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dynamical system

Prasanna Kumarathilaka, Saman Seneweera, Andrew Meharg, Jochen Bundschuh
Rice is the main staple carbohydrate source for billions of people worldwide. Natural geogenic and anthropogenic sources has led to high arsenic (As) concentrations in rice grains. This is because As is highly bioavailable to rice roots under conditions in which rice is cultivated. A multifaceted and interdisciplinary understanding, both of short-term and long-term effects, are required to identify spatial and temporal changes in As contamination levels in paddy soil-water systems. During flooding, soil pore waters are elevated in inorganic As compared to dryland cultivation systems, as anaerobism results in poorly mobile As(V), being reduced to highly mobile As(III)...
April 21, 2018: Water Research
Rachel Ryskin, Zhenghan Qi, Natalie V Covington, Melissa Duff, Sarah Brown-Schmidt
Verb bias-the co-occurrence frequencies between a verb and the syntactic structures it may appear with-is a critical and reliable linguistic cue for online sentence processing. In particular, listeners use this information to disambiguate sentences with multiple potential syntactic parses (e.g., Feel the frog with the feather.). Further, listeners dynamically update their representations of specific verbs in the face of new evidence about verb-structure co-occurrence. Yet, little is known about the biological memory systems that support the use and dynamic updating of verb bias...
May 15, 2018: Brain and Language
Geoffrey P Dobson, Hayley L Letson, Andrea Grant, Peter McEwen, Kaushik Hazratwala, Matthew Wilkinson, Jodie L Morris
The history of osteoarthritis (OA) is important because it can help broaden our perspective on past and present controversies. The naming of OA, beginning with Heberden's nodes, is itself a fascinating story. According to Albert Hoffa, R. Llewellyn Jones and Archibald Edward Garrod, the name OA was introduced in the mid-19th century by surgeon Richard von Volkmann who distinguished it from rheumatoid arthritis and gout. Others preferred the terms 'chronical rheumatism', 'senile arthritis', 'hypertrophic arthritis' or 'arthritis deformans'...
May 15, 2018: Osteoarthritis and Cartilage
Qiao-Qiao He, Tian-Jiao Feng, Yi Tao, Boyu Zhang, Ting Ji
For the pairwise interactions, the evolution of individual behavior should involve two major factors: one is what you will do in an interaction with a given opponent, and another is what type of opponents you prefer to interact with. In this study, we developed a two-phenotype iterated bimatrix replicator dynamics model based on individuals' own volition, where, different from the classic iterated game model, we assume that (i) for all interaction pairs, the maximum expected interaction time is same and it is limited even if two individuals in an interaction pair would like to keep their interaction; and (ii) all individuals are able to unilaterally break off the interactions with their opponents according to their own volition...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Theoretical Biology
Jagannath Mondal, Navjeet Ahalawat, Subhendu Pandit, Lewis E Kay, Pramodh Vallurupalli
Ligand binding sites in proteins are often localized to deeply buried cavities, inaccessible to bulk solvent. Yet, in many cases binding of cognate ligands occurs rapidly. An intriguing system is presented by the L99A cavity mutant of T4 Lysozyme (T4L L99A) that rapidly binds benzene (~106 M-1s-1). Although the protein has long served as a model system for protein thermodynamics and crystal structures of both free and benzene-bound T4L L99A are available, the kinetic pathways by which benzene reaches its solvent-inaccessible binding cavity remain elusive...
May 18, 2018: PLoS Computational Biology
Agnieszka Szmigielska, Grażyna Krzemień, Anna Zacharzewska, Teresa Dudek-Warchoł, Stanisław Warchoł
Renal agenesis occurs in pediatric population with the incidence 1:500- 2000 children. It is more often diagnosed in boys and on the left side of the body. Renal agenesis may be isolated or it may be a part of complex malformation syndrome. Megacalycosis is a very rare anomaly of urinary tract associated with abnormal structure of the kidney pyramids. AIM: The aim of the study was to present for the first time in the medical literature the case of a girl with unilateral renal agenesis and megacalycosis...
April 23, 2018: Polski Merkuriusz Lekarski: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
Grażyna Krzemień, Jarosław Sołtyski, Agnieszka Szmigielska, Stanisław Warchoł, Teresa Dudek-Warchoł, Aleksandra Jakimów-Kostrzewa
Hydronephrosis in children is most often due to an intrinsic ureteropelvic junction obstruction or by compression on ureter by accessory renal artery coming from the aorta to the lower pole of the kidney. AIM: The aim of study was to present a case with a late onset of hydronephrosis caused by accessory renal artery. CASE REPORT: 5-year old boy with a mild pyelectasia during first 10 months of age was admitted to hospital because of abdominal pain and vomiting. Abdominal ultrasound revealed a marked dilatation of the right pelvicalyceal system with renal pelvis measuring 23 mm in anterior-posterior (ap) diameter, enlargement of calyces to 10 mm and narrowed cortex to 5 mm...
