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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818693/hybrid-photoacoustic-and-electrophysiological-recording-of-neurovascular-communications-in-freely-moving-rats
#1
Lei Xi, Tian Jin, Junli Zhou, Paul Carney, Hubei Jiang
Uncovering the relationships between neural activities and capillary-level hemodynamics such as blood flow and concentration of hemoglobin in the brain plays an important role in the study of animal behaviors and brain disorders. Here, we developed a miniature probe integrating a photoacoustic sensor and micro-electrodes to simultaneously record the dynamics of blood flow and total hemoglobin inside a single capillary and the activities of surrounding neurons with high spatiotemporal resolution in freely-moving rats...
August 14, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806716/efficient-hardware-implementation-of-the-subthalamic-nucleus-external-globus-pallidus-oscillation-system-and-its-dynamics-investigation
#2
Shuangming Yang, Xile Wei, Jiang Wang, Bin Deng, Chen Liu, Haitao Yu, Huiyan Li
Modeling and implementation of the nonlinear neural system with physiologically plausible dynamic behaviors are considerably meaningful in the field of computational neuroscience. This study introduces a novel hardware platform to investigate the dynamical behaviors within the nonlinear subthalamic nucleus-external globus pallidus system. In order to reduce the implementation complexities, a hardware-oriented conductance-based subthalamic nucleus (STN) model is presented, which can reproduce accurately the dynamical characteristics of biological conductance-based STN cells...
July 26, 2017: Neural Networks: the Official Journal of the International Neural Network Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802870/audio-visual-synchrony-and-spatial-attention-enhance-processing-of-dynamic-visual-stimulation-independently-and-in-parallel-a-frequency-tagging-study
#3
Amra Covic, Christian Keitel, Emanuele Porcu, Erich Schröger, Matthias M Müller
The neural processing of a visual stimulus can be facilitated by attending to its position or by a co-occurring auditory tone. Using frequency-tagging, we investigated whether facilitation by spatial attention and audio-visual synchrony rely on similar neural processes. Participants attended to one of two flickering Gabor patches (14.17 and 17 Hz) located in opposite lower visual fields. Gabor patches further "pulsed" (i.e. showed smooth spatial frequency variations) at distinct rates (3.14 and 3.63 Hz). Frequency-modulating an auditory stimulus at the pulse-rate of one of the visual stimuli established audio-visual synchrony...
August 9, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801185/neuroimaging-epigenetics-challenges-and-recommendations-for-best-practices
#4
REVIEW
Katie Lancaster, James P Morris, Jessica J Connelly
Neuroimaging epigenetics is an interdisciplinary application of epigenetics to cognitive neuroscience that seeks to identify molecular and neural predictors of human behavior. This approach can be sensitive to the dynamic interaction between biological predisposition and environmental influences, and is potentially more informative than an approach using static genetic code. Recent work in this field has generated considerable enthusiasm, yet caution is warranted since any novel cross-disciplinary approach lacks a set of established conventions or standards...
August 8, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777728/rat-prefrontal-cortex-inactivations-during-decision-making-are-explained-by-bistable-attractor-dynamics
#5
Alex T Piet, Jeffrey C Erlich, Charles D Kopec, Carlos D Brody
Two-node attractor networks are flexible models for neural activity during decision making. Depending on the network configuration, these networks can model distinct aspects of decisions including evidence integration, evidence categorization, and decision memory. Here, we use attractor networks to model recent causal perturbations of the frontal orienting fields (FOF) in rat cortex during a perceptual decision-making task (Erlich, Brunton, Duan, Hanks, & Brody, 2015). We focus on a striking feature of the perturbation results...
August 4, 2017: Neural Computation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768740/mechanisms-for-shaping-receptive-field-in-monkey-area-te
#6
Keitaro Obara, Kazunori O'Hashi, Manabu Tanifuji
Visual object information is conveyed from V1 to area TE along the ventral visual pathway with increasing receptive field (RF) sizes. The RFs of TE neurons are known to be large, but it is largely unknown how large RFs are shaped along the ventral visual pathway. Here, we addressed this question in two aspects, static and dynamic mechanisms, by recording neural responses from macaque area TE and V4 to object stimuli presented at various locations in the visual field. As a component related to static mechanisms, we found that, in area TE but not in V4, response latency to objects presented at fovea were different from objects in periphery...
August 2, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764392/the-pacemaker-role-of-thalamic-reticular-nucleus-in-controlling-spike-wave-discharges-and-spindles
#7
Denggui Fan, Fucheng Liao, Qingyun Wang
Absence epilepsy, characterized by 2-4 Hz spike-wave discharges (SWDs), can be caused by pathological interactions within the thalamocortical system. Cortical spindling oscillations are also demonstrated to involve the oscillatory thalamocortical rhythms generated by the synaptic circuitry of the thalamus and cortex. This implies that SWDs and spindling oscillations can share the common thalamocortical mechanism. Additionally, the thalamic reticular nucleus (RE) is hypothesized to regulate the onsets and propagations of both the epileptic SWDs and sleep spindles...
