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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651246/development-of-a-perfusion-platform-for-dynamic-cultivation-of-in-vitro-skin-models
#1
Kay Strüver, Wolfgang Friess, Sarah Hedtrich
Reconstructed skin models are suitable test systems for toxicity testing and for basic investigations on (patho-)physiological aspects of human skin. Reconstructed human skin, however, has clear limitations such as the lack of immune cells and a significantly weaker skin barrier function compared to native human skin. Potential reasons for the latter might be the lack of mechanical forces during skin model cultivation which is performed classically in static well-plate setups. Mechanical forces and shear stress have a major impact on tissue formation and, hence, tissue engineering...
June 27, 2017: Skin Pharmacology and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651191/probing-safety-of-nanoparticles-by-outlining-sea-urchin-sensing-and-signaling-cascades
#2
Andi Alijagic, Annalisa Pinsino
Among currently identified issues presenting risks and benefits to human and ocean health, engineered nanoparticles (ENP) represent a priority. Predictions of their economic and social impact appear extraordinary, but their release in the environment at an uncontrollable rate is in striking contrast with the extremely limited number of studies on environmental impact, especially on the marine environment. The sea urchin has a remarkable sensing environmental system whose function and diversity came into focus during the recent years, after sea urchin genome sequencing...
June 23, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650974/resting-state-electrical-brain-activity-and-connectivity-in-fibromyalgia
#3
Sven Vanneste, Jan Ost, Tony Van Havenbergh, Dirk De Ridder
The exact mechanism underlying fibromyalgia is unknown, but increased facilitatory modulation and/or dysfunctional descending inhibitory pathway activity are posited as possible mechanisms contributing to sensitization of the central nervous system. The primary goal of this study is to identify a fibromyalgia neural circuit that can account for these abnormalities in central pain. The second goal is to gain a better understanding of the functional connectivity between the default and the executive attention network (salience network plus dorsal lateral prefrontal cortex) in fibromyalgia...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650847/phase-transformation-in-afm-silicon-tips
#4
Malgorzata Kopycinska-Mueller, Martin Barth, Martin Kuettner, Bernd Koehler
We confirmed the occurrence of phase transformations in an AFM silicon tip during loading and unloading experiments performed on a polycrystalline Ti sample. The influence of the phase transformations on the effective mechanical and electrical properties of the tip was observed with the help of load-unload curves measured simultaneously for the tip-sample contact stiffness k* and the effective electrical resistance of the system Reff. We used the atomic force acoustic microscopy (AFAM) method to determine the values of k*...
June 26, 2017: Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650666/labile-incorporation-of-cholesterol-terminated-poly-acrylic-acid-for-the-facile-surface-modification-of-lipid-vesicles
#5
Sang-Min Lee
An amphiphilic cholesterol-terminated poly[acrylic acid] (Chol-PAA) that can be self-aggregated into nanoscale micelles in aqueous media has been prepared via nitroxide-mediated radical polymerization for the facile postformation modification of lipid vesicles. By varying the amount of Chol-PAA addition, the incorporation of Chol-PAA on the liposome templates was verified with zeta potential while the dynamic light scattering measurements revealed the polymer length of Chol-PAA dictated the hydrodynamic diameter of the resulting polymer-grafted vesicles (PGVs)...
June 26, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650639/on-site-determination-and-monitoring-of-real-time-fluence-delivery-for-an-operating-uv-reactor-based-on-a-true-fluence-rate-detector
#6
Mengkai Li, Wentao Li, Zhimin Qiang, Ernest R Blatchley
At present, on-site fluence (distribution) determination and monitoring of an operating UV system represents a considerable challenge. The recently developed micro-fluorescent silica detector (MFSD) is able to measure the approximate true fluence rate (FR) at a fixed position in a UV reactor that can be compared with a FR model directly. Hence it has provided a connection between model calculation and real-time fluence determination. In this study, an on-site determination and monitoring method of fluence delivery for an operating UV reactor was developed...
June 26, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650635/ternary-interactions-and-energy-transfer-between-fluorescein-isothiocyanate-adenosine-triphosphate-and-graphene-oxide-nanocarriers
#7
Katarzyna Ratajczak, Magdalena Stobiecka
The interactions of fluorescent probes and biomolecules with nanocarriers are of key importance to the emerging targeted drug delivery systems. Graphene oxide nanosheets (GONs) as the nanocarriers offer biocompatibility and robust drug binding capacity. The interactions of GONs with fluorophores lead to strong fluorescence quenching, which may interfere with fluorescence bioimaging and biodetection. Herein, we report on the interactions and energy transfers in a model ternary system: GONs-FITC-ATP, where FITC is a model fluorophore (fluorescein isothiocyanate) and ATP is a common biomolecule (adenosine-5'-triphosphate)...
