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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545123/predictability-of-arousal-in-mouse-slow-wave-sleep-by-accelerometer-data
#1
Gustavo Zampier Dos Santos Lima, Sergio Roberto Lopes, Thiago Lima Prado, Bruno Lobao-Soares, George C do Nascimento, John Fontenele-Araujo, Gilberto Corso
Arousals can be roughly characterized by punctual intrusions of wakefulness into sleep. In a standard perspective, using human electroencephalography (EEG) data, arousals are associated to slow-wave rhythms and K-complex brain activity. The physiological mechanisms that give rise to arousals during sleep are not yet fully understood. Moreover, subtle body movement patterns, which may characterize arousals both in human and in animals, are usually not detectable by eye perception and are not in general present in sleep studies...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534502/engaging-and-disengaging-recurrent-inhibition-coincides-with-sensing-and-unsensing-of-a-sensory-stimulus
#2
Debajit Saha, Wensheng Sun, Chao Li, Srinath Nizampatnam, William Padovano, Zhengdao Chen, Alex Chen, Ege Altan, Ray Lo, Dennis L Barbour, Baranidharan Raman
Even simple sensory stimuli evoke neural responses that are dynamic and complex. Are the temporally patterned neural activities important for controlling the behavioral output? Here, we investigated this issue. Our results reveal that in the insect antennal lobe, due to circuit interactions, distinct neural ensembles are activated during and immediately following the termination of every odorant. Such non-overlapping response patterns are not observed even when the stimulus intensity or identities were changed...
May 23, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524068/detection-of-magnetic-field-properties-using-distributed-sensing-a-computational-neuroscience-approach
#3
Brian K Taylor, Sönke Johnsen, Kenneth J Lohmann
Diverse taxa use Earth's magnetic field to aid both short- and long-distance navigation. Study of these behaviors has led to a variety of postulated sensory and processing mechanisms that remain unconfirmed. Although several models have been proposed to explain and understand these mechanisms' underpinnings, they have not necessarily connected a putative sensory signal to the nervous system. Using mathematical software simulation, hardware testing and the computational neuroscience tool of dynamic neural fields, the present work implements a previously developed conceptual model for processing magnetite-based magnetosensory data...
May 19, 2017: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523139/an-overview-of-the-use-of-artificial-neural-networks-in-lung-cancer-research
#4
EDITORIAL
Luca Bertolaccini, Piergiorgio Solli, Alessandro Pardolesi, Antonello Pasini
The artificial neural networks (ANNs) are statistical models where the mathematical structure reproduces the biological organisation of neural cells simulating the learning dynamics of the brain. Although definitions of the term ANN could vary, the term usually refers to a neural network used for non-linear statistical data modelling. The neural models applied today in various fields of medicine, such as oncology, do not aim to be biologically realistic in detail but just efficient models for nonlinear regression or classification...
April 2017: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28518107/a-large-lateral-craniotomy-procedure-for-mesoscale-wide-field-optical-imaging-of-brain-activity
#5
Michael Kyweriga, Jianjun Sun, Sunny Wang, Richard Kline, Majid H Mohajerani
The craniotomy is a commonly performed procedure to expose the brain for in vivo experiments. In mouse research, most labs utilize a small craniotomy, typically 3 mm x 3 mm. This protocol introduces a method for creating a substantially larger 7 mm x 6 mm cranial window exposing most of a cerebral hemisphere over the mouse temporal and parietal cortices (e.g., bregma 2.5 - 4.5 mm, lateral 0 - 6 mm). To perform this surgery, the head must be tilted approximately 30° and much of the temporal muscle must be retracted...
May 7, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507300/minimum-toe-clearance-probing-the-neural-control-of-locomotion
#6
Tim Killeen, Christopher S Easthope, László Demkó, Linard Filli, Lilla Lőrincz, Michael Linnebank, Armin Curt, Björn Zörner, Marc Bolliger
Minimum toe clearance (MTC) occurs during a highly dynamic phase of the gait cycle and is associated with the highest risk of unintentional contact with obstacles or the ground. Age, cognitive function, attention and visual feedback affect foot clearance but how these factors interact to influence MTC control is not fully understood. We measured MTC in 121 healthy individuals aged 20-80 under four treadmill walking conditions; normal walking, lower visual field restriction and two Stroop colour/word naming tasks of two difficulty levels...
May 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506879/a-new-platform-for-long-term-tracking-and-recording-of-neural-activity-and-simultaneous-optogenetic-control-in-freely-behaving-caenorhabditis-elegans
#7
Keiko Gengyo-Ando, Yuko Kagawa-Nagamura, Masamichi Ohkura, Xianfeng Fei, Min Chen, Koichi Hashimoto, Junichi Nakai
BACKGROUND: Real-time recording and manipulation of neural activity in freely behaving animals can greatly advance our understanding of how neural circuits regulate behavior. Ca(2+) imaging and optogenetic manipulation with optical probes are key technologies for this purpose. However, integrating the two optical approaches with behavioral analysis has been technically challenging. NEW METHOD: Here, we developed a new imaging system, ICaST (Integrated platform for Ca(2+) imaging, Stimulation, and Tracking), which combines an automatic worm tracking system and a fast-scanning laser confocal microscope, to image neurons of interest in freely behaving C...
