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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212919/neuronal-dynamics-supporting-formation-and-recombination-of-cross-modal-olfactory-tactile-association-in-the-rat-hippocampal-formation
#1
Lise Boisselier, Damien Gervasoni, Samuel Garcia, Barbara Ferry, Remi Gervais
The present study is aimed at describing some aspects of the neural dynamics supporting discrimination of olfactory-tactile paired-associated stimuli during acquisition of new pairs and during recombination of previously-learned pairs in the rat. To solve the task, animals have to identify one odor-texture (OT) combination associated with a food reward among three cups with overlapping elements. Previous experiments demonstrated that the lateral entorhinal cortex (LEC) is involved in the processes underlying OT acquisition while the dorsal hippocampus (DH) is selectively involved in the recombination processes...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208976/dynamical-system-with-plastic-self-organized-velocity-field-as-an-alternative-conceptual-model-of-a-cognitive-system
#2
Natalia B Janson, Christopher J Marsden
It is well known that architecturally the brain is a neural network, i.e. a collection of many relatively simple units coupled flexibly. However, it has been unclear how the possession of this architecture enables higher-level cognitive functions, which are unique to the brain. Here, we consider the brain from the viewpoint of dynamical systems theory and hypothesize that the unique feature of the brain, the self-organized plasticity of its architecture, could represent the means of enabling the self-organized plasticity of its velocity vector field...
December 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29192127/compressive-temporal-summation-in-human-visual-cortex
#3
Jingyang Zhou, Noah C Benson, Kendrick Kay, Jonathan Winawer
Combining sensory inputs over space and time is fundamental to vision. Population receptive field models have been successful in characterizing spatial encoding throughout the human visual pathways. A parallel question-how visual areas in the human brain process information distributed over time-has received less attention. One challenge is that the most widely used neuroimaging method-fMRI-has coarse temporal resolution compared to the time-scale of neural dynamics. Here, via carefully controlled temporally modulated stimuli, we show that information about temporal processing can be readily derived from fMRI signal amplitudes in male and female subjects...
November 30, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29190524/four-dimensional-map-of-the-human-early-visual-system
#4
Yasuo Nakai, Akari Nagashima, Akane Hayakawa, Takuya Osuki, Jeong-Won Jeong, Ayaka Sugiura, Erik C Brown, Eishi Asano
OBJECTIVE: We generated a large-scale, four-dimensional map of neuronal modulations elicited by full-field flash stimulation. METHODS: We analyzed electrocorticography (ECoG) recordings from 63 patients with focal epilepsy, and delineated the spatial-temporal dynamics of visually-elicited high-gamma70-110 Hz amplitudes on a standard brain template. We then clarified the neuronal events underlying visual evoked potential (VEP) components, by correlating with high-gamma amplitude measures...
November 27, 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158879/changes-in-effective-connectivity-network-patterns-in-drug-abusers-treated-with-different-methods
#5
Arash Zare Sadeghi, Amir Homayoun Jafari, Mohammad Ali Oghabian, Hamid Reza Salighehrad, Seyed Amir Hossein Batouli, Samira Raminfard, Hamed Ekhtiari
Introduction: Various treatment methods for drug abusers will result in different success rates. This is partly due to different neural assumptions and partly due to various rate of relapse in abusers because of different circumstances. Investigating the brain activation networks of treated subjects can reveal the hidden mechanisms of the therapeutic methods. Methods: We studied three groups of subjects: heroin abusers treated with abstinent based therapy (ABT) method, heroin abusers treated with Methadone Maintenance Therapy (MMT) method, and a control group...
July 2017: Basic and Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149186/cell-cycle-time-series-gene-expression-data-encoded-as-cyclic-attractors-in-hopfield-systems
#6
Anthony Szedlak, Spencer Sims, Nicholas Smith, Giovanni Paternostro, Carlo Piermarocchi
Modern time series gene expression and other omics data sets have enabled unprecedented resolution of the dynamics of cellular processes such as cell cycle and response to pharmaceutical compounds. In anticipation of the proliferation of time series data sets in the near future, we use the Hopfield model, a recurrent neural network based on spin glasses, to model the dynamics of cell cycle in HeLa (human cervical cancer) and S. cerevisiae cells. We study some of the rich dynamical properties of these cyclic Hopfield systems, including the ability of populations of simulated cells to recreate experimental expression data and the effects of noise on the dynamics...
November 17, 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133418/normalized-value-coding-explains-dynamic-adaptation-in-the-human-valuation-process
#7
Mel W Khaw, Paul W Glimcher, Kenway Louie
The notion of subjective value is central to choice theories in ecology, economics, and psychology, serving as an integrated decision variable by which options are compared. Subjective value is often assumed to be an absolute quantity, determined in a static manner by the properties of an individual option. Recent neurobiological studies, however, have shown that neural value coding dynamically adapts to the statistics of the recent reward environment, introducing an intrinsic temporal context dependence into the neural representation of value...