June 26, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650610/defect-emission-and-optical-gain-in-sicxoy-h-films
#8
Zhenxu Lin, Hongfei Li, Rui Huang, Yi Zhang, Jie Song, Hongliang Li, Yanqing Guo, Chao Song, John Robertson
Luminescent SiCxOy:H films,which are fabricated at different CH4 flow rates using very high-frequency plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition technique, exhibit strong photoluminescence (PL) with tuning from near-infrared to orange regions. The PL features an excitation wavelength independent recombination dynamic. The silicon dangling bond (DB) defects identified by electron paramagnetic resonance spectra are found to play a key role in the PL behavior. The first-principles calculation shows that the Si DB defects introduce a mid-gap state in the band gap, which is in good agreement with the PL energy...
June 26, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650498/two-step-fret-mediated-metal-ion-induced-signalling-responses-in-a-probe-appended-with-three-fluorophores
#9
Biswonath Biswal, Ajoy Pal, Bamaprasad Bag
A tri-fluorophoric molecular probe (1) with three different derivatized fluorophores, i.e. anthracene (An), 7-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diazole (NBD) and rhodamine-B (Rh) appended on to a Tren [tris-(2-aminoethyl)amine] receptor was demonstrated to exhibit metal ion induced ratiometric fluorescence signalling through the initiation of a two-step fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) process owing to a compatible and substantial spectral overlap of electronic absorption and fluorescence of initial donor-intermediate donor/acceptor-final acceptor pairs...
June 26, 2017: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650444/nutrient-recycling-facilitates-long-term-stability-of-marine-microbial-phototroph-heterotroph-interactions
#10
Joseph A Christie-Oleza, Despoina Sousoni, Matthew Lloyd, Jean Armengaud, David J Scanlan
Biological interactions underpin the functioning of marine ecosystems, be it via competition, predation, mutualism or symbiosis processes. Microbial phototroph-heterotroph interactions propel the engine that results in the biogeochemical cycling of individual elements, and they are critical for understanding and modelling global ocean processes. Unfortunately, studies thus far have focused on exponentially growing cultures in nutrient-rich media, meaning knowledge of such interactions under in situ conditions is rudimentary at best...
June 26, 2017: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650440/probing-dark-excitons-in-atomically-thin-semiconductors-via-near-field-coupling-to-surface-plasmon-polaritons
#11
You Zhou, Giovanni Scuri, Dominik S Wild, Alexander A High, Alan Dibos, Luis A Jauregui, Chi Shu, Kristiaan De Greve, Kateryna Pistunova, Andrew Y Joe, Takashi Taniguchi, Kenji Watanabe, Philip Kim, Mikhail D Lukin, Hongkun Park
Transition metal dichalcogenide (TMD) monolayers with a direct bandgap feature tightly bound excitons, strong spin-orbit coupling and spin-valley degrees of freedom. Depending on the spin configuration of the electron-hole pairs, intra-valley excitons of TMD monolayers can be either optically bright or dark. Dark excitons involve nominally spin-forbidden optical transitions with a zero in-plane transition dipole moment, making their detection with conventional far-field optical techniques challenging. Here, we introduce a method for probing the optical properties of two-dimensional materials via near-field coupling to surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs)...
June 26, 2017: Nature Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650238/three-dimensional-inverse-dynamics-of-the-forelimb-of-beagles-at-a-walk-and-trot
#12
Emanuel Andrada, Lars Reinhardt, Karin Lucas, Martin S Fischer
OBJECTIVE To perform 3-D inverse dynamics analysis of the entire forelimb of healthy dogs during a walk and trot. ANIMALS 5 healthy adult Beagles. PROCEDURES The left forelimb of each dog was instrumented with 19 anatomic markers. X-ray fluoroscopy was used to optimize marker positions and perform scientific rotoscoping for 1 dog. Inverse dynamics were computed for each dog during a walk and trot on the basis of data obtained from an infrared motion-capture system and instrumented quad-band treadmill. Morphometric data were obtained from a virtual reconstruction of the left forelimb generated from a CT scan of the same dog that underwent scientific rotoscoping...
July 2017: American Journal of Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650048/cooperative-wrapping-of-nanoparticles-of-various-sizes-and-shapes-by-lipid-membranes
#13
Kai Xiong, Jiayin Zhao, Daowen Yang, Qingwen Cheng, Jiuling Wang, Hongbing Ji
Understanding the interaction between nanoparticles (NPs) and cell membranes is crucial for the design of NP-based drug delivery systems and for the assessment of the risks exerted by the NPs. Recent experimental and theoretical studies have shown that cell membranes can mediate attraction between NPs and form tubular structures to wrap multiple NPs. However, the cooperative wrapping process is still not well understood, and the shape effect of NPs is not considered. In this article, we use large-scale coarse-grained molecular dynamics (CGMD) simulations to study the cooperative wrapping of NPs when a varying number of NPs adhered to the membrane...
