW
Ryan J Post, Melissa R Warden
Major depressive disorder can manifest as different combinations of symptoms, ranging from a profound and incapacitating sadness, to a loss of interest in daily life, to an inability to engage in effortful, goal-directed behavior. Recent research has focused on defining the neural circuits that mediate separable features of depression in patients and preclinical animal models, and connections between frontal cortex and brainstem neuromodulators have emerged as candidate targets. The development of methods permitting recording and manipulation of neural circuits defined by connectivity has enabled the investigation of prefrontal-neuromodulatory circuit dynamics in animal models of depression with exquisite precision, a systems-level approach that has brought new insights by integrating these fields of depression research...
April 2018: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29529369/transferable-neural-networks-for-enhanced-sampling-of-protein-dynamics
#18
Mohammad Muneeb Sultan, Hannah K Wayment-Steele, Vijay S Pande
Variational auto-encoder frameworks have demonstrated success in reducing complex nonlinear dynamics in molecular simulation to a single non-linear embedding. In this work, we illustrate how this non-linear latent embedding can be used as a collective variable for enhanced sampling, and present a simple modification that allows us to rapidly perform sampling in multiple related systems. We first demonstrate our method is able to describe the effects of force field changes in capped alanine dipeptide after learning a model using AMBER99...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29528294/clinical-applications-of-stochastic-dynamic-models-of-the-brain-part-ii-a-review
#19
REVIEW
James A Roberts, Karl J Friston, Michael Breakspear
Brain activity derives from intrinsic dynamics (due to neurophysiology and anatomical connectivity) in concert with stochastic effects that arise from sensory fluctuations, brainstem discharges, and random microscopic states such as thermal noise. The dynamic evolution of systems composed of both dynamic and random fluctuations can be studied with stochastic dynamic models (SDMs). This article, Part II of a two-part series, reviews applications of SDMs to large-scale neural systems in health and disease. Stochastic models have already elucidated a number of pathophysiological phenomena, such as epilepsy and hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy, although their use in biological psychiatry remains rather nascent...
April 2017: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29526854/neural-restoration-training-improves-visual-functions-and-expands-visual-field-of-patients-with-homonymous-visual-field-defects
#20
Clara Casco, Michele Barollo, Giulio Contemori, Luca Battaglini
BACKGROUND: In recent years, the introduction of visual rehabilitation for patients with homonymous visual field defects has been met with both enthusiasm and caution. Despite the evidence that restitutive training results in expansion of the visual field, several concerns have been raised. OBJECTIVE: We tested the effectiveness of a new rehabilitative protocol called "Neuro Restoration Training" (NRT) in reducing visual field defects and in restituting visual functions in the restored hemianopic area...
2018: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
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