April 23, 2018: Polski Merkuriusz Lekarski: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
Teresa Dudek-Warchoł, Stanisław Warchoł, Przemysław Bombiński, Krzysztof Toth, Agnieszka Szmigielska, Garżyna Krzemień
Pyonephrosis in the course of hydronephrosis usually provides to total or near-total loss of renal function. In adults pyonephrosis usually results from urolithiasis. In children usually congenital urinary tract anomalies are present as contributing factors. CASE REPORT: 6-year old girl was admitted to the hospital because of 2-day history of high fever, abdominal pain, progressive deterioration of general condition and ultrasonographically (US) detected left hydronephrosis. US on admission showed grossly dilated left renal collecting system together with extensive echogenic debris and laboratory tests highly elevated inflammatory markers...
April 23, 2018: Polski Merkuriusz Lekarski: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
A Tamm, M Caro, A Caro, G Samolyuk, M Klintenberg, A A Correa
Stochastic Langevin dynamics has been traditionally used as a tool to describe nonequilibrium processes. When utilized in systems with collective modes, traditional Langevin dynamics relaxes all modes indiscriminately, regardless of their wavelength. We propose a generalization of Langevin dynamics that can capture a differential coupling between collective modes and the bath, by introducing spatial correlations in the random forces. This allows modeling the electronic subsystem in a metal as a generalized Langevin bath endowed with a concept of locality, greatly improving the capabilities of the two-temperature model...
May 4, 2018: Physical Review Letters
Yuto Ashida, Masahito Ueda
The ability to measure single quanta allows the complete characterization of small quantum systems known as full-counting statistics. Quantum gas microscopy enables one to observe many-body systems at the single-atom precision. We extend the idea of full-counting statistics to nonequilibrium open many-particle dynamics and apply it to discuss the quench dynamics. By way of illustration, we consider an exactly solvable model to demonstrate the emergence of unique phenomena such as nonlocal and chiral propagation of correlations, leading to a concomitant oscillatory entanglement growth...
May 4, 2018: Physical Review Letters
Hyosub Kim, YeJe Park, Kyungtae Kim, H-S Sim, Jaewook Ahn
Dynamics of large complex systems, such as relaxation towards equilibrium in classical statistical mechanics, often obeys a master equation that captures essential information from the complexities. Here, we find that thermalization of an isolated many-body quantum state can be described by a master equation. We observe sudden quench dynamics of quantum Ising-like models implemented in our quantum simulator, defect-free single-atom tweezers in conjunction with Rydberg-atom interaction. Saturation of their local observables, a thermalization signature, obeys a master equation experimentally constructed by monitoring the occupation probabilities of prequench states and imposing the principle of the detailed balance...
May 4, 2018: Physical Review Letters
Fanlong Meng, Daiki Matsunaga, Ramin Golestanian
We investigate the collective behavior of magnetic swimmers, which are suspended in a Poiseuille flow and placed under an external magnetic field, using analytical techniques and Brownian dynamics simulations. We find that the interplay between intrinsic activity, external alignment, and magnetic dipole-dipole interactions leads to longitudinal structure formation. Our work sheds light on a recent experimental observation of a clustering instability in this system.
May 4, 2018: Physical Review Letters
Yiwen Zhang, Ang Chen, Wenzhe Liu, Chia Wei Hsu, Bo Wang, Fang Guan, Xiaohan Liu, Lei Shi, Ling Lu, Jian Zi
The vortex, a fundamental topological excitation featuring the in-plane winding of a vector field, is important in various areas such as fluid dynamics, liquid crystals, and superconductors. Although commonly existing in nature, vortices were observed exclusively in real space. Here, we experimentally observed momentum-space vortices as the winding of far-field polarization vectors in the first Brillouin zone of periodic plasmonic structures. Using homemade polarization-resolved momentum-space imaging spectroscopy, we mapped out the dispersion, lifetime, and polarization of all radiative states at the visible wavelengths...
May 4, 2018: Physical Review Letters
Urna Basu, Laurent Helden, Matthias Krüger
Nonlinear response theory, in contrast to linear cases, involves (dynamical) details, and this makes application to many-body systems challenging. From the microscopic starting point we obtain an exact response theory for a small number of coarse-grained degrees of freedom. With it, an extrapolation scheme uses near-equilibrium measurements to predict far-from-equilibrium properties (here, second order responses). Because it does not involve system details, this approach can be applied to many-body systems...