July 2017: Chaos
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757194/time-resolved-phase-amplitude-coupling-in-neural-oscillations
#8
Soheila Samiee, Sylvain Baillet
Cross-frequency coupling between neural oscillations is a phenomenon observed across spatial scales in a wide range of preparations, including human non-invasive electrophysiology. Although the functional role and mechanisms involved are not entirely understood, the concept of interdependent neural oscillations drives an active field of research to comprehend the ubiquitous polyrhythmic activity of the brain, beyond empirical observations. Phase-amplitude coupling, a particular form of cross-frequency coupling between bursts of high-frequency oscillations and the phase of lower frequency rhythms, has recently received considerable attention...
July 27, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748303/a-mean-field-model-for-movement-induced-changes-in-the-beta-rhythm
#9
Áine Byrne, Matthew J Brookes, Stephen Coombes
In electrophysiological recordings of the brain, the transition from high amplitude to low amplitude signals are most likely caused by a change in the synchrony of underlying neuronal population firing patterns. Classic examples of such modulations are the strong stimulus-related oscillatory phenomena known as the movement related beta decrease (MRBD) and post-movement beta rebound (PMBR). A sharp decrease in neural oscillatory power is observed during movement (MRBD) followed by an increase above baseline on movement cessation (PMBR)...
July 26, 2017: Journal of Computational Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747883/obstacle-avoidance-and-target-acquisition-for-robot-navigation-using-a-mixed-signal-analog-digital-neuromorphic-processing-system
#10
Moritz B Milde, Hermann Blum, Alexander Dietmüller, Dora Sumislawska, Jörg Conradt, Giacomo Indiveri, Yulia Sandamirskaya
Neuromorphic hardware emulates dynamics of biological neural networks in electronic circuits offering an alternative to the von Neumann computing architecture that is low-power, inherently parallel, and event-driven. This hardware allows to implement neural-network based robotic controllers in an energy-efficient way with low latency, but requires solving the problem of device variability, characteristic for analog electronic circuits. In this work, we interfaced a mixed-signal analog-digital neuromorphic processor ROLLS to a neuromorphic dynamic vision sensor (DVS) mounted on a robotic vehicle and developed an autonomous neuromorphic agent that is able to perform neurally inspired obstacle-avoidance and target acquisition...
2017: Frontiers in Neurorobotics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730469/optogenetic-control-of-ras-erk-signaling-using-the-phy-pif-system
#11
Alexander G Goglia, Maxwell Z Wilson, Daniel B DiGiorno, Jared E Toettcher
The Ras/Erk signaling pathway plays a central role in diverse cellular processes ranging from development to immune cell activation to neural plasticity to cancer. In recent years, this pathway has been widely studied using live-cell fluorescent biosensors, revealing complex Erk dynamics that arise in many cellular contexts. Yet despite these high-resolution tools for measurement, the field has lacked analogous tools for control over Ras/Erk signaling in live cells. Here, we provide detailed methods for one such tool based on the optical control of Ras activity, which we call "Opto-SOS...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728677/dynamically-timed-stimulation-of-corticolimbic-circuitry-activates-a-stress-compensatory-pathway
#12
David Carlson, Lisa K David, Neil M Gallagher, Mai-Anh T Vu, Matthew Shirley, Rainbo Hultman, Joyce Wang, Caley Burrus, Colleen A McClung, Sunil Kumar, Lawrence Carin, Stephen D Mague, Kafui Dzirasa
BACKGROUND: The prefrontal cortex plays a critical role in regulating emotional behaviors, and dysfunction of prefrontal cortex-dependent networks has been broadly implicated in mediating stress-induced behavioral disorders including major depressive disorder. METHODS: Here we acquired multicircuit in vivo activity from eight cortical and limbic brain regions as mice were subjected to the tail suspension test (TST) and an open field test. We used a linear decoder to determine whether cellular responses across each of the cortical and limbic areas signal movement during the TST and open field test...
June 15, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727850/hybrid-cubature-kalman-filtering-for-identifying-nonlinear-models-from-sampled-recording-estimation-of-neuronal-dynamics
#13
Mahmoud K Madi, Fadi N Karameh
Kalman filtering methods have long been regarded as efficient adaptive Bayesian techniques for estimating hidden states in models of linear dynamical systems under Gaussian uncertainty. Recent advents of the Cubature Kalman filter (CKF) have extended this efficient estimation property to nonlinear systems, and also to hybrid nonlinear problems where by the processes are continuous and the observations are discrete (continuous-discrete CD-CKF). Employing CKF techniques, therefore, carries high promise for modeling many biological phenomena where the underlying processes exhibit inherently nonlinear, continuous, and noisy dynamics and the associated measurements are uncertain and time-sampled...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720701/de-novo-peptide-sequencing-by-deep-learning
#14
Ngoc Hieu Tran, Xianglilan Zhang, Lei Xin, Baozhen Shan, Ming Li
De novo peptide sequencing from tandem MS data is the key technology in proteomics for the characterization of proteins, especially for new sequences, such as mAbs. In this study, we propose a deep neural network model, DeepNovo, for de novo peptide sequencing. DeepNovo architecture combines recent advances in convolutional neural networks and recurrent neural networks to learn features of tandem mass spectra, fragment ions, and sequence patterns of peptides. The networks are further integrated with local dynamic programming to solve the complex optimization task of de novo sequencing...