November 13, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129832/multiphoton-minimal-inertia-scanning-for-fast-acquisition-of-neural-activity-signals
#8
Renaud Schuck, Mary Ann Go, Stefania Garasto, Stephanie Reynolds, Pier Luigi Dragotti, Simon Schultz
OBJECTIVE: Multi-photon laser scanning microscopy provides a powerful tool for monitoring the spatiotemporal dynamics of neural circuit activity. It is, however, intrinsically a point scanning technique. Standard raster scanning enables imaging at subcellular resolution; however, acquisition rates are limited by the size of the field of view to be scanned. Recently developed scanning strategies such as Travelling Salesman Scanning (TSS) have been developed to maximize cellular sampling rate by scanning only select regions in the field of view corresponding to locations of interest such as somata...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128535/branched-peptides-integrate-into-self-assembled-nanostructures-and-enhance-biomechanics-of-peptidic-hydrogels
#9
Raffaele Pugliese, Federico Fontana, Amanda Marchini, Fabrizio Gelain
Self-assembling peptides (SAP) have drawn an increasing interest in the tissue engineering community. They display unquestionable biomimetic properties, tailorability and promising biocompatibility. However their use has been hampered by poor mechanical properties making them fragile soft scaffolds. To increase SAP hydrogel stiffness we introduced a novel strategy based on multiple ramifications of (LDLK)3, a well-known linear SAP, connected with one or multiple "lysine knots". Differently branched SAPs were tested by increasing the number of (LDLK)3-like branches and by adding the neuro-regenerative functional motif BMHP1 as a single branch...
November 8, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118459/model-based-functional-neuroimaging-using-dynamic-neural-fields-an-integrative-cognitive-neuroscience-approach
#10
Sobanawartiny Wijeakumar, Joseph P Ambrose, John P Spencer, Rodica Curtu
A fundamental challenge in cognitive neuroscience is to develop theoretical frameworks that effectively span the gap between brain and behavior, between neuroscience and psychology. Here, we attempt to bridge this divide by formalizing an integrative cognitive neuroscience approach using dynamic field theory (DFT). We begin by providing an overview of how DFT seeks to understand the neural population dynamics that underlie cognitive processes through previous applications and comparisons to other modeling approaches...
February 2017: Journal of Mathematical Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118211/sensation-during-active-behaviors
#11
Laura Busse, Jessica A Cardin, M Eugenia Chiappe, Michael M Halassa, Matthew J McGinley, Takayuki Yamashita, Aman B Saleem
A substantial portion of our sensory experience happens during active behaviors such as walking around or paying attention. How do sensory systems work during such behaviors? Neural processing in sensory systems can be shaped by behavior in multiple ways ranging from a modulation of responsiveness or sharpening of tuning to a dynamic change of response properties or functional connectivity. Here, we review recent findings on the modulation of sensory processing during active behaviors in different systems: insect vision, rodent thalamus, and rodent sensory cortices...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118202/bayesian-optimal-adaptation-explains-age-related-human-sensorimotor-changes
#12
Faisal Karmali, Gregory T Whitman, Richard F Lewis
The brain uses information from different sensory systems to guide motor behavior, and aging is associated with a simultaneous decline in the quality of sensory information provided to the brain and a deterioration in motor control. Correlations between age-dependent decline in sensory anatomical structures and behavior have been demonstrated, and it has recently been suggested that a Bayesian framework could explain these relationships. Here we show that age-dependent changes in a human sensorimotor reflex, the vestibulo-ocular reflex, are explained by a Bayesian optimal adaptation in the brain occurring in response to death of motion-sensing hair cells...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101022/lsd-modulates-effective-connectivity-and-neural-adaptation-mechanisms-in-an-auditory-oddball-paradigm
#13
REVIEW
Christopher Timmermann, Meg J Spriggs, Mendel Kaelen, Robert Leech, David J Nutt, Rosalyn J Moran, Robin L Carhart-Harris, Suresh D Muthukumaraswamy
Under the predictive coding framework, perceptual learning and inference are dependent on the interaction between top-down predictions and bottom-up sensory signals both between and within regions in a network. However, how such feedback and feedforward connections are modulated in the state induced by lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) is poorly understood. In this study, an auditory oddball paradigm was presented to healthy participants (16 males, 4 female) under LSD and placebo, and brain activity was recorded using magnetoencephalography (MEG)...
October 31, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075933/the-dynamics-of-neural-fields-on-bounded-domains-an-interface-approach-for-dirichlet-boundary-conditions
#14
Aytül Gökçe, Daniele Avitabile, Stephen Coombes
Continuum neural field equations model the large-scale spatio-temporal dynamics of interacting neurons on a cortical surface. They have been extensively studied, both analytically and numerically, on bounded as well as unbounded domains. Neural field models do not require the specification of boundary conditions. Relatively little attention has been paid to the imposition of neural activity on the boundary, or to its role in inducing patterned states. Here we redress this imbalance by studying neural field models of Amari type (posed on one- and two-dimensional bounded domains) with Dirichlet boundary conditions...