May 4, 2018: Physical Review Letters
Hao Wang, Weitao Yang
We developed a novel neural network based force field for water based on training with high level ab initio theory. The force field was built based on electrostatically embedded many-body expansion method truncated at binary interactions. Many-body expansion method is a common strategy to partition the total Hamiltonian of large systems into a hierarchy of few-body terms. Neural networks were trained to represent electrostatically embedded one-body and two-body interactions, which require as input only one and two water molecule calculations at the level of ab initio electronic structure method CCSD/aug-cc-pVDZ embedded in the molecular mechanics water environment, making it efficient as a general force field construction approach...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
Jia-Yan Liang, Xian-Xiang Zeng, Xu-Dong Zhang, Peng-Fei Wang, Jing-Yuan Ma, Ya-Xia Yin, Xiong-Wei Wu, Yu-Guo Guo, Lijun Wan
The rapid capacity decay caused by the poor contact and large polari-zation at the interface between the cathode and solid electrolytes is still a big challenge to overcome for high-power-density solid batteries. In this study, a superior Li+ conductive transition layer Li1.4Al0.4Ti1.6(PO4)3 is introduced to coat LiNi0.6Co0.2Mn0.2O2, as a model cathode, to mitigate polarization and enhance dynamic characteristics. The critical attribute for such superior dynamics is investigated by the atomic force microscopy with boundary potential analysis, revealing that the formed interfacial transition layer provides a gradual potential slope and sustain-released polarization, and endows the battery with improved cycling stability (90% after 100 cycles) and excellent rate capability (116 mA h g-1 at 2C) at room temperature, which enlightens the comprehension of interface engineering in the future solid batteries systems...
May 18, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Dong Suk Yoon, Dong Seok Cha, Mohammad A Alfhili, Brett D Keiper, Myon-Hee Lee
Notch receptor signaling is a highly conserved cell communication system in most multicellular organisms and plays a critical role at several junctures in animal development. In C. elegans, GLP-1/Notch signaling is essential for both germline stem cell maintenance and germ cell proliferation during gonad development. Here, we show that subunits (POLA-1, DIV-1, PRI-1, and PRI-2) of the DNA polymerase alpha-primase complex are required for germ cell proliferation in response to GLP-1/Notch signaling in different tissues at different developmental stages...
May 18, 2018: FEBS Journal
Wen Yang, Vyacheslav R Misko, Fabio Marchesoni, Franco Nori
We investigate the dynamics of a binary mixture consisting of active and passive colloidal particles diffusing in a two-dimensional
 array of truncated harmonic wells, or traps. We explore the possibility of using a small fraction of active particles to manipulate a much larger fraction of passive particles, for instance, to confine them in or extract them from the traps. The results of our study have potential application in biology and medical sciences, for example, to remove dead cells or undesired contaminants from biological systems by means of self-propelled nano-robots...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
Wenshuai Gao, Liran Shi, Z W Ouyang, Zheng-Cai Xia, Zhe Wang, Bingjie Liu, Hexuan Li, Youming Zou, Lu Yu, Lei Zhang, Li Pi, Zhe Qu, Yuheng Zhang
The spin dynamics of the two-dimensional triangular-lattice antiferromagnet AgCrS2 is investigated by electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy. The g-factor is found to show an unusual non-monotonously temperature dependent behavior, which, along with the super-Curie behavior observed in the ESR intensity data, provides clear evidences for the competition between FM and AFM fluctuations at temperatures well above TN. On approaching the Néel temperature TN from above, the linewidth is found to diverge. Such a divergent behavior could be well described by the Kawamura-Miyashita model due to Z2 type magnetic vortex-antivortex pairing, which is consistent with the expectation for a 2D Heisenberg magnetic system...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
Arjan P H Gelissen, Andrea Scotti, Sarah K Turnhoff, Corinna Janssen, Aurel Radulescu, Andrij Pich, Andrey A Rudov, Igor I Potemkin, Walter Richtering
To realize carriers for drug delivery, cationic containers are required for anionic guests. Nevertheless, the toxicity of cationic carriers limits their practical use. In this study, we investigate a model system of polyampholyte N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAM)-based microgels with a cationic core and an anionic shell to study whether the presence of a negative shell allows the cationic core to be shielded while still enabling the uptake and release of the anionic guest polyelectrolytes. These microgels are loaded with polystyrene sulfonate of different molecular weights to investigate the influence of their chain length on the uptake and release process...
May 18, 2018: Soft Matter
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