May 12, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505875/spatiotemporal-canards-in-neural-field-equations
#8
D Avitabile, M Desroches, E Knobloch
Canards are special solutions to ordinary differential equations that follow invariant repelling slow manifolds for long time intervals. In realistic biophysical single-cell models, canards are responsible for several complex neural rhythms observed experimentally, but their existence and role in spatially extended systems is largely unexplored. We identify and describe a type of coherent structure in which a spatial pattern displays temporal canard behavior. Using interfacial dynamics and geometric singular perturbation theory, we classify spatiotemporal canards and give conditions for the existence of folded-saddle and folded-node canards...
April 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494861/excitatory-microcircuits-within-superficial-layers-of-the-medial-entorhinal-cortex
#9
Jochen Winterer, Nikolaus Maier, Christian Wozny, Prateep Beed, Jörg Breustedt, Roberta Evangelista, Yangfan Peng, Tiziano D'Albis, Richard Kempter, Dietmar Schmitz
The distinctive firing pattern of grid cells in the medial entorhinal cortex (MEC) supports its role in the representation of space. It is widely believed that the hexagonal firing field of grid cells emerges from neural dynamics that depend on the local microcircuitry. However, local networks within the MEC are still not sufficiently characterized. Here, applying up to eight simultaneous whole-cell recordings in acute brain slices, we demonstrate the existence of unitary excitatory connections between principal neurons in the superficial layers of the MEC...
May 9, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488252/multiscale-modeling-in-the-clinic-diseases-of-the-brain-and-nervous-system
#10
REVIEW
William W Lytton, Jeff Arle, Georgiy Bobashev, Songbai Ji, Tara L Klassen, Vasilis Z Marmarelis, James Schwaber, Mohamed A Sherif, Terence D Sanger
Computational neuroscience is a field that traces its origins to the efforts of Hodgkin and Huxley, who pioneered quantitative analysis of electrical activity in the nervous system. While also continuing as an independent field, computational neuroscience has combined with computational systems biology, and neural multiscale modeling arose as one offshoot. This consolidation has added electrical, graphical, dynamical system, learning theory, artificial intelligence and neural network viewpoints with the microscale of cellular biology (neuronal and glial), mesoscales of vascular, immunological and neuronal networks, on up to macroscales of cognition and behavior...
May 9, 2017: Brain Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28459833/consecutive-learning-of-opposing-unimanual-motor-tasks-using-the-right-arm-followed-by-the-left-arm-causes-intermanual-interference
#11
Christian Stockinger, Benjamin Thürer, Thorsten Stein
Intermanual transfer (motor memory generalization across arms) and motor memory interference (impairment of retest performance in consecutive motor learning) are well-investigated motor learning phenomena. However, the interplay of these phenomena remains elusive, i.e., whether intermanual interference occurs when two unimanual tasks are consecutively learned using different arms. Here, we examine intermanual interference when subjects consecutively adapt their right and left arm movements to novel dynamics...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28456152/self-similarity-and-quasi-idempotence-in-neural-networks-and-related-dynamical-systems
#12
Ludovico Minati, Julia Winkel, Angelo Bifone, Paweł Oświęcimka, Jorge Jovicich
Self-similarity across length scales is pervasively observed in natural systems. Here, we investigate topological self-similarity in complex networks representing diverse forms of connectivity in the brain and some related dynamical systems, by considering the correlation between edges directly connecting any two nodes in a network and indirect connection between the same via all triangles spanning the rest of the network. We note that this aspect of self-similarity, which is distinct from hierarchically nested connectivity (coarse-grain similarity), is closely related to idempotence of the matrix representing the graph...
April 2017: Chaos
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443696/the-development-and-modelling-of-devices-and-paradigms-for-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation
#13
Stefan M Goetz, Zhi-De Deng
Magnetic stimulation is a non-invasive neurostimulation technique that can evoke action potentials and modulate neural circuits through induced electric fields. Biophysical models of magnetic stimulation have become a major driver for technological developments and the understanding of the mechanisms of magnetic neurostimulation and neuromodulation. Major technological developments involve stimulation coils with different spatial characteristics and pulse sources to control the pulse waveform. While early technological developments were the result of manual design and invention processes, there is a trend in both stimulation coil and pulse source design to mathematically optimize parameters with the help of computational models...