October 26, 2017: Journal of Mathematical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29065120/neural-field-model-to-reconcile-structure-with-function-in-primary-visual-cortex
#15
James Rankin, Frédéric Chavane
Voltage-sensitive dye imaging experiments in primary visual cortex (V1) have shown that local, oriented visual stimuli elicit stable orientation-selective activation within the stimulus retinotopic footprint. The cortical activation dynamically extends far beyond the retinotopic footprint, but the peripheral spread stays non-selective-a surprising finding given a number of anatomo-functional studies showing the orientation specificity of long-range connections. Here we use a computational model to investigate this apparent discrepancy by studying the expected population response using known published anatomical constraints...
October 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29064785/predictive-coding-for-dynamic-visual-processing-development-of-functional-hierarchy-in-a-multiple-spatiotemporal-scales-rnn-model
#16
Minkyu Choi, Jun Tani
This letter proposes a novel predictive coding type neural network model, the predictive multiple spatiotemporal scales recurrent neural network (P-MSTRNN). The P-MSTRNN learns to predict visually perceived human whole-body cyclic movement patterns by exploiting multiscale spatiotemporal constraints imposed on network dynamics by using differently sized receptive fields as well as different time constant values for each layer. After learning, the network can imitate target movement patterns by inferring or recognizing corresponding intentions by means of the regression of prediction error...
October 24, 2017: Neural Computation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29060612/nonmotor-regions-encode-path-related-information-during-movements
#17
Macauley S Breault, Pierre Sacre, Jacob J Johnson, Matthew Kerr, Matthew D Johnson, Juan Bulacio, Jorge Gonzalez-Martinez, Sridevi V Sarma, John T Gale
Sensorimotor control and the involvement of motor brain regions has been extensively studied, but the role nonmotor brain regions play during movements has been overlooked. This is particularly due to the difficulty of recording from multiple regions in the brain during motor control. In this study, we utilize stereoelectroencephalography (SEEG) recording techniques to explore the role nonmotor brain areas have on the way we move. Nine humans were implanted with SEEG depth electrodes for clinical purposes, which rendered access to local field potential (LFP) activity in deep and peripheral nonmotor structures...
July 2017: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29060316/a-machine-learning-approach-to-characterizing-the-effect-of-asynchronous-distributed-electrical-stimulation-on-hippocampal-neural-dynamics-in-vivo
#18
Mark J Connolly, Sang-Eon Park, Robert E Gross, Babak Mahmoudi
Asynchronous distributed microelectrode theta stimulation (ADMETS) of the hippocampus has been shown to reduce seizure frequency in the tetanus toxin rat model of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy suggesting a hypothesis that ADMETS induces a seizure resistant state. Here we present a machine learning approach to characterize the nature of neural state changes induced by distributed stimulation. We applied the stimulation to two animals under sham and ADMETS conditions and used a combination of machine learning techniques on intra-hippocampal recordings of Local Field Potentials (LFPs) to characterize the difference in the neural state between sham and ADMETS...
July 2017: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053865/beta-burst-dynamics-in-parkinson-s-disease-off-and-on-dopaminergic-medication
#19
Gerd Tinkhauser, Alek Pogosyan, Huiling Tan, Damian M Herz, Andrea A Kühn, Peter Brown
Exaggerated basal ganglia beta activity (13-35 Hz) is commonly found in patients with Parkinson's disease and can be suppressed by dopaminergic medication, with the degree of suppression being correlated with the improvement in motor symptoms. Importantly, beta activity is not continuously elevated, but fluctuates to give beta bursts. The percentage number of longer beta bursts in a given interval is positively correlated with clinical impairment in Parkinson's disease patients. Here we determine whether the characteristics of beta bursts are dependent on dopaminergic state...
November 1, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051496/evidence-for-a-task-dependent-switch-in-subthalamo-nigral-basal-ganglia-signaling
#20
Jay J Jantz, Masayuki Watanabe, Ron Levy, Douglas P Munoz
Basal ganglia (BG) can either facilitate or inhibit movement through excitatory and inhibitory pathways; however whether these opposing signals are dynamically regulated during healthy behavior is not known. Here, we present compelling neurophysiological evidence from three complimentary experiments in non-human primates, indicating task-specific changes in tonic BG pathway weightings during saccade behavior with different cognitive demands. First, simultaneous local field potential recording in the subthalamic nucleus (STN; BG input) and substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr; BG output) reveals task-dependent shifts in subthalamo-nigral signals...
October 19, 2017: Nature Communications
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