June 26, 2017: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650030/carbon-nanoscroll-silk-crystallite-hybrid-structures-with-controllable-hydration-and-mechanical-properties
#14
Yuan Cheng, Leng-Duei Koh, Fan Wang, Dechang Li, Baohua Ji, Jingjie Yeo, Guijian Guan, Ming-Yong Han, Yong-Wei Zhang
Hybrid structures of nanomaterials (e.g. tubes, scrolls, threads, cages) and biomaterials (e.g. proteins) hold tremendous potential for applications as drug carriers, biosensors, tissue scaffolds, cancer therapeutic agents, etc. However, in many cases, the interacting forces at the nano-bio interfaces and their roles in controlling the structures and dynamics of nano-bio-hybrid systems are very complicated but poorly understood. In this study, we investigate the structure and mechanical behavior of a protein-based hybrid structure, i...
June 26, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649671/early-life-stress-mood-and-anxiety-disorders
#15
Shariful A Syed, Charles B Nemeroff
Early life stress has been shown to exert profound short- and long-term effects on human physiology both in the central nervous system and peripherally. Early life stress has demonstrated clear association with many psychiatric disorders including major depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, and bipolar disorder. The Diagnostic and Statistics Manuel of Mental Disorders (DSM) diagnostic categorical system has served as a necessary framework for clinical service, delivery, and research, however has not been completely matching the neurobiological research perspective...
February 2017: Chronic stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649468/microbial-bioenergetics-of-coral-algal-interactions
#16
Ty N F Roach, Maria L Abieri, Emma E George, Ben Knowles, Douglas S Naliboff, Cameron A Smurthwaite, Linda Wegley Kelly, Andreas F Haas, Forest L Rohwer
Human impacts are causing ecosystem phase shifts from coral- to algal-dominated reef systems on a global scale. As these ecosystems undergo transition, there is an increased incidence of coral-macroalgal interactions. Mounting evidence indicates that the outcome of these interaction events is, in part, governed by microbially mediated dynamics. The allocation of available energy through different trophic levels, including the microbial food web, determines the outcome of these interactions and ultimately shapes the benthic community structure...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649411/the-microbiome-of-glaciers-and-ice-sheets
#17
Alexandre M Anesio, Stefanie Lutz, Nathan A M Chrismas, Liane G Benning
Glaciers and ice sheets, like other biomes, occupy a significant area of the planet and harbour biological communities with distinct interactions and feedbacks with their physical and chemical environment. In the case of the glacial biome, the biological processes are dominated almost exclusively by microbial communities. Habitats on glaciers and ice sheets with enough liquid water to sustain microbial activity include snow, surface ice, cryoconite holes, englacial systems and the interface between ice and overridden rock/soil...
2017: NPJ Biofilms and Microbiomes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649196/estimation-of-time-varying-intrinsic-and-reflex-dynamic-joint-stiffness-during-movement-application-to-the-ankle-joint
#18
Diego L Guarín, Robert E Kearney
Dynamic joint stiffness determines the relation between joint position and torque, and plays a vital role in the control of posture and movement. Dynamic joint stiffness can be quantified during quasi-stationary conditions using disturbance experiments, where small position perturbations are applied to the joint and the torque response is recorded. Dynamic joint stiffness is composed of intrinsic and reflex mechanisms that act and change together, so that nonlinear, mathematical models and specialized system identification techniques are necessary to estimate their relative contributions to overall joint stiffness...
2017: Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649146/a-predictive-framework-to-elucidate-venous-stenosis-cfd-shape-optimization
#19
S M Javid Mahmoudzadeh Akherat, Kevin Cassel, Michael Boghosian, Mary Hammes, Fredric Coe
The surgical creation of vascular accesses for renal failure patients provides an abnormally high flow rate conduit in the patient's upper arm vasculature that facilitates the hemodialysis treatment. These vascular accesses, however, are very often associated with complications that lead to access failure and thrombotic incidents, mainly due to excessive neointimal hyperplasia (NH) and subsequently stenosis. Development of a framework to monitor and predict the evolution of the venous system post access creation can greatly contribute to maintaining access patency...
July 1, 2017: Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649112/exploding-the-black-box-personal-computing-the-notebook-battery-crisis-and-postindustrial-systems-thinking
#20
Matthew N Eisler
Historians of science and technology have generally ignored the role of power sources in the development of consumer electronics. In this they have followed the predilections of historical actors. Research, development, and manufacturing of batteries has historically occurred at a social and intellectual distance from the research, development, and manufacturing of the devices they power. Nevertheless, power source technoscience should properly be understood as an allied yet estranged field of electronics. The separation between the fields has had important consequences for the design and manufacturing of mobile consumer electronics...
2017: Technology and Culture
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