April 26, 2017: International Review of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431905/dynamic-interhemispheric-competition-and-vestibulo-cortical-control-in-humans-a-theoretical-proposition
#14
REVIEW
Qadeer Arshad
Neuroscientific research has made a concerted effort to determine cortical localization using various functional imaging techniques. This approach has undoubtedly yielded important novel anatomical knowledge, albeit at times contradictory, regarding the structural organization of the vestibular cortex. Unfortunately however, this knowledge has not translated to our understanding regarding how neural mechanisms control vestibular function. Based upon recent functional imaging, lesion and neuro-physiological data that have demonstrated (i) the close behavioral and neuro-anatomical relationship between cortical processing of vestibular and spatial attention signals, and (ii) that inducing interhemispheric competition can in-turn strongly modulate vestibular function akin to that observed in cortical lesion patients, I herewith propose the hypothesis that vestibular cortical processing is controlled, as per for spatial attention, via dynamic interhemispheric competition...
April 19, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424606/bifurcation-analysis-on-phase-amplitude-cross-frequency-coupling-in-neural-networks-with-dynamic-synapses
#15
Takumi Sase, Yuichi Katori, Motomasa Komuro, Kazuyuki Aihara
We investigate a discrete-time network model composed of excitatory and inhibitory neurons and dynamic synapses with the aim at revealing dynamical properties behind oscillatory phenomena possibly related to brain functions. We use a stochastic neural network model to derive the corresponding macroscopic mean field dynamics, and subsequently analyze the dynamical properties of the network. In addition to slow and fast oscillations arising from excitatory and inhibitory networks, respectively, we show that the interaction between these two networks generates phase-amplitude cross-frequency coupling (CFC), in which multiple different frequency components coexist and the amplitude of the fast oscillation is modulated by the phase of the slow oscillation...
2017: Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422957/towards-a-theory-of-cortical-columns-from-spiking-neurons-to-interacting-neural-populations-of-finite-size
#16
Tilo Schwalger, Moritz Deger, Wulfram Gerstner
Neural population equations such as neural mass or field models are widely used to study brain activity on a large scale. However, the relation of these models to the properties of single neurons is unclear. Here we derive an equation for several interacting populations at the mesoscopic scale starting from a microscopic model of randomly connected generalized integrate-and-fire neuron models. Each population consists of 50-2000 neurons of the same type but different populations account for different neuron types...
April 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415249/traveling-waves-and-breathers-in-an-excitatory-inhibitory-neural-field
#17
Stefanos E Folias
We study existence and stability of traveling activity bump solutions in an excitatory-inhibitory (E-I) neural field with Heaviside firing rate functions by deriving existence conditions for traveling bumps and an Evans function to analyze their spectral stability. Subsequently, we show that these existence and stability results reduce, in the limit of wave speed c→0, to the equivalent conditions developed for the stationary bump case. Using the results for the stationary bump case, we show that drift bifurcations of stationary bumps serve as a mechanism for generating traveling bump solutions in the E-I neural field as parameters are varied...
March 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409730/chronic-multisite-brain-recordings-from-a-totally-implantable-bidirectional-neural-interface-experience-in-5-patients-with-parkinson-s-disease
#18
Nicole C Swann, Coralie de Hemptinne, Svjetlana Miocinovic, Salman Qasim, Jill L Ostrem, Nicholas B Galifianakis, Marta San Luciano, Sarah S Wang, Nathan Ziman, Robin Taylor, Philip A Starr
OBJECTIVE Dysfunction of distributed neural networks underlies many brain disorders. The development of neuromodulation therapies depends on a better understanding of these networks. Invasive human brain recordings have a favorable temporal and spatial resolution for the analysis of network phenomena but have generally been limited to acute intraoperative recording or short-term recording through temporarily externalized leads. Here, the authors describe their initial experience with an investigational, first-generation, totally implantable, bidirectional neural interface that allows both continuous therapeutic stimulation and recording of field potentials at multiple sites in a neural network...
April 14, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403137/topological-defects-control-collective-dynamics-in-neural-progenitor-cell-cultures
#19
Kyogo Kawaguchi, Ryoichiro Kageyama, Masaki Sano
Cultured stem cells have become a standard platform not only for regenerative medicine and developmental biology but also for biophysical studies. Yet, the characterization of cultured stem cells at the level of morphology and macroscopic patterns resulting from cell-to-cell interactions remain largely qualitative. Here we report the collective motion of cultured neural progenitor cells (NPCs), which are multipotent stem cells that give rise to cells in the central nervous system[1]. At low densities, NPCs moved in an amoeba-like fashion and with random motion...
April 12, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389715/neural-field-model-of-seizure-like-activity-in-isolated-cortex
#20
X Zhao, P A Robinson
Epileptiform discharges on an isolated cortex are explored using neural field theory. A neural field model of the isolated cortex is used that consists of three neural populations, excitatory, inhibitory, and excitatory bursting. Mechanisms by which an isolated cortex gives rise to seizure-like waveforms thought to underly pathological EEG waveforms on the deafferented cortex are explored. It is shown that the model reproduces similar time series and oscillatory frequencies for paroxysmal discharges when compared with physiological recordings both during acute and chronic deafferentation states...
April 7, 2017: Journal of Computational Neuroscience
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