July 18, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719406/toward-a-biopsychosocial-ecology-of-the-human-microbiome-brain-gut-axis-and-health
#15
Karl J Maier, Mustafa al'Absi
OBJECTIVE: Rapidly expanding insights to the human microbiome and health suggest that Western medicine is poised for significant evolution, or perhaps revolution - this while the field continues on a trajectory from reductionism to a biopsychosocial (BPS) paradigm recognizing biological, psychological, and social influences on health. The apparent sensitivity of the microbiota to perturbations across BPS domains suggests that a broad and inclusive framework is needed to develop applicable knowledge in this area...
July 18, 2017: Psychosomatic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716962/gamma-oscillations-in-the-rat-ventral-striatum-originate-in-the-piriform-cortex
#16
James E Carmichael, Jimmie M Gmaz, Matthijs A A van der Meer
Local field potentials (LFPs) recorded from the human and rodent ventral striatum (vStr) exhibit prominent, behaviorally relevant gamma-band oscillations. These oscillations are related to local spiking activity and transiently synchronize with anatomically related areas, suggesting a possible role in organizing vStr activity. However, the origin of vStr gamma is unknown. We recorded vStr gamma oscillations across a 1.4mm(2) grid spanned by 64 recording electrodes as male rats rested and foraged for rewards, revealing a highly consistent power gradient originating in the adjacent piriform cortex...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708000/reactive-oxygen-species-and-mitochondrial-homeostasis-as-regulators-of-stem-cell-fate-and-function
#17
Darren Qiancheng Tan, Toshio Suda
SIGNIFICANCE: The precise role and impact of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in stem cells, which are essential for lifelong tissue homeostasis and regeneration, remains of significant interest to the field. The long-term regenerative potential of a stem cell compartment is determined by the delicate balance between quiescence, self-renewal and differentiation; all of which can be influenced by ROS levels. Recent advances: The past decade has seen a growing appreciation for the importance of ROS and redox homeostasis in various stem cell compartments; particularly those of hematopoietic, neural and muscle tissues...
July 14, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700611/in-vivo-calcium-imaging-from-dentate-granule-cells-with-wide-field-fluorescence-microscopy
#18
Yuichiro Hayashi, Satoshi Yawata, Kazuo Funabiki, Takatoshi Hikida
A combination of genetically-encoded calcium indicators and micro-optics has enabled monitoring of large-scale dynamics of neuronal activity from behaving animals. In these studies, wide-field microscopy is often used to visualize neural activity. However, this method lacks optical sectioning capability, and therefore its axial resolution is generally poor. At present, it is unclear whether wide-field microscopy can visualize activity of densely packed small neurons at cellular resolution. To examine the applicability of wide-field microscopy for small-sized neurons, we recorded calcium activity of dentate granule cells having a small soma diameter of approximately 10 micrometers...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698464/leaf-area-index-estimation-using-chinese-gf-1-wide-field-view-data-in-an-agriculture-region
#19
Xiangqin Wei, Xingfa Gu, Qingyan Meng, Tao Yu, Xiang Zhou, Zheng Wei, Kun Jia, Chunmei Wang
Leaf area index (LAI) is an important vegetation parameter that characterizes leaf density and canopy structure, and plays an important role in global change study, land surface process simulation and agriculture monitoring. The wide field view (WFV) sensor on board the Chinese GF-1 satellite can acquire multi-spectral data with decametric spatial resolution, high temporal resolution and wide coverage, which are valuable data sources for dynamic monitoring of LAI. Therefore, an automatic LAI estimation algorithm for GF-1 WFV data was developed based on the radiative transfer model and LAI estimation accuracy of the developed algorithm was assessed in an agriculture region with maize as the dominated crop type...
July 8, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696758/local-dynamics-in-trained-recurrent-neural-networks
#20
Alexander Rivkind, Omri Barak
Learning a task induces connectivity changes in neural circuits, thereby changing their dynamics. To elucidate task-related neural dynamics, we study trained recurrent neural networks. We develop a mean field theory for reservoir computing networks trained to have multiple fixed point attractors. Our main result is that the dynamics of the network's output in the vicinity of attractors is governed by a low-order linear ordinary differential equation. The stability of the resulting equation can be assessed, predicting training success or failure...
June 23, 2017: Physical Review